APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

  • Basics of APA Formatting

Purpose and Overview of In-text Citations

Citations for direct quotes, one work, one author, two or more authors, group authors, etcetera, multiple works by the same author(s) in the same year, citing indirect sources.

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APA follows an author and date of publication model for citing sources in your research paper and are presented as either narrative or parenthetical citations.  The formatting does not vary due to format type, however it may deviate from the norm due to factors such as: number of authors, organization instead of individual author, lack of author, or lack of date.  By providing the standard author and date within your paper, the reader will be able to link the information presented easily to the full citation provided in the reference list.

View examples and explanations on this page or visit the In Text Quick View for more examples.

APA encourages paraphrasing over using direct quotes.  Use direct quotes when:

  • Reproducing an exact definition
  • Author has said something memorably or succinctly
  • When you want to respond to exact wording

When creating a citation for a direct quote, provide author, year and page number for both narrative and parenthetical citations.

Ex.  University of Southern California (2020) "direct quote from author" (p. 4)  OR  "direct quote from author" (University of Southern California, 2020, p. 4).

How to cite specific parts of a source:

Author named in text:

Social historian Richard Sennett (1980) names the tendency to come to terms with difficult experiences a "purification process" whereby "threatening or painful dissonances are warded off to preserve intact a clear and articulated image of oneself and one's place in the world" (p. 11).

Author named in parentheses:

The tendency to come to terms with difficult experiences is referred to as a "purification process" whereby "threatening or painful dissonances are warded off to preserve intact a clear and articulated image of oneself and one's place in the world" (Sennett, 1980, p. 11).

These examples © Duke University Libraries http://library.duke.edu/research/citing/within/apa.html

More than one way to cite:

Flynn (1999) stated in her treatise In a recent treatise on services (Flynn, 1999) In a 1999 treatise, Flynn stated

Subsequent references to same study in same paragraph:

In her treatise on services, Flynn (1999) stated her evaluative methods…Flynn also described

One work, multiple authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both authors' names in your text:

        Significant findings in a study of Los Angeles (McCroskey & O'Keefe, 2000)

When a citation has 3 or more authors, include the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (not italicized), and the year.

        (Nishimoto et al., 1998)

For narrative citations, use the word "and" to separate authors, for parenthetical citations, use an ampersand:

         McCroskey and O'Keefe (2000) studied Los Angeles...          (McCroskey & O'Keefe, 2000)

Groups as authors

First narrative citation: National Association of Social Workers (NASW, 1987)

Subsequent narrative citation: NASW (1987)

First text citation: (National Association of Social Workers [NASW], 1987)

Subsequent text citation: (NASW, 1987)

Works with no authors

Cite the work in your text using the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title). Put double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter, and italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure or report:

The policy stated in the article (“Services for Disabled Children,” 1992)

The policy stated in the book Access to Services for Children (1995)

Specific parts of a source

Indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in your text. Give page numbers for quotations, and use the abbreviations for the words page and chapter:

(Aranda & Knight, 1997, p. 344)

(Ell & Castaneda, 1998, chap. 5)

Personal communications

This format applies to emails, messages from nonarchived discussion groups, electronic bulletin boards, personal interviews, telephone conversations, etc. Do not list personal communications in your reference list as they are not recoverable by your reader. In your text, provide initials and surname of communicator and as exact a date as possible.

(M. Flynn, personal communication, September 20, 1999)

Sometimes you'll have multiple works by the same author in the same year. For instance, you may reference a number of tax documents from the same year, which would all be cited with (Internal Revenue Service, 2012).  So how do you differentiate?

In those instances, differentiate sources with a letter after the year. From the example above, the 990 form might be (Internal Revenue Service, 2012a) and the 1040 form would be (Internal Revenue Service, 2012b).  Just make sure the letters stay consistent in your reference list!

Sometimes, you will use a source that you didn't yourself read.  In those cases, the original source came from a secondary source you did read.  APA states that you should use secondary sources sparingly and may occur when "the original work is out of print, unavailable, or available only in a language that you do not understand."

When using secondary sources, indicate it by included "as cited in" as part of your in-text citation

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Everything must match!

Types of citations, in-text citations, quoting, summarising and paraphrasing, example text with in-text referencing, slightly tricky in-text citations, organisation as an author, secondary citation (works referred to in other works), what do i do if there are no page numbers.

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Coins showing Heads and Tails

There are two basic ways to cite someone's work in text.

In narrative citations , the authors are part of the sentence - you are referring to them by name. For example:

Becker (2013) defined gamification as giving the mechanics of principles of a game to other activities.

Cho and Castañeda (2019) noted that game-like activities are frequently used in language classes that adopt mobile and computer technologies.

In parenthetical citations , the authors are not mentioned in the sentence, just the content of their work. Place the citation at the end of the sentence or clause where you have used their information. The author's names are placed in the brackets (parentheses) with the rest of the citation details:

Gamification involves giving the mechanics or principles of a game to another activity (Becker, 2013).

Increasingly, game-like activities are frequently used in language classes that adopt mobile and computer technologies (Cho & Castañeda, 2019).

Using references in text

For APA, you use the authors' surnames only and the year in text. If you are using a direct quote, you will also need to use a page number.

Narrative citations:

If an in-text citation has the authors' names as part of the sentence (that is, outside of brackets) place the year and page numbers in brackets immediately after the name, and use 'and' between the authors' names:  Jones and Smith (2020, p. 29)

Parenthetical citations:

If an in-text citation has the authors' names in brackets use "&" between the authors' names :  (Jones & Smith, 2020, p. 29).

Note: Some lecturers want page numbers for all citations, while some only want page numbers with direct quotes. Check with your lecturer to see what you need to do for your assignment. If the direct quote starts on one page and finishes on another, include the page range (Jones & Smith, 2020, pp. 29-30).

1 author

Smith (2020) found that "the mice disappeared within minutes" (p. 29).

The author stated "the mice disappeared within minutes" (Smith, 2020, p. 29).

Jones and Smith (2020) found that "the mice disappeared within minutes" (p. 29).

The authors stated "the mice disappeared within minutes" (Jones & Smith, 2020, p. 29).

For 3 or more authors , use the first author and "et al." for all in-text citations

Green et al.'s (2019) findings indicated that the intervention was not based on evidence from clinical trials.

It appears the intervention was not based on evidence from clinical trials (Green et al., 2019).

If you cite more than one work in the same set of brackets in text , your citations will go in the same order in which they will appear in your reference list (i.e. alphabetical order, then oldest to newest for works by the same author) and be separated by a semi-colon. E.g.:

  • (Corbin, 2015; James & Waterson, 2017; Smith et al., 2016).
  • (Corbin, 2015; 2018)
  • (Queensland Health, 2017a; 2017b)
  • Use only the   surnames   of your authors   in text   (e.g., Smith & Brown, 2014) - however, if you have two authors with the same surname who have published in the same year, then you will need to use their initials to distinguish between the two of them (e.g., K. Smith, 2014; N. Smith, 2014).   Otherwise, do not use initials in text .

If your author isn't an "author".

Whoever is in the "author" position of the refence in the references list is treated like an author in text. So, for example, if you had an edited book and the editors of the book were in the "author" position at the beginning of the reference, you would treat them exactly the same way as you would an author - do not include any other information. The same applies for works where the "author" is an illustrator, producer, composer, etc.

  • Summarising
  • Paraphrasing

in text citation for research article apa

It is always a good idea to keep direct quotes to a minimum. Quoting doesn't showcase your writing ability - all it shows is that you can read (plus, lecturers hate reading assignments with a lot of quotes).

You should only use direct quotes if the exact wording is important , otherwise it is better to paraphrase.

If you feel a direct quote is appropriate, try to keep only the most important part of the quote and avoid letting it take up the entire sentence - always start or end the sentence with your own words to tie the quote back into your assignment. Long quotes (more than 40 words) are called "block quotes" and are rarely used in most subject areas (they mostly belong in Literature, History or similar subjects). Each referencing style has rules for setting out a block quote. Check with your style guide .

It has been observed that "pink fairy armadillos seem to be extremely susceptible to stress" (Superina, 2011, p. 6).

NB! Most referencing styles will require a page number to tell readers where to find the original quote.

in text citation for research article apa

It is a type of paraphrasing, and you will be using this frequently in your assignments, but note that summarising another person's work or argument isn't showing how you make connections or understand implications. This is preferred to quoting, but where possible try to go beyond simply summarising another person's information without "adding value".

And, remember, the words must be your own words . If you use the exact wording from the original at any time, those words must be treated as a direct quote.

All information must be cited, even if it is in your own words.

Superina (2011) observed a captive pink fairy armadillo, and noticed any variation in its environment could cause great stress.

NB! Some lecturers and citation styles want page numbers for everything you cite, others only want page numbers for direct quotes. Check with your lecturer.

in text citation for research article apa

Paraphrasing often involves commenting about the information at the same time, and this is where you can really show your understanding of the topic. You should try to do this within every paragraph in the body of your assignment.

When paraphrasing, it is important to remember that using a thesaurus to change every other word isn't really paraphrasing. It's patchwriting , and it's a kind of plagiarism (as you are not creating original work).

Use your own voice! You sound like you when you write - you have a distinctive style that is all your own, and when your "tone" suddenly changes for a section of your assignment, it looks highly suspicious. Your lecturer starts to wonder if you really wrote that part yourself. Make sure you have genuinely thought about how *you* would write this information, and that the paraphrasing really is in your own words.

Always cite your sources! Even if you have drawn from three different papers to write this one sentence, which is completely in your own words, you still have to cite your sources for that sentence (oh, and excellent work, by the way).

Captive pink fairy armadillos do not respond well to changes in their environment and can be easily stressed (Superina, 2011).

NB! Some lecturers and citation styles want page numbers for all citations, others only want them for direct quotes. Check with your lecturer.

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When you have multiple authors with the same surname who published in the same year:

If your authors have different initials, then include the initials:

As A. Smith (2016) noted...

...which was confirmed by J.G. Smith's (2016) study.

(A. Smith, 2016; J. G. Smith, 2016).

If your authors have the same initials, then include the name:

As Adam Smith noted...

...which was confirmed by Amy Smith's (2016) study.

(Adam Smith, 2016; Amy Smith, 2016).

Note: In your reference list, you would include the author's first name in [square brackets] after their initials:

Smith, A. [Adam]. (2016)...

Smith, A. [Amy]. (2016)...

When you have multiple works by the same author in the same year:

In your reference list, you will have arranged the works alphabetically by title (see the page on Reference Lists for more information). This decides which reference is "a", "b", "c", and so on. You cite them in text accordingly:

Asthma is the most common disease affecting the Queensland population (Queensland Health, 2017b). However, many people do not know how to manage their asthma symptoms (Queensland Health, 2017a).

When you have multiple works by the same author in different years:

Asthma is the most common disease affecting the Queensland population (Queensland Health, 2017, 2018). 

When you do not have an author, and your reference list entry begins with the title:

Use the title in place of the author's name, and place it in "quotation marks" if it is the title of an article or book chapter, or in italics if the title would go in italics in your reference list:

During the 2017 presidential inauguration, there were some moments of awkwardness ("Mrs. Obama Says ‘Lovely Frame’", 2018).

Note: You do not need to use the entire title, but a reasonable portion so that it does not end too abruptly - "Mrs. Obama Says" would be too abrupt, but the full title "Mrs. Obama Says 'Lovely Frame' in Box During Awkward Handoff" is unecessarily long. You should also use title case for titles when referring to them in the text of your work.

If there are no page numbers, you can include any of the following in the in-text citation:

  • "On Australia Day 1938 William Cooper ... joined forces with Jack Patten and William Ferguson ... to hold a Day of Mourning to draw attention to the losses suffered by Aboriginal people at the hands of the whiteman" (National Museum of Australia, n.d., para. 4).
  • "in 1957 news of a report by the Western Australian government provided the catalyst for a reform movement" (National Museum of Australia, n.d., The catalyst for change section, para. 1)
  • "By the end of this year of intense activity over 100,000 signatures had been collected" (National Museum of Australia, n.d., "petition gathering", para. 1).

When you are citing a classical work, like the Bible or the Quran:

References to works of scripture or other classical works are treated differently to regular citations. See the APA Blog's entry for more details:

Happy Holiday Citing: Citation of Classical Works . (Please note, this document is from the 6th edition of APA).

In text citation:

If the name of the organisation first appears in a narrative citation, include the abbreviation before the year in brackets, separated with a comma. Use the official acronym/abreviation if you can find it. Otherwise check with your lecturer for permission to create your own acronyms.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, 2013) shows that...

The Queensland Department of Education (DoE, 2020) encourages students to... (please note, Queensland isn't part of the department's name, it is used in the sentence to provide clarity)

If the name of the organisation first appears in a citation in brackets, include the abbreviation in square brackets.

(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2013)

(Department of Education [DoE], 2020)

In the second and subsequent citations, only include the abbreviation or acronym

ABS  (2013) found that ...

DoE (2020) instructs teachers to...

This is disputed ( ABS , 2013).

Resources are designed to support "emotional learning pedagogy" (DoE, 2020)

In the reference list:

Use the full name of the organisation in the reference list.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2017).  Australia's welfare 2017 . https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-welfare/australias-welfare-2017/contents/table-of-contents

Department of Education. (2020, April 22). Respectful relationships education program . Queensland Government. https://education.qld.gov.au/curriculum/stages-of-schooling/respectful-relationships

Academically, it is better to find the original source and reference that.

If you do have to quote a secondary source:

  • In the text you must cite the original author of the quote and the year the original quote was written as well as the source you read it in. If you do not know the year the original citation was written, omit the year.
  • In the reference list you only list the source that you actually read.

Wembley (1997, as cited in Olsen, 1999) argues that impending fuel shortages ...

Wembley claimed that "fuel shortages are likely" (1997, as cited in Olsen, 1999, pp. 10-12).

Some have noted that fuel shortages are probable in the future (Wembley, 1997, as cited in Olsen, 1999).

Olsen, M. (1999).  My career.  Gallimard.

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In-Text Citation

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Prefer a video tutorial?

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video link for How to create references list and in-text citations in APA style

When you use others' ideas (paraphrases) and direct quotes, you must cite your source by including:

Author's last name, publication year, (only for direct quotes) page number of the quote.

The purpose of in-text citation is to direct the reader to the full citation on the  References list , which will have the full publication details. 

You are encouraged to write your in-text citations in several ways:

Author's last name and publication year in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Ex. There is not a strong correlation between a high GPA and students who began reading at an early age (Kahneman & Klein, 2009).

Author's name in the text with the publication year in parentheses after it.

Ex. ​Kahneman and Klein (2009) found that there is not a strong correlation between a high GPA and early readers.​

Jump to more specific examples by using the table below: 

One or Two Authors: Direct Quotes 

Include the author's last name(s), with an ampersand if needed between the two; publication date; and page number(s).

Ex. Although businesses collect a lot of information on their customers' buying patterns, "it is not enough to know how customers behave, you also need to know why" (Kahneman & Baudin, 2009, p. 522).

One or Two Authors: Paraphrasing 

Cite the author, publication year, and page numbers if needed.

Ex. Many insects and animals have a larger spectrum of color vision than humans, including ultraviolet and infrared (Gadhavi & Krupin, 2009).

Three or More Authors (see p. 266-267 in Manual)

In every citation, cite only the first author followed by "et al."

Ex. A study by Alloy et al. (2009) examines the relationship between bipolar personality and substance abuse.

No Author (see p. 264-265 in Manual)

Cite the first few words of the source's entry in the Reference list, which is usually the title. The title will be italicized if it's italicized in the References list, or if it's not italicized, put it in "quotation marks" to identify it as the title here. 

Article or Website

Ex. From 2010 to 2022, the U.S. Mint will issue quarters featuring United States National Parks ("Quarter to Feature Smokies," 2009).

Book or Report

Ex. Getting plenty of sleep is essential to academic success ( College Bound Seniors , 2008).

Quoting a Quote (see p. 277 in Manual)

If at all possible, APA tells you to find the  original source  and cite that source directly. 

However, if you cannot find the original source, you can cite the quote as a  secondary source . Cite the quoted author in the text and the author of the article at the end. In this example, Jonsen and Willse are the authors of the source that you cannot retrieve (i.e. the secondary source), and Kosek is the author of the source that you have in-hand.

Ex. Jonsen and Willse concluded "there was no direct correlation between the two factors" (Kosek, 2011).

Authors with Acronym Name (see p. 268+ in Manual)

For short names where the abbreviation would not be readily understandable, write out the name each time. For long names where the abbreviation is familiar, write out the name with the acronym in brackets for the first reference, then use just the acronym.

Ex. In 2012, approximately 1 in 68 children were diagnosed with a form of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016).

However, the entry in the References list should still spell out the full name. 

Two Citations in One Sentence (see p. 263 in the Manual)

Order the citations alphabetically by the first author's last name. 

Ex. Several studies (Nakano et al., 1999; Gadhavi & Krupin, 2009; Walker et al., 2008) cite the need for more replication studies.

For works by the same author, order them by publication year: give the last name once and then the dates.

Personal Interviews (see p. 259 in Manual)

Only cite interviews in-text, not on the references list.

Ex. Individual researchers are not eligible for many private foundation grants, because often those funds are only given to nonprofit organizations (P. Karga, personal communication, May 3, 2019).

More questions? Check out the authoritative source: APA style blog

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APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

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What Is In-Text Citation?

In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the text of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Reference list.

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. In the author-date method, the writer includes the author and date within the body of the paper and includes a corresponding reference in the Reference list. This method allows the reader to identify sources used in the paper by reviewing the author and date within the text of the paper, and then easily locate the corresponding reference in the alphabetical Reference list.

Create an in-text citation whenever you quote another work, or whenever you paraphrase another work in your own words.

In-text Citations Have Two Formats

  • Parenthetical - the author name and publication date (or equivalent information) appear in parentheses. For example: Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert consensus on an issue (Burnside, 2016).
  • Narrative - the author name appears in running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. For example: Burnside (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.

If you are referring to an idea from another work (paraphrasing or summarizing) but NOT directly quoting the material, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

If you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. For example, (Burnside, 2016, p. 199).

In-Text Citation Styles

The table below shows several examples of parenthetical and narrative citations.

Paraphrasing and Quoting: What Is the Difference?

There are two ways to integrate sources into your assignment:

  • Paraphrasing  is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must reword the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words, and not just change a few words here and there. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.
  • Quoting is copying a selection from someone else's work, phrasing it exactly as it was originally written. When quoting, place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation.

Signal Phrases

If you refer to the author's name in a sentence, you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation; instead, include the date after the name and the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or the paraphrased section. For example:

Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).

Short Quotations

If a quotation consists of fewer than 40 words , treat it as a short quotation:

  • Incorporate the quote into the text and enclose it within double quotation marks.
  • Include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference.
  • For example, Smith (2019) demonstrated how to "..." (p. 112).
  • For example, "..." (Smith, 2019, p. 112).

Long (Block) Quotations

If a quotation contains 40 words or more , treat it as a long (block) quotation:

  • Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation.
  • Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 inches from the left margin.
  • If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 inches.
  • Double-space the entire block quotation; do not add extra space before or after it.
  • Either (1) cite the source in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation, or (2) cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation's final punctuation. Do NOT add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case.
  • See section 8.27 in the Publication Manual for examples of the block quotation.

Direct Quotation Without Page Numbers

When you quote from electronic sources that do not provide page numbers (e.g., webpages, websites, some e-books), provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Use any of the following approaches that will best help readers find the quotation:

  • Provide a heading or a section name.
  • Provide a paragraph number (count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered).
  • Provide a heading or section name in combination with a paragraph number.

In-Text Citation for More than One Source

If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically by author's last name or first word used from the title if no author is given, in the same order they would appear in the Reference list. For example:

(Jones, 2015; Smith, 2014). 

( Beckworth, 2016;  "Nursing,"  2015).

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Using In-text Citation

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number. More information on citing sources without pagination is given on the APA Style web page .

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.

Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech.  Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259.

Thomas, H. K. (2004).  Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech  (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

Citing Web Pages In Text

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation (for long titles just use the first few words). Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.

Web page with author:

In-text citation

Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying (Kraiser, 2011).

Reference entry

Kraizer, S. (2011). Preventing bullying. Retrieved from http://safechild.org/categoryparents/preventing-bullying/

Web page with no author:

The term Nittany Lion was coined by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 ("All things Nittany," 2006).

All things Nittany. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.psu.edu/ur/about/nittanymascot.html

Web page with no date:

Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaster. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx

General Guidelines

In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.

Author's name in parentheses:

One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).

Author's name part of narrative:

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.

Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)

Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)

Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).

Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote)

One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).

Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).

Note:  For direct quotations of more than 40 words , display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:

This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Works by Multiple Authors

APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.

Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.

One author: (Field, 2005)

Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)

Three to five authors: First citation: (Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, & Cote, 2010) Subsequent citations: (Tremblay et al., 2010)

Six or more authors: (Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)

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APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

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About In-Text Citation

In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  • In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a comma and the publication year enclosed in parentheses: (Smith, 2007).
  • If you are quoting directly the page number should be included, if given. If you are paraphrasing the page number is not required.
  • If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the title, such as italics: ( Naturopathic , 2007).

Signal Phrases

Signal Phrase

If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include the date after the name and the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or paraphrased section. For example:

Hunt (2011) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (p. 358).

FAQ - Works by the Same Author with the Same Year

When you are citing two different sources that share the same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters after the year of publication (a, b, c, etc.). Assign these letters according to which title comes first alphabetically. Use these letters in both in-text citations and the Reference list.

Example In-Text :

Paraphrasing content from first source by this author (Daristotle, 2015a). "Now I am quoting from the second source by the same author" (Daristotle, 2015b, p. 50).

Example Reference List entries:

Daristotle, J. (2015a). Name of book used as first source . Toronto, ON: Fancy Publisher.

Daristotle, J. (2015b). Title of book used as second source . Toronto, ON: Very Fancy Publisher.

FAQ - Can I cite in-text once at the end of a paragraph, or do I need to cite after each sentence?

Unfortunately citing only once at the end of the paragraph isn't enough, as it doesn't clearly show where you started using information from another person's work or ideas. The good news is you can avoid having to write full in-text citations each and every time by using a lead-in to your paragraph.

Quoting and Paraphrasing: What's the Difference?

There are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote.

Paraphrasing   is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must reword the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words, and not just change a few words here and there. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.

See our  Paraphrasing  page for detailed information about paraphrasing in APA

Quoting   is copying a selection from someone else's work, phrasing it exactly it was originally written. When quoting place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation.

In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors

In-text citation for more than one source.

If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically by author's last name or first word used from the title if no author is given, in the same order they would appear on the References List, e.g.:

(Bennett, 2015; Smith, 2014). 

( Brock, 2016;  "It Takes Two,"  2015).

Work Quoted in Another Source

Sometimes an author of a book, article or website will mention another person’s work by using a quotation or paraphrased idea from that source. ( This may be called a secondary source.)  For example, the Kirkey article you are reading includes a quotation by Smith that you would like to include in your essay.

The basic rule is that in both your References list and in-text citation you will still cite Kirkey. Kirkey will appear in your References list – NOT Smith.

You will add the words “as cited in” to your in-text citation.  

Examples of in-text citations:

According to a study by Smith (as cited in Kirkey, 2013) 42% of doctors would refuse to perform legal euthanasia.

Smith (as cited in Kirkey, 2013) states that “even if euthanasia was legal, 42% of doctors would be against this method of assisted dying” (p. 34).

Example of Reference list citation:

Kirkey, S. (2013, Feb 9). Euthanasia.   The Montreal Gazette , p A10. Retrieved from Canadian Newsstand Major Dailies database.

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Citations - APA: In-Text Citations - Quoting & Paraphrasing

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  • About IN-Text Citations

Long Quotations

Paraphrasing.

No Page Numbers

No Author and/or No Date

In-text citation for two or more authors/editors, citing a source that you found in another source (secondary source), about in-text citations.

In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to the full citation on the References list at the end of the paper.

Create in-text citations for the following:

  • Direct quotes

When you quote from online sources that do not provide page numbers (like Webpages), you can cite:

  • A paragraph number (if this is not provided, you can count the paragraph number from the start of your source). Bowlby described "three phases of the separation response: protest, despair, and detachment" (Garelli, 2001, para. 3).
  • A heading and paragraph number. Example: Bowlby described "three phases of the separation response: protest, despair, and detachment" (Garelli, 2001, Bowlby's Initial Stance section, para. 3).

No Known Author:

Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your References List.

If the title in the References list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation.

If you are citing an article, a chapter of a book or a page from a website, put the words in double quotation marks.

( Cell Biology , 2012)

("Nursing," 2011)

No Known Date of Publication :

Where you'd normally put the year of publication, instead use the letters "n.d.".

(Smith, n.d.)

When quoting directly from a source, enclose the words in quotation marks then add the necessary information in parenthesis. There are two basic formats which can be used .

Option 1 - APA standard

The homeless were typically neglected growing up since they "commonly come from families who are riddled with problems and marital disharmony" (Rokach, 2005, p. 477).

Option 2 - used when the author's name for the work being cited  is written in the lead in sentence before the quote.

As Rokach (2005) notes, the homeless "often have no one to care for them and no one knows them intimately" (p. 477).

What Is a Long Quotation?

If your quotation extends to more than forty words as you're typing your essay, it is a long quotation. This can also be referred to as a block quotation.

Rules for Long Quotations

There are 4 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations:

  • The line before your long quotation, when you're introducing the quote, usually ends with a colon.
  • The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text.
  • There are no quotation marks around the quotation.
  • The period at the end of the quotation comes  before  your in-text citation as opposed to  after , as it does with regular quotations.

Example of a Long Quotation

At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:

The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding, 1960, p.186)

When you write information from a source in your own words then cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion as follows:

Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt, 1993).  

If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include the year of publication following his/her name:

Hunt (1993) noted that mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research after the publication of John Bowlby's studies.

Original Source

Homeless individuals commonly come from families who are riddled with problems and marital disharmony, and are alienated from their parents. They have often been physically and even sexually abused, have relocated frequently, and many of them may be asked to leave home or are actually thrown out, or alternatively are placed in group homes or in foster care. They often have no one to care for them and no one knows them intimately.

Example:  Incorrect  Paraphrasing

The homeless come from families with problems. Frequently, they have been physically or sexually abused, or have lived in group homes. Usually no one cares for them or knows them intimately (Rokach, 2005). 

Note : In this incorrect example the writing is too similar to the original source. The student only changed or removed a few words and has not phrased the ideas in a new way. 

Example:  Correct  Paraphrasing

Many homeless experience isolation in part due to suffering from abuse or neglect during their childhood (Rokach, 2005).

Note : The example keeps the idea of the original writing but phrases it in a new way.

Full Citation:

Rokach, A. (2005). The causes of loneliness in homeless youth.  The Journal of Psychology , 139, 469-480. 10.3200/JRLP.139.5.469-480

In scholarly work, a primary source reports original content; a secondary source refers to content first reported in another source.

  • Cite secondary sources sparingly—for instance, when the original work is out of print, unavailable, or available only in a language that you do not understand.
  • If possible, as a matter of good scholarly practice, find the primary source, read it, and cite it directly rather than citing a secondary source. For example, rather than citing an instructor’s lecture or a textbook or encyclopedia that in turn cites original research, find, read, and cite the original research directly (unless an instructor has directed you to do otherwise).

Follow these directions when citing a secondary source:

  • In the reference list, provide an entry for the secondary source that you used.
  • In the in-text, identify the primary source and write “as cited in” the secondary source that you used.

If the year of publication of the primary source is known, also include it in the text citation.

For example, if you read a work by Lyon et al. (2014) in which Rabbitt (1982) was cited, and you were unable to read Rabbitt’s work yourself, cite Rabbitt’s work as the original source, followed by Lyon et al.’s work as the secondary source. Only Lyon et al.’s work appears in the reference list.

(Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014)

If the year of the primary source is unknown, omit it from the in-text citation.

Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003)

https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/secondary-sources

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In-Text Citations

Resources on using in-text citations in APA style

Reference List

Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats

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APA In-Text Citations for Research Writing

in text citation for research article apa

Why Use In-Text Citations?

When writing a journal article, literature review, convention paper, or any other academic document, authors must include in-text citations whenever they refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. In addition, every time a work is cited within a paper (in APA style, a parenthetical citation), a corresponding entry must be included in the reference list.

How to Cite a Research Paper Using In-Text Citations

The rationale behind citing other people’s publications in your own manuscript is that you want to avoid intellectual dishonesty by giving credit to whoever reported a finding first or invented a specific technique. This is not only an ethical question, as being “sloppy” with your sources can easily be considered plagiarism (and even self-plagiarism , if you fail to refer to your own work), which can have legal consequences and damage your reputation.

General rules for what information should be provided when citing sources in a research paper vary across fields and depend on the type of source (e.g., books, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, websites, etc.). We are not going into such differences here but will focus on the correct way of referencing other people’s research in your own paper according to one of the most common styles used to cite sources within the social sciences and in several other academic disciplines , that is, APA (American Psychological Association) style .

In research papers, in-text citations are most commonly used in the Introduction and Discussion Results sections. The following guidelines and examples are taken from the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition, 2nd printing , which details rules and application of APA style in research papers, including in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and references. For more information, consult the APA Style Manual website .

This resource provides detailed guidelines for citing sources in your paper and includes examples of in-text citations for reference by research authors. Before submitting your manuscript to a journal or publisher, be sure to use our free APA citation generator for your references and in-text citations.

APA Citation Rules: The Basics

Order and structure of in-text citation content.

When using APA format, follow the “author-date” method of in-text citation. Write the author’s last name and publication year for the source in parentheses and separate these pieces of information with a comma.

When referring to external work or referencing an entire work but not directly quoting the material, you only need to make a reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your citation.

The results of the first enzyme study (Chen et al., 2014) revealed several relationships.

If you mention the name of the author of the work in the sentence or earlier in the paragraph, you only need to include the year of publication in the citation.

Chen (2014) discusses several relationships revealed in this study.

Verb tense used in referring to other works

APA style requires authors to use past tense or present perfect tense (NOT present tense) when using signal phrases to refer to or discuss previous research (have a look at this article for more details on the correct tenses for different parts of a research paper ).

Radnitz (1995) found… / Radnitz (1995) has found…

Placement of in-text citations in the sentence (no quotation)

When referring to a specific work or works, place the citation (publication date only) directly after the author of the study referenced.

Klinge and Rogers (2010) found that mirroring is instrumental in developments of performative gender roles.

When giving information that reflects the results or implications of previous work, place the citation (author and publication date) at the end of the sentence.

Mirroring has been found to be instrumental in the development of performative gender roles (Klinge and Rogers, 2010).

Capitalization

Always capitalize author names and initials in in-text citations.

(r. kazinsky, 2014)    (R. Kazinsky, 2014)

In-Text Citation Rules for Short Quotations

When quoting directly from a work, include the author, publication year, and page number of the reference (preceded by “p.”).

Method 1 : Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name; the publication year will follow in parentheses. Include the page number in parentheses at the end of the quoted text. Note that the quotation marks surround the text only, and not the parenthetical citation.

According to Khan (1976), “Graduate students tend to apply more diverse methods during their first two years of research” (p. 45). Khan (1976) noted that “graduate students tend to apply more diverse methods during their first two years of research” (p. 45), a fact that has profound implications for research departments.

Method 2 : If the author is absent in the signal phrase, include the author’s last name, the publication year, and the page number together in parentheses after the quoted text.

Researchers noted that “graduate students tend to apply more diverse methods during their first two years of research” (Khan, 1976, p. 45), but they did not offer a suggestion as to the cause.

In-text Citation Rules for Long Quotations

Long direct quotations are those with at least 40 words of quoted text in a row. Long quotes should be placed in a separate block of lines without quotation marks, similar to creating a new paragraph. Begin the quotation on a new line and indent 0.5in/1.27cm from the left margin. Type the entire quotation within these new margins using double-spacing. Include the parenthetical citation after the final punctuation mark.

Khan’s (1976) study found the following: Graduate students tend to apply more diverse methods during their first two years of research, especially when conducting research in teams of three or fewer with no senior researchers    present. This tendency could be attributed to either a misunderstanding of correct methodology or to a feeling of freedom to explore different approaches that the researchers have yet to employ. (p. 45)

Summarizing and Paraphrasing Other Works

When  paraphrasing another work , you only need to cite the author and year of publication in your in-text citation. It may be a good idea to include the page number as well if the paraphrased information is located on a specific page of the original text. APA guidelines encourage this inclusion but do not require it.

According to Khan (1976), new researchers tend to use more diverse methodologies. New researchers tend to use more diverse methodologies (Khan, 1976, p. 45).

Common Signal Phrases for Introducing External Works

  • According to Johnson (publication year)…
  • As Johnson (publication year) has noted…
  • Johnson and Smith (publication year) contend that…
  • As Johnson’s (2011) study revealed…

Citing Works by Multiple Authors/Editors

When making an in-text citation of works by multiple authors, there are specific rules to follow depending on the number of authors of a publication and the number of times you cite the same works.

Citing Multiple Works in One In-text Citation

When citing more than one source in the same in-text citation, list all sources in the standard way and separate them with a semi-colon. List the sources alphabetically (by author’s last name or by title if no author is given) in the order they appear in the reference list.

(Marsh, 1997; Johnson, 2002). (Kazinsky, 2017; “Three Different Roads,”  2013).

Citing Works by the Same Author with the Same Publication Year

When citing two or more sources with the same author and year of publication, assign lowercase letters directly after the year of publication (a, b, c) according to the alphabetical order of titles. You will use the same alphabetical designations in your in-text citations that you do in your reference list.

The incidence of West Nile virus in Florida increased between 2002 and 2004 (Dickens, 2014a). According to Dickens (2014b), “these viral infections were precipitated by record levels of rainfall around the peninsula” (p. 150).

Citing a Work Quoted in another Source

Work quoted or paraphrased in another text is called a “secondary source.” While in your reference list you must cite the primary source as well, in your in-text citation you will add the words “as cited in” followed by the secondary source. For example, if a review article by Franklin you are citing includes a useful quote by Adams that supports your paper, your in-text citation would look like this:

According to a study by Adams (as cited in Franklin, 2016), 25% of all US federal prisoners have been diagnosed with some form of social disorder. Adams (as cited in Franklin) contends that this statistic “reflects the dehumanizing conditions of most federal institutions” (p. 76).

Citing Web Pages

Entire website.

When citing an entire website (with no specific webpage or article given), simply provide the title and web address within the text of your paper. No citation is needed in the References.

The American Psychological Association includes detailed information on how to apply APA citation (http://www.apa.org).

Webpage with author(s)

A webpage with an individual author or authors should be cited in the same way as other texts, with the name or names written first, followed by the publication year.

There were 523 new cases reported in 2011 alone (Kristoff, 2012).

Webpage with a group author

Treat group authors as individual authors in in-text citations, but instead of the author’s last name, include the name of the group.

Claustrophobia afflicts one in five Britons (The Surrey Group, 2003).

Webpage with missing information

Even when some central information is missing from a website (e.g., no author, date, or webpage title), you may still cite it as a source if you use the correct formatting. For information on how to cite a website with missing information, visit the APA Style Blog post on  Missing Pieces .

Citing social media sources

For a more comprehensive explanation of social media citation guidelines, visit the APA Style Blog post on  How to Cite Social Media in APA Style .

And when submitting your finished AP document to journals or for a class assignment, be sure to get professional English editing services , including academic editing , manuscript editing , and research paper editing services . Professional editors with experience in APA, AMA, MLA, and other popular style guides will make sure that your document’s citations and references conform to the journal of your choice.

Wordvice Resources

Wordvice provides a variety of other articles on topics such as the number of references your manuscript should contain , different citation styles if your target style does not use APA, and how to paraphrase correctly when citing sources in your paper, as well as more general advice on how to write research papers on the Wordvice academic resources website .

Citation Styles

What is apa, how do i cite..., in-text citation, formatting your paper.

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Sample Papers

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APA style was created by the American Psychological Association. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers.

In APA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:

  • In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation.
  • In the Reference list at the end of your paper where you give more complete information for the source.

Learn more about APA Style from Purdue OWL  or you can look at examples from APA Style .

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Art (from a Museum):

Artist, A. A. (year).  Title of work  [Medium]. Museum Name, Museum Location.

Monet, C. (1900).  The water lily pond  [Painting]. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, United States.

Art (online):

Artist, A. A. (year).  Title of work  [Medium]. Museum Name, Museum Location. https://xxxxxx

Monet, C. (1900).  The water lily pond  [Painting]. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, United States.  https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33697

Graphs and Chart (from an article)

Figure X . Description of the image or title of the image. From "Title of Article," by Article Author's First Initial. Second Initial. Last Name, year, day, (for a magazine) or year (for a journal), Title of Magazine or Journal, volume number, page(s). Copyright year by name of copyright holder.

in text citation for research article apa

Figure 1 . A proposed potential therapeutic algorithm based on current studies and clinical trials. From "Treatment for COVID-19: An overview," by Stasi, C., Fallani, S., Voller, F., & Silvestri, C, 2020,  European journal of pharmacology , 889, 173644. Copyright 2020 by Elsevier.

Infographic:

Artist, A. A. (year).  Title of infographic  [Infographic]. Source. https://xxxxxx

CDC. (2020).  Disability Impacts All of Us Infographic [Infographic]. Centers for Disease and Control Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/images/disability-impacts-all1185px.png

Photographs/Images:

Photographer, A. A. (Date).  Title of photograph  [Photograph]. Source. https://xxxxxx

Adler, G. S. (1968).  April 23, 1968 Crowd Sundial Rally  [Photograph]. Columbia University Libraries. https://dlc.library.columbia.edu/catalog/cul:fbg79cnpkb

One Author:

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication).  Title of book: Subtitle if given  (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened.

Kottler, J.A. (2000). Doing good: passion and commitment for helping others.  Brunner-Routledge.

Two or More Authors:

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication).  Title of book: Subtitle if given  (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened. 

Case, L. P., Daristotle, L., Hayek, M. G., & Raash, M. F. (2011).  Canine and feline nutrition: A resource for companion animal professionals  (3rd ed.). Mosby.

Group or Company:

Name of Corporate Author. (Year of Publication).  Title of book: Subtitle if given  (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened.

American Psychological Association. (2020).  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Ed.). (Year of Publication).  Title of book: Subtitle if given  (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened. 

Miller, J., & Smith, T. (Eds.). (1996).  Cape Cod stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard . Chronicle Books.

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication).  Title of dissertation (Publication No, if applicable) [Type of Paper, name of the University]. Source Name or Repository Name. URL.

Kabir, J. M. (2016).  Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty  (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016).  The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms  [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository.  https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615

  • Author.  Note: List the author's last name and initials as Author, A. A. There is usually only one author for a thesis or dissertation, you don't need to include any faculty advisers.
  • (Year, Month Date).  Note: Provide as specific a date as is available.
  • Title of the dissertation or thesis  [Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis, Name of University].  Note: For works that stand alone (e.g. books, dissertations, theses), italicize the title. Only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and any proper nouns. The title page will indicate whether it's a Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis and list the name of the university granting the degree.
  • Source.  Note: Include the name of the database or institutional repository where you can access the work (e.g. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, PQDT Open, Scholar Commons).
  • URL  Note: If available it's available.

Online Encyclopedia & Dictionary:

Name of Group Author. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.),  Name of encyclopedia or dictionary  (edition if given and is not first edition). Retrieved from date URL

Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.).  Olive . Britannica Academic. Retrieved November 1, 2021, from https://academic-eb-com.libproxy.scu.edu/levels/collegiate/article/olive/57030

Encyclopedia & Dictionary from Print (book):

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.),  Name of encyclopedia or dictionary  (Volume number, pp. first page of entry-last page of entry). Publisher Name often shortened.

King, P. N., & Wester L. (1998). Hawaii. In  The world book encyclopedia  (Vol. 9, pp. 88-110). World Book.

From a Website:

Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee. (Year of Publication, Month Day).  Title of document: Subtitle if given  (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name. URL

Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2010, April 27). Your preschool child's speech and language development. http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/earlychildhood/ speechlanguage/brochure_preschool.aspx

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (December, 2020).  Improving Health Care For Adults With Disabilities: An Overview Of Federal Data Sources  [Issue Brief]. https://www.cms.gov/files/document/federaldatadisability508.pdf

Print Document:

Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee. (Year of Publication).  Title of document: Subtitle if given  (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name.

Health Council of Canada. (2007).  Canadians' experience with chronic illness care in 2007 .

Notes for Reports, Policy Briefs, Press Release, etc:

  • Author or Name of Group (If the group name has many layers, use the most specific agency as the author). The parent agencies will be listed as the publisher. Note:  You can abbreviate agency names in-text, but  do not abbreviate agency names in the list of references .
  • Title of Report or Title of Report (Report No. __)
  • If it's not a report, but something fuzzier, like a press release, policy brief, etc. (so-called "gray literature), include a description in brackets. e.g., [Press Release] following the title.
  • Publisher name (unless the publisher IS the group author)

Tip: It is often easier to identify the relevant elements of the citation by consulting a catalog entry (worldcat or your library's catalog) or by downloading the full report as a pdf and checking the cover pages.

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any.  Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi number

Bailey, N. W. (2012). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes.  Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27 (3), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

Two to 20 authors:

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any.  Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi number 

Kerui Du, Shuai Shao, & Zheming Yan. (2021). Urban Residential Energy Demand and Rebound Effect in China: A Stochastic Energy Demand Frontier Approach.  Energy Journal ,  42 (4), 175–193. https://doi-org.libproxy.scu.edu/10.5547/01956574.42.4.kdu

21 or More Authors:

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetma, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project.  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society ,  77 (3), 437-471. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2

Newspaper Article Online:

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any.  Name of Newspaper . URL

Callahan, A. (2021, November 30). Why does coffee make you poop? New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/30/well/eat/why-does-coffee-make-you-poop.html

Newspaper Print:

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any.  Name of Newspaper , p. SectionPage if given.

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.  The Washington Post , A1, A4.

Author's Last Name, First initial. Second initial. Or, username if real name is not provided. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of the blog post.  Title of Blog.  URL

Rudzate, A. (2022 February 21). How to Stay on Task and Avoid Distractions.  Lifehack. https://www.lifehack.org/884657/stay-on-task

Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, First initial. Second initial if Given. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Director, Producer) (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given (episode number if known) [Audio podcast episode]. In  Title of Podcast . Publisher. URL if known

Prime, K. (Host). (2019), March 29). For whom the cowbell tolls [Audio podcast episode]. In  Radiolab.  WNYC Studios. https://www.wnycstudios.org/story/whom-cowbell-tolls

Streaming Video (YouTube, Vimeo, Hulu):

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video] . (Year video was posted, Month Day).  Title of video  [Video]. Name of Streaming Service. URL

Green, H. [Crash Course]. (2012, December 18).  Ecosystem Ecology: Links in the Chain - Crash Course Ecology #7  [Video]. Youtube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6ubvEJ3KGM

Twitter (Tweet):

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Tweet]. Site Name. URL

National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/1216346352063537154

Corporate or Group as Author:

Corporation/Group/Organization's Name. (Year website was last updated/published, Month Day if given).  Title of page: Subtitle  (if any). Website Name. URL

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21).  Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims . https://www.aspca.org/news/justice-served-case-closed-over-40-dogfighting-victims

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given).  Title of page: Subtitle (if any) . Website name. URL

Lynch, G., Legar H. S. (2020, January 16). Best gadgets 2020: the top tech you can buy right now . techradar. https://www.techradar.com/news/best-gadgets

Learn more about In-Text Citations: Basics

Learn more about In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

Follow these guidelines to format your paper in APA style, unless your professor has a specific preference. Your paper should be in three major sections: the title page, main body, and the references list. If you are writing a professional paper, then there should be 4 major sections: the title page, abstract, main body, and the references list. Here are some other guidelines you'll need to follow:

  • double-space
  • 1" margins on all sides
  • student paper: page number
  • professional paper: "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" then page number
  • 12-point Times New Roman
  • 11-point Georgia
  • 11-point Calibri
  • 11-point Arial
  • 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode
  • 11-point Computer Modern

Learn more about General Format from Purdue OWL.

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  • Last Updated: Jun 3, 2024 11:32 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.scu.edu/citationstyles
  • Plagiarism and grammar
  • Citation guides

APA Citation Generator

Keep all of your citations in one safe place

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A comprehensive guide to apa citations and format, overview of this guide:.

This page provides you with an overview of APA format, 7th edition. Included is information about referencing, various citation formats with examples for each source type, and other helpful information.

If you’re looking for MLA format , check out the Citation Machine MLA Guide. Also, visit the Citation Machine homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, and to see more styles .

Being responsible while researching

When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own assignment. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project (i.e., citing), which is one way to prevent plagiarism.

Plagiarism? What is it?

The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin word, plagiare , which means “to kidnap.” The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author (American Psychological Association, 2020 p. 21). Plagiarism can be illegal and there can be serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including citations and references in your research project. Want to make them quickly and easily? Try the Citation Machine citation generator, which is found on our homepage.

All about citations & references

Citations and references should be included anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation and a reference. This guide explains how to make them.

APA style citations are added in the body of a research paper or project and references are added to the last page.

Citations , which are called in-text citations, are included when you’re adding information from another individual’s work into your own project. When you add text word-for-word from another source into your project, or take information from another source and place it in your own words and writing style (known as paraphrasing), you create an in-text citation. These citations are short in length and are placed in the main part of your project, directly after the borrowed information.

References are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page is the full information for any in-text citations found in the body of the project. These references are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.

An APA in-text citation includes only three items: the last name(s) of the author(s), the year the source was published, and sometimes the page or location of the information. References include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the full title of the source, and the URL or page range.

Two example in-text citations.

Why is it important to include citations & references

Including APA citations and references in your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging the original authors and their work.

Common ways students and scholars accidentally plagiarize

Believe it or not, there are instances when you could attempt to include in-text and full references in the appropriate places, but still accidentally plagiarize. Here are some common mistakes to be aware of:

Mistake #1 - Misquoting sources: If you plan to use a direct quote, make sure you copy it exactly as is. Sure, you can use part of the full quote or sentence, but if you decide to put quotation marks around any words, those words should match exactly what was found in the original source. Here’s a line from The Little Prince , by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry:

“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves, and it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them.”

Here’s an acceptable option:

“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves,” stated de Saint-Exupéry (1943, p. 3).

Here’s a misquote:

“Grown-ups barely ever understand anything by themselves,” stated de Saint-Exupéry (1943, p. 3).

Notice the slight change in the words. The incorrect phrasing is an instance of accidental plagiarism.

Mistake #2 - Problems with paraphrasing: When we paraphrase, we restate information using our own words and writing style. It’s not acceptable to substitute words from the original source with synonyms.

Let’s use the same sentence from The Little Prince .

A correct paraphrase could be:

de Saint-Exupéry (1943) shares various ways adults frustrate children. One of the biggest being that kids have to explain everything. It’s too bad adults are unable to comprehend anything on their own (p. 3).

An incorrect paraphrase would be:

de Saint-Exupéry (1943) shares that adults never understand anything by themselves, and it is exhausting for kids to be always and forever clarifying things to them (p.3).

Notice how close the incorrect paraphrase is from the original. This is an instance of accidental plagiarism.

Make sure you quote and paraphrase properly in order to prevent accidental plagiarism.

If you’re having a difficult time paraphrasing properly, it is acceptable to paraphrase part of the text AND use a direct quote. Here’s an example:

de Saint-Exupery (1943) shares various ways adults frustrate children. One of the biggest being that kids have to explain everything, and “it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them” (p. 3).

Information About APA

Who created it.

The American Psychological Association is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 121,000 members, they provide educational opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology-related. They also have numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health.

The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating their own specific citation and reference style. Today, this format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information . This guide covers general information about the style, but is not affiliated with the American Psychological Association.

Why was this style created?

This format was first developed in 1929 to form a standardized way for researchers in science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards and guidelines, individuals were recognizing the work of other authors by including bits and pieces of information in random order. There wasn’t a set way to format citations and references. You can probably imagine how difficult it was to understand the sources that were used for research projects!

Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at a citation or APA reference and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source.

The evolution of this style

The guide below is based on APA style 7th edition, which was released in 2020. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the publisher location for books and the date that an electronic resource was accessed. Both are no longer required to be included.

Details on the differences between the 6th and 7th editions is addressed later in this guide.

Citations & References

The appearance of citations & references.

The format for references varies, but most use this general format:

%%Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . URL

Researchers and scholars must look up the proper format for the source that they’re attempting to cite. Books have a certain format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re citing or referencing.

If you would like help citing your sources, CitationMachine.com has a citation generator that will help make the APA citation process much easier for you. To start, simply click on the source type you're citing:

  • Journal articles

In-text citations

An APA in-text citation is included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source.

Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an APA in-text citation directly following it.

In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, these citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words.

When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include a citation directly following it.

Citations in the text are found near a direct quote, paraphrased information, or next to a mention of another source. To see examples of some narrative/ parenthetical citations in action, look at the image above, under “All About Citations & References.”

Note: *Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. Page numbers have a p. before the number, pp. before the page range, and para. before the paragraph number. This information is included to help the reader locate the exact portion of text themselves. It is unnecessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source.

Examples of APA in-text citations:

“Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Tóibín, 2009, p. 52).
Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent & Giles, 2017, p. 12).

If including the author’s name in the sentence, place the year in the parentheses directly next to his or her name. Add the page number at the end, unless it’s a source without any pages or paragraph numbers (See Section 8.10 of the Publication manual for more details).

In-text citation APA example:

According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers.

The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, titled the “References.”

Here’s how to create in-text citations for specific amounts of authors:

APA citation with no author

When the source lacks an author’s name, place the title, year, and page number (if available) in the text. The title should be in italics if it sits alone (such as a movie, brochure, or report). If the source is part of a whole (as many web pages and articles are), place the title in quotation marks without italics (See Section 8.14 of the Publication manual ).

Structure of an APA format citation in the text narratively, with the author's name missing:

Title of Source (Year) or “Title of Source” (Year)

Structure of an APA style format citation, in parentheses at the end of the sentence, with the author’s name missing: (Title of Source, Year) or (“Title of Source,” Year)

Structure for one author

In the text, narratively: Last name of Author (Year)...(page number).

In parentheses, at the end of the sentence: (Last name of Author, Year, page number).

Structure for two authors

Place the authors in the order they appear on the source. Only use the ampersand in the parenthetical citations (see Section 8.17 of the Publication manual ). Use ‘and’ to separate the author names if they’re in the text of the sentence.

In the text, narratively: Last name of Author 1 and Last name of Author 2 (Year)....(page number).

In parentheses, at the end of the sentence: (Last name of Author 1 & Last name of Author 2, Year, page number).

Structure for three or more authors

Only include the first listed author’s name in the first and any subsequent citations. Follow it with et al.

(Last name Author 1 et al., Year, page number)

(Agbayani et al., 2020, p. 99)

Last name of Author 1 et al. (Year)...(page).

Agbayani et al. (2020)...(p. 99)

One author, multiple works, same year

What do you do when you want to cite multiple works by an author, and the sources all written in the same year?

Include the letters ‘a’ ‘b’ ‘c’ and so on after the year in the citation.

(Jackson, 2013a)

Jackson (2013a)

Writers can even lump dates together.

Example: Jackson often studied mammals while in Africa (2013a, 2013b).

On the APA reference page, include the same letters in the full references.

Groups and organizations

Write out the full name of the group or organization in the first citation and place the abbreviation next to it in brackets. If the group or organization is cited again, only include the abbreviation. If it doesn’t have an abbreviation associated with it, write out the entire organization’s name each and every time (see Section 8.21 of the Publication manual ).

First APA citation for an organization with an abbreviation: (World Health Organization [WHO], Year)

World Health Organization (WHO, Year)

Notice in the example directly above, the name of the organization is written out in full in the text of the sentence, and the abbreviation is placed in parentheses next to it.

Subsequent APA citations in the text for an organization with an abbreviation: (WHO, Year) OR WHO (Year)

All citations in the text for an organization without an abbreviation: (Citation Machine, Year) or Citation Machine (Year)

One in-text citation, multiple works

Sometimes you’ll need to cite more than one work within an in-text citation. Follow the same format (author, year) format but place semicolons between works (p. 263).

(Obama, 2016; Monroe et al., 1820; Hoover & Coolidge, 1928)

Reminder: There are many citation tools available on CitationMachine.com. Head to our homepage to learn more, check out our APA citation website, and cite your sources easily! The most useful resource on our website? Our APA citation generator, which doesn’t just create full references, it’s also an APA in-text citation website! It’ll do both for you!

Click here to learn more about crediting work .

Reference list citation components

References display the full information for all the citations found in the body of a research project.

Some things to keep in mind when it comes to the references:

  • All references sit together on their own page, which is usually the last page(s) of a paper.
  • Title the page ‘References’
  • Place ‘References’ in the center of the page and bold it. Keep the title in the same font and size as the references. Do not italicize, underline, place the title in quotation marks, or increase the font size.
  • The entire page is double spaced.
  • All references are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the reference, which is usually the author’s last name. If the source lacks an author, alphabetize the source by the title (ignore A, An, or The)
  • All references have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples throughout this guide.
  • Remember, each and every citation in the text of the paper MUST have a full reference displayed in the reference list. The citations in the text provide the reader with a quick glimpse about the sources used, but the references in the reference list provide the reader with all the information needed to seek out the source themselves.

Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. See an APA sample paper reference list at the end of this entire section.

Author’s names

The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period (see Section 9.8 of the Publication manual ).

Format: Last name, F. M.

  • Angelou, M.
  • Doyle, A. C.

Two or more authors

When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source. You can name up to 20 authors in the reference. For sources with 2 to 20 authors, place an ampersand (&) before the final author. Use this format:

Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M.

Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M.

Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M., Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J., & He, Y.

If there are 21 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 19 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name.

Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , ...Lopez, G. S.

If you plan on using a free APA citation tool, like the one at CitationMachine.com, the names of the authors will format properly for you.

###No authors

If the source lacks an author, place the title in the first position in the reference (Section 9.12 of the Publication manual ). When the source’s title begins with a number (Such as 101 Dalmatians ), place the reference alphabetically as if the number was spelled out. 101 Dalmatians would be placed in the spot where ‘One hundred’ would go, but keep the numbers in their place.

Additionally, if the title begins with the words ‘A’, ‘An,’ or ‘The,’ ignore these words and place the title alphabetically according to the next word.

See the “Titles” section below for more information on formatting the title of sources.

###Corporate/Organization authors

On an APA reference page, corporate authors are always written out in full. In the text of your paper, you may have some abbreviations (such as UN for United Nations), but in the full references, always include the full names of the corporation or organization (following Section 9.11 of the official Publication manual ).

%%United Nations. (2019). Libya: $202 million needed to bring life-saving aid to half a million people hit by humanitarian crisis. https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/02/1031981

Publication date & retrieval date

Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers and magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.”

%% Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . http://www.philly.com/

If using our APA Citation Machine, our citation generator will add the correct format for you automatically.

Giving a retrieval date is not needed unless the online content is likely to be frequently updated and changed (e.g., encyclopedia article, dictionary entry, Twitter profile, etc.).

%%Citation Machine [@CiteMachine]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 10, 2019, from https://twitter.com/CiteMachine

When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other non-periodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in the APA citation.

Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

Roots: The saga of an American family.

For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title.

Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.

For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title.

The Seattle Times.

A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks in the reference list. Here’s a good general rule: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics.

Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.

The Citation Machine citation generator will format the title in your citations automatically.

Additional information about the title

If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include a descriptive noun or two in brackets immediately following the title. Capitalize the first letter.

%%Kennedy, K., & Molen, G. R. (Producers), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Film]. USA: Universal.

Besides [Film], other common notations include:

  • [Audio podcast]
  • [Letter to the editor]
  • [Television series episode]
  • [Facebook page]
  • [Blog post]
  • [Lecture notes]
  • [PowerPoint presentation]
  • [Video file]

If you are using Citation Machine citing tools, additional information about the title is automatically added for you.

Publisher information

For books and reports, include the publisher name but not the location (see Section 9.29 of the Publication manual ). Older editions of the style required the city, state and/or country, but this hasn't been the case since the 7th edition was released.

It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the reference. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.

For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. There is no space after the closing parenthesis and before the volume number.

%%Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., & Georgas, T. (2016). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews , 11 (9), 907-923. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688

After including the publisher information, end this section with a period.

Perseus Books.

Electronic source information:

For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of an APA citation.

DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL (see Section 9.34 in the Publication manual ).

For DOIs, include the number in this format:

http://doi.org/xxxx

For URLs, type them in this format:

http:// or https://

Other information about electronic sources:

  • If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark.
  • Do not place a period at the end of the citation/URL.
  • It is unnecessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time (like in a Wikipedia article).
  • It is not necessary to include the names of databases

If using the Citation Machine APA citation website autocite features, the online publication information will be automatically replaced by the DOI. The Citation Machine APA template will properly cite your online sources for you.

The image shows an example APA student page that is formatted using the guidelines described under the heading Paper Formatting.

Make sure you run your completed paper through the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader, which scans for grammar, spelling, and plagiarism. Whether it’s an adjective , verb , or pronoun out-of-place, our technology helps edits your paper for you!

Annotated bibliographies:

An APA annotated bibliography is a full bibliography that includes a small note for each reference citation. Each note should be short (1-2 paragraphs) and contain a summary or your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations on CitationMachine.net, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations.

Follow the publication manual guidelines on paper format and writing style. Let your instructor guide other details about your annotations. Still confused? Read our guide on annotated bibliographies .

These types of projects look different depending on the style you’re using. Use the link at the top of the page to access resources related to the Modern Language Association’s style. Here’s information related to Chicago citation style .

Page formatting

Need help with the design and formatting of your paper? Look no further! This section provides the ins and outs of properly displaying the information in your APA essay.

  • Times New Roman, 12-point size.
  • Calibri, Arial, or Georgia, 11-point size
  • Lucida, Sans Unicode, or Computer Modern, 10-point size
  • Indents = Every paragraph should start with an indent.
  • Margins = 1 inch around the entire document
  • Spacing = Double space everything!

Arrange your pages in this order:

  • Page 1 - APA Title Page (see below for information on the title page)
  • Page 2 - Abstract (If your professor requests one)
  • Page 3 - First page of text
  • References begin on their own page. Include the list of references on the page after the text.
  • Tables and figures

Keep in mind that the order above is the recommendation for papers being submitted for peer review. If you’re writing an APA style paper for a class, your professor may be more lenient about the requirements. Also, if you’re submitting your paper for a specific journal, check the requirements on the journal’s website. Each journal has different rules and procedures.

Just a little nudge to remind you about the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader. Whether it’s a conjunction or interjection out of place, a misspelled word, or an out of place citation, we’ll offer suggestions for improvement! Don’t forget to check out our APA citation maker while you’re at it!

Running heads

In older editions of APA, running heads were required for all papers. Since the 7th edition, that’s changed.

  • Student paper: No running head
  • Professional paper: Include a running head

The running head displays the title of the paper and the page number on all pages of the paper. This header is found on every page of a professional paper (not a student paper), even on the title page (sometimes called an APA cover page) and reference list (taken from Section 2.8 of the Publication manual ).

It's displayed all in capital letters at the top of the page. Across from the running head, along the right margin, is the page number.

  • Use the header feature in your word processor. Both Google Docs and Word have these features available.
  • Use one for the recommended fonts mentioned under "Page formatting."

Title pages

A title page, sometimes called an APA cover page, graces the cover of an essay or paper. An APA title page should follow rules from Section 2.3 of the official Publication manual and include:

  • Page number, which is page 1
  • Use title case and bold font
  • The title should be under 12 words in length
  • The title should be a direct explanation of the focus of the paper. Do not include any unnecessary descriptors such as “An Analysis of…” or “A Study of…”
  • Exclude any labels such as Mr., Ms., Dr, PhD...
  • Name of the school or institution
  • Course number and/or class name
  • Name of your instructor, including their preferred honorifics (e.g., PhD, Dr., etc.)
  • Paper’s due date
  • If this is a professional paper, also include a running head. If this is a student paper, do not include one.

Follow the directions for the running head and page number in the section above. Below the running head, a few lines beneath, and centered in the middle of the page, should be the title. The next line below is the author’s name(s), followed by the name of the school or institution, the class or course name, your instructor’s name, and the paper’s due date.

All components on this page should be written in the same font and size as the rest of your paper. Double space the title, names, name of school or institution, and all other information on the page (except for the running head and page number).

Example - Student Title Page APA:

The image shows an example APA student title page that is formatted using the guidelines described above under the heading Title Pages.

Example - Professional Title Page APA:

The image shows an example APA professional title page that is formatted using the guidelines described above under the heading Title Pages.

If you’re submitting your paper to a journal for publication, check the journal’s website for exact requirements. Each journal is different and some may request a different type of APA format cover page.

Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to CitationMachine.com’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen.

An abstract briefly but thoroughly summarizes dissertation contents. It’s found in the beginning of a professional paper, right after the title page. Abstracts are meant to help readers determine whether to continue reading the entire document. With that in mind, try to craft the lead sentence to entice the reader to continue reading.

Here are a few tips:

  • Be factual and keep your opinions out. An abstract should accurately reflect the paper or dissertation and should not involve information or commentary not in the thesis.
  • Communicate your main thesis. What was the examined problem or hypothesis? A reader should know this from reading your abstract.
  • Keep it brief. Stick to the main points and don’t add unnecessary words or facts. It should not exceed 250 words.
  • Consider your paper’s purpose. It’s important to cater your abstract to your paper type and think about what information the target audience for that paper type would want. For example, an empirical article may mention methodology or participant description. A quantitative or qualitative meta-analysis would mention the different variables considered and how information was synthesized.
  • Use verbs over noun equivalents, and active voice. Example: “There was research into…” becomes “We researched…”

Formatting guidelines:

  • The abstract goes after the title page.
  • It should have the same font (size and type) as the rest of the paper.
  • It should stick to one page.
  • Double-space all page text.
  • Center and bold the word “Abstract” at the top of the paper.
  • Don’t indent the first line of the abstract body. The body should also be in plain text.
  • For the keywords, place it on the line after the abstract and indent the first line (but not subsequent lines). The word “Keywords:” is capitalized, italicized, and followed by a colon. The actual keywords are sentence case and in plan font.
  • List each keyword one after the other, and separate them by a comma.
  • After the last keyword, no ending punctuation is needed.

The image shows an example APA abstract page that is formatted using the guidelines described above under the heading Abstracts.

Tables & Figures

If your paper includes a lot of numerical information or data, you may want to consider placing it into a table or a figure, rather than typing it all out. A visual figure or simple, organized table filled with numerical data is often easier for readers to digest and comprehend than tons of paragraphs filled with numbers. Chapter 7 of the Publication manual outlines formatting for tables and figures. Let's cover the basics below.

If you’d like to include a table or figure in your paper, here are a few key pieces of information to keep in mind:

  • At the end of the paper after the APA reference page
  • In the text after it is first mentioned
  • The table first mentioned in the text should be titled ‘Table 1.’ The next table mentioned in the text is ‘Table 2,’ and so on. For figures, it would be 'Figure 1,' 'Figure 2,' and so forth.

The image shows that an APA paper with tables can be organized as follows – 1. Title page, 2. Text of paper, 3. References, 4. Table 1, 5. Table 2.

  • Even though every table and figure is numbered, also create a title for each that describes the information it contains. Capitalize all important words in the title.
  • For tables, do not use any vertical lines, only use horizontal to break up information and headings.
  • Single spacing is acceptable to use in tables and figures. If you prefer double spacing your information, that is okay too.
  • Do not include extra information or “fluff.” Keep it simple!
  • Do not include the same exact information in the paper. Only include the complete information in one area—the table or the text.
  • All tables and figures must be referenced in the text. It is unacceptable to throw a table or figure into the back of the paper without first providing a brief summary or explanation of its relevance.

Example of formatting a table in APA style.

Publication Manual 6th Edition vs 7th Edition

The 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in 2009. The current 7th edition came out in the fall of 2019 and was designed to be more student focused, provide more guidance on accessibility, and address changes that have developed over the last 10 years.

Below, we’ve listed what we feel are the most relevant changes related to APA format.

Journals and DOIs

DOI stands for “digital object identifier.” Many journal articles use and have a unique DOI that should be included in a full citation.

When including a DOI in a citation, format it as a URL. Do not label it “DOI.” Articles without DOIs from databases are treated as print works. For example:

6th edition:

%%Gänsicke, B. T., Schreiber, M. R., Toloza, O., Fusillo, N. P. G., Koester, D., & Manser, C. J. (2019). Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, 576 (7785), 61–64. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1789-8

7th edition:

%%Gänsicke, B. T., Schreiber, M. R., Toloza, O., Fusillo, N. P. G., Koester, D., & Manser, C. J. (2019). Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, 576 (7785), 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1789-8

Citing Books

There are few new guidelines when you are citing a book. First, the publisher location no longer needs to be indicated.

%%Zack, P. O. (2001). The shoals of time. Bloomington, IN: First Books Library.

%%Zack, P. O. (2001). The shoals of time. First Books Library.

Second, the format of an ebook (e.g., Kindle, etc.) no longer needs to be indicated.

%%Niven, J. (2012). Ada Blackjack: A true story of survival in the Arctic [Kindle].

%%Niven, J. (2012). Ada Blackjack: A true story of survival in the Arctic .

Lastly, books from research databases without DOIs are treated the same as print works.

When using a URL in a citation, you no longer need to include the term “Retrieved from” before URLs (except with retrieval dates). The font should be blue and underlined, or black and not underlined.

6th Edition:

%%Flood, A. (2019, December 6). Britain has closed almost 800 libraries since 2010, figures show. The Guardian . Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/dec/06/britain-has-closed-almost-800-libraries-since-2010-figures-show

7th Edition:

%%Flood, A. (2019, December 6). Britain has closed almost 800 libraries since 2010, figures show. The Guardian . https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/dec/06/britain-has-closed-almost-800-libraries-since-2010-figures-show

Within a full APA citation, you may spell out up to 20 author names. For two to 20 authors, include an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. For sources with 21 or more authors, structure it as follows:

Structure: First 19 authors’ names, . . . Last author’s name.

7th edition example: Washington, G., Adams, J., Jefferson, T., Madison, J., Monroe, J., Adams, J. Q., Jackson, A., Van Buren, M., Harrison, W. H., Tyler, J., Polk, J. K., Taylor, Z., Filmore, M., Pierce, F., Buchanan, J., Lincoln, A., Johnson, A., Grant, U. S., Hayes, R. B., Garfield, . . . Trump, D.

When creating an in-text citation for a source with 3 or more authors, use “et al.” after the first author’s name. This helps abbreviate the mention.

6th Edition: (Honda, Johnson, Prosser, Rossi, 2019)

7th Edition: (Honda et al., 2019)

Tables and Figures

Instead of having different formats for tables and figures, both use one standardized format. Now both tables and figures have a number, a title, name of the table/figure, and a note at the bottom.

If you’re still typing into Google “how to cite a website APA” among other related questions and keywords, click here for further reading on the style .

When you’re through with your writing, toss your entire paper into the Citation Machine Plus plagiarism checker , which will scan your paper for grammar edits and give you up to 5 suggestions cards for free! Worry less about a determiner , preposition , or adverb out of place and focus on your research!

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) (2020). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Updated March 3, 2020

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / How to Cite Sources

How to Cite Sources

Here is a complete list for how to cite sources. Most of these guides present citation guidance and examples in MLA, APA, and Chicago.

If you’re looking for general information on MLA or APA citations , the EasyBib Writing Center was designed for you! It has articles on what’s needed in an MLA in-text citation , how to format an APA paper, what an MLA annotated bibliography is, making an MLA works cited page, and much more!

MLA Format Citation Examples

The Modern Language Association created the MLA Style, currently in its 9th edition, to provide researchers with guidelines for writing and documenting scholarly borrowings.  Most often used in the humanities, MLA style (or MLA format ) has been adopted and used by numerous other disciplines, in multiple parts of the world.

MLA provides standard rules to follow so that most research papers are formatted in a similar manner. This makes it easier for readers to comprehend the information. The MLA in-text citation guidelines, MLA works cited standards, and MLA annotated bibliography instructions provide scholars with the information they need to properly cite sources in their research papers, articles, and assignments.

  • Book Chapter
  • Conference Paper
  • Documentary
  • Encyclopedia
  • Google Images
  • Kindle Book
  • Memorial Inscription
  • Museum Exhibit
  • Painting or Artwork
  • PowerPoint Presentation
  • Sheet Music
  • Thesis or Dissertation
  • YouTube Video

APA Format Citation Examples

The American Psychological Association created the APA citation style in 1929 as a way to help psychologists, anthropologists, and even business managers establish one common way to cite sources and present content.

APA is used when citing sources for academic articles such as journals, and is intended to help readers better comprehend content, and to avoid language bias wherever possible. The APA style (or APA format ) is now in its 7th edition, and provides citation style guides for virtually any type of resource.

Chicago Style Citation Examples

The Chicago/Turabian style of citing sources is generally used when citing sources for humanities papers, and is best known for its requirement that writers place bibliographic citations at the bottom of a page (in Chicago-format footnotes ) or at the end of a paper (endnotes).

The Turabian and Chicago citation styles are almost identical, but the Turabian style is geared towards student published papers such as theses and dissertations, while the Chicago style provides guidelines for all types of publications. This is why you’ll commonly see Chicago style and Turabian style presented together. The Chicago Manual of Style is currently in its 17th edition, and Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is in its 8th edition.

Citing Specific Sources or Events

  • Declaration of Independence
  • Gettysburg Address
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Speech
  • President Obama’s Farewell Address
  • President Trump’s Inauguration Speech
  • White House Press Briefing

Additional FAQs

  • Citing Archived Contributors
  • Citing a Blog
  • Citing a Book Chapter
  • Citing a Source in a Foreign Language
  • Citing an Image
  • Citing a Song
  • Citing Special Contributors
  • Citing a Translated Article
  • Citing a Tweet

6 Interesting Citation Facts

The world of citations may seem cut and dry, but there’s more to them than just specific capitalization rules, MLA in-text citations , and other formatting specifications. Citations have been helping researches document their sources for hundreds of years, and are a great way to learn more about a particular subject area.

Ever wonder what sets all the different styles apart, or how they came to be in the first place? Read on for some interesting facts about citations!

1. There are Over 7,000 Different Citation Styles

You may be familiar with MLA and APA citation styles, but there are actually thousands of citation styles used for all different academic disciplines all across the world. Deciding which one to use can be difficult, so be sure to ask you instructor which one you should be using for your next paper.

2. Some Citation Styles are Named After People

While a majority of citation styles are named for the specific organizations that publish them (i.e. APA is published by the American Psychological Association, and MLA format is named for the Modern Language Association), some are actually named after individuals. The most well-known example of this is perhaps Turabian style, named for Kate L. Turabian, an American educator and writer. She developed this style as a condensed version of the Chicago Manual of Style in order to present a more concise set of rules to students.

3. There are Some Really Specific and Uniquely Named Citation Styles

How specific can citation styles get? The answer is very. For example, the “Flavour and Fragrance Journal” style is based on a bimonthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1985 by John Wiley & Sons. It publishes original research articles, reviews and special reports on all aspects of flavor and fragrance. Another example is “Nordic Pulp and Paper Research,” a style used by an international scientific magazine covering science and technology for the areas of wood or bio-mass constituents.

4. More citations were created on  EasyBib.com  in the first quarter of 2018 than there are people in California.

The US Census Bureau estimates that approximately 39.5 million people live in the state of California. Meanwhile, about 43 million citations were made on EasyBib from January to March of 2018. That’s a lot of citations.

5. “Citations” is a Word With a Long History

The word “citations” can be traced back literally thousands of years to the Latin word “citare” meaning “to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite.” The word then took on its more modern meaning and relevance to writing papers in the 1600s, where it became known as the “act of citing or quoting a passage from a book, etc.”

6. Citation Styles are Always Changing

The concept of citations always stays the same. It is a means of preventing plagiarism and demonstrating where you relied on outside sources. The specific style rules, however, can and do change regularly. For example, in 2018 alone, 46 new citation styles were introduced , and 106 updates were made to exiting styles. At EasyBib, we are always on the lookout for ways to improve our styles and opportunities to add new ones to our list.

Why Citations Matter

Here are the ways accurate citations can help your students achieve academic success, and how you can answer the dreaded question, “why should I cite my sources?”

They Give Credit to the Right People

Citing their sources makes sure that the reader can differentiate the student’s original thoughts from those of other researchers. Not only does this make sure that the sources they use receive proper credit for their work, it ensures that the student receives deserved recognition for their unique contributions to the topic. Whether the student is citing in MLA format , APA format , or any other style, citations serve as a natural way to place a student’s work in the broader context of the subject area, and serve as an easy way to gauge their commitment to the project.

They Provide Hard Evidence of Ideas

Having many citations from a wide variety of sources related to their idea means that the student is working on a well-researched and respected subject. Citing sources that back up their claim creates room for fact-checking and further research . And, if they can cite a few sources that have the converse opinion or idea, and then demonstrate to the reader why they believe that that viewpoint is wrong by again citing credible sources, the student is well on their way to winning over the reader and cementing their point of view.

They Promote Originality and Prevent Plagiarism

The point of research projects is not to regurgitate information that can already be found elsewhere. We have Google for that! What the student’s project should aim to do is promote an original idea or a spin on an existing idea, and use reliable sources to promote that idea. Copying or directly referencing a source without proper citation can lead to not only a poor grade, but accusations of academic dishonesty. By citing their sources regularly and accurately, students can easily avoid the trap of plagiarism , and promote further research on their topic.

They Create Better Researchers

By researching sources to back up and promote their ideas, students are becoming better researchers without even knowing it! Each time a new source is read or researched, the student is becoming more engaged with the project and is developing a deeper understanding of the subject area. Proper citations demonstrate a breadth of the student’s reading and dedication to the project itself. By creating citations, students are compelled to make connections between their sources and discern research patterns. Each time they complete this process, they are helping themselves become better researchers and writers overall.

When is the Right Time to Start Making Citations?

Make in-text/parenthetical citations as you need them.

As you are writing your paper, be sure to include references within the text that correspond with references in a works cited or bibliography. These are usually called in-text citations or parenthetical citations in MLA and APA formats. The most effective time to complete these is directly after you have made your reference to another source. For instance, after writing the line from Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities : “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times…,” you would include a citation like this (depending on your chosen citation style):

(Dickens 11).

This signals to the reader that you have referenced an outside source. What’s great about this system is that the in-text citations serve as a natural list for all of the citations you have made in your paper, which will make completing the works cited page a whole lot easier. After you are done writing, all that will be left for you to do is scan your paper for these references, and then build a works cited page that includes a citation for each one.

Need help creating an MLA works cited page ? Try the MLA format generator on EasyBib.com! We also have a guide on how to format an APA reference page .

2. Understand the General Formatting Rules of Your Citation Style Before You Start Writing

While reading up on paper formatting may not sound exciting, being aware of how your paper should look early on in the paper writing process is super important. Citation styles can dictate more than just the appearance of the citations themselves, but rather can impact the layout of your paper as a whole, with specific guidelines concerning margin width, title treatment, and even font size and spacing. Knowing how to organize your paper before you start writing will ensure that you do not receive a low grade for something as trivial as forgetting a hanging indent.

Don’t know where to start? Here’s a formatting guide on APA format .

3. Double-check All of Your Outside Sources for Relevance and Trustworthiness First

Collecting outside sources that support your research and specific topic is a critical step in writing an effective paper. But before you run to the library and grab the first 20 books you can lay your hands on, keep in mind that selecting a source to include in your paper should not be taken lightly. Before you proceed with using it to backup your ideas, run a quick Internet search for it and see if other scholars in your field have written about it as well. Check to see if there are book reviews about it or peer accolades. If you spot something that seems off to you, you may want to consider leaving it out of your work. Doing this before your start making citations can save you a ton of time in the long run.

Finished with your paper? It may be time to run it through a grammar and plagiarism checker , like the one offered by EasyBib Plus. If you’re just looking to brush up on the basics, our grammar guides  are ready anytime you are.

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in text citation for research article apa

The APA format is a widely used style for writing academic papers, developed by the American Psychological Association. It provides guidelines for formatting documents , citing sources, and structuring content. APA format is commonly used in the social sciences, education, and psychology. Key features include in-text citations , a reference list, and specific rules for headings, margins, and font. It ensures clarity and uniformity in scholarly writing.

What is APA Format?

APA format is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books. It is commonly used for citing sources within the field of social sciences. The APA guidelines include specifics on structure, formatting, in-text citations, and references, ensuring a uniform presentation and citation style.

APA Format Examples

Book citation.

  • Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.
  • Example: Smith, John. The Art of Writing . Penguin Books, 2020.

Journal Article Citation

  • Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol. number, no. number, Year, pages.
  • Example : Doe, Jane. “Exploring Modern Literature.” Journal of Contemporary Writing , vol. 5, no. 2, 2019, pp. 34-56.

Website Citation

  • Format : Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website, Publisher, Date Published, URL. Accessed Date.
  • Example: Brown, Lisa. “Climate Change Facts.” Environment Today , Green Earth, 22 Apr. 2020, www.environmenttoday.org/climate-change-facts . Accessed 18 May 2024.

Edited Book

  • Format: Editor’s Last Name, First Name, editor. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.
  • Example: Lee, Susan, editor. Art in the 21st Century . Creative Press, 2018.

Book Chapter Citation

  • Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Chapter.” Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First Name Last Name, Publisher, Year, pages.
  • Example: Adams, Michael. “Modern Art Techniques.” Art in the 21st Century , edited by Susan Lee, Creative Press, 2018, pp. 45-67.

Conference Paper

  • Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Paper.” Title of Conference Proceedings, edited by Editor’s First Name Last Name, Publisher, Year, pages.
  • Example: Johnson, Emily. “Advances in Renewable Energy.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energy , edited by Mark Green, Energy Press, 2022, pp. 123-134.

Dissertation/Thesis

  • Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Dissertation/Thesis.” Degree, Institution, Year.
  • Example: Miller, Sarah. “The Impact of Climate Change on Coastal Erosion.” PhD dissertation, University of California, 2021.

Newspaper Article

  • Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper , Date, pages.
  • Example: Johnson, Mark. “New Tech Innovations.” The Daily Times , 15 Mar. 2021, p. A1.

Magazine Article

  • Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine , Date, pages.
  • Example: Taylor, Jessica. “The Future of Space Travel.” Science Monthly , June 2020, pp. 56-63.
  • Format: Author’s Last Name, First Name or Username. “Title of Post.” Title of Blog, Blog Network/Publisher, Date Posted, URL. Accessed Date.
  • Example: Green, Sarah. “How to Plant a Garden.” Gardening Tips , Green Earth Network, 10 June 2021, www.greenearthnetwork.org/gardening-tips/how-to-plant-a-garden . Accessed 18 May 2024.

When to use APA Format

APA format is primarily used in academic writing within the social sciences. Here are specific instances when APA format should be used:

  • Psychology Papers : Research articles, literature reviews, and case studies.
  • Education Research : Studies on educational methods, learning theories, and classroom practices.
  • Social Sciences : Sociology, anthropology, and political science papers.
  • Business : Articles on management, marketing, and organizational behavior.
  • Nursing and Health Sciences : Research on patient care, health policies, and medical studies.
  • Criminology : Papers on criminal behavior, justice system studies, and forensic psychology.
  • Communications : Studies on media, journalism, and communication theories.

Why Use APA Format?

  • Consistency : Ensures uniformity in citation and formatting across documents.
  • Credibility : Proper citations give credit to original authors, enhancing the paper’s credibility.
  • Clarity : Structured format helps readers follow the argument and locate sources.
  • Professionalism : Presents work in a polished and scholarly manner.

General APA Format Guidelines

When writing a paper in APA format, adhering to specific guidelines ensures clarity, consistency, and professionalism. Here are the key components:

1. General Document Guidelines

  • Font : Use a readable font such as 12-pt Times New Roman, 11-pt Arial, or 11-pt Calibri.
  • Margins : Set 1-inch margins on all sides of the document.
  • Line Spacing : Double-space all text, including the abstract, body, and references.
  • Indentation : Indent the first line of every paragraph by 0.5 inches.

2. Title Page

  • Title : Centered, bold, and in title case (capitalize major words).
  • Author’s Name : Centered, below the title.
  • Institutional Affiliation : Centered, below the author’s name.
  • Course Number and Name : Centered, below the institutional affiliation.
  • Instructor’s Name : Centered, below the course number and name.
  • Due Date : Centered, below the instructor’s name.

3. Abstract

  • Start on a new page.
  • Center the word “Abstract” (bold) at the top.
  • Write a concise summary of the key points of your paper (150-250 words).
  • Do not indent the first line of the abstract.

4. Main Body

  • Level 1: Centered, bold, title case (e.g., “Methods”).
  • Level 2: Left-aligned, bold, title case (e.g., “Participants”).
  • Level 3: Left-aligned, bold, italic, title case.
  • Level 4: Indented, bold, title case, ends with a period.
  • Level 5: Indented, bold, italic, title case, ends with a period.
  • In-Text Citations : Use the author-date method (e.g., Smith, 2020). For direct quotes, include the page number (e.g., Smith, 2020, p. 23).

5. References Page

  • Center the word “References” (bold) at the top.
  • Use a hanging indent for each reference (first line flush left, subsequent lines indented 0.5 inches).
  • List all sources alphabetically by the author’s last name.

6. Running Head and Page Numbers

  • Include a running head on every page (a shortened version of the title, all in uppercase) aligned to the left.
  • Page numbers aligned to the right.

Full Sample Paper in APA Format:

Running Head and Title Page

Running head: UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGY 1 Understanding Psychology: A Guide for Students John A. Smith University of Academic Studies PSY 101: Introduction to Psychology Professor Jane Doe May 15, 2024
This paper explores the fundamental principles of psychology, examining key theories and research findings in the field. It discusses cognitive development, behavioral analysis, and the impact of social media on mental health. The aim is to provide a comprehensive understanding of psychology’s role in everyday life and its applications in various professional contexts. Future research directions and practical implications are also considered. Keywords: psychology, cognitive development, behavioral analysis, mental health
Understanding Psychology: A Guide for Students Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. It encompasses a wide range of topics, including cognitive development, behavioral analysis, and mental health. This paper aims to provide an overview of these key areas and their implications for everyday life. Cognitive Development Cognitive development refers to the progression of thinking, problem-solving, and information processing abilities. Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is one of the most influential theories in this field. Piaget proposed that children progress through four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational (Smith, 2020). Behavioral Analysis Behavioral analysis focuses on the study of observable behaviors and the environmental factors that influence them. B.F. Skinner’s operant conditioning theory is a cornerstone of behavioral analysis. According to Skinner, behavior is shaped by positive and negative reinforcements (Johnson, 2019). Understanding these principles can help in modifying behaviors in various settings, including education and therapy. The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health The rise of social media has significant implications for mental health. Studies have shown that excessive use of social media can lead to issues such as anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. Johnson (2019) found that individuals who spend more than three hours per day on social media are more likely to experience mental health problems. Future Directions and Practical Implications Future research should explore the long-term effects of social media on mental health and develop interventions to mitigate negative impacts. Practical applications of psychological principles can improve educational practices, enhance workplace productivity, and promote overall well-being. Conclusion In summary, psychology provides valuable insights into human behavior and mental processes. By understanding cognitive development, behavioral analysis, and the impact of social media on mental health, we can apply psychological principles to enhance various aspects of life. Continued research and practical applications will further advance the field and its contributions to society.

References Page

References Brown, R. (2018). Cognitive development in children. In M. Green (Ed.), Child Psychology Today (pp. 45-67). Educational Press. Doe, J. (2021, March 15). How to study effectively. Learning Hub. https://www.learninghub.com/study-tips Johnson, L. M. (2019). The impact of social media on mental health. Journal of Social Research, 45(2), 123-134. Smith, J. A. (2020). Understanding psychology: A guide for students. Academic Press. Taylor, K. R. (2016). The effects of sleep on academic performance (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (UMI No. 1234567)

APA Format Title Page

The title page in APA format should include the title of the paper, the author’s name, institutional affiliation, course number and name, instructor’s name, and the due date. Here’s how to set it up:

Detailed Guidelines for Each Element:

  • Include a shortened version of your paper’s title (no more than 50 characters, including spaces).
  • Align it to the left margin.
  • Precede it with the words “Running head:” (for student papers, “Running head:” is omitted).
  • Insert the page number in the header, aligned to the right margin.
  • Place the title three to four lines down from the top of the page.
  • Center the title.
  • Use bold font.
  • Capitalize major words (Title Case).
  • Centered, below the title.
  • Include your full name (first name, middle initial(s), and last name).
  • Centered, below the author’s name.
  • Name of the institution where the work was conducted.
  • Centered, below the institutional affiliation.
  • Include the course number and full course name.
  • Centered, below the course number and name.
  • Include the full name of the instructor.
  • Centered, below the instructor’s name.
  • Format the date as Month Day, Year (e.g., May 15, 2024).

Visual Layout:

Apa format abstract.

An abstract in APA format provides a concise summary of the key points of your research paper. It should include the main topic, research questions, methods, results, and conclusions. The abstract is typically 150-250 words long and is placed on a separate page immediately after the title page.

Guidelines for the Abstract:

  • Center the word “Abstract” at the top of the page. Use bold font.
  • Begin the abstract text on the next line, without indentation.
  • Write a single paragraph in block format (i.e., do not indent the first line).
  • Summarize the main topic, research questions, methods, results, and conclusions of your paper.
  • After the abstract, you can include a list of keywords to help others find your work in databases.
  • Indent and italicize the word “Keywords:” followed by a list of keywords separated by commas.

Example of an APA Format Abstract:

Abstract This paper explores the fundamental principles of psychology, examining key theories and research findings in the field. It discusses cognitive development, behavioral analysis, and the impact of social media on mental health. The aim is to provide a comprehensive understanding of psychology’s role in everyday life and its applications in various professional contexts. Future research directions and practical implications are also considered. Keywords: psychology, cognitive development, behavioral analysis, mental health

Tables in APA Format

Tables in APA format are used to present quantitative data, making it easier for readers to understand complex information at a glance. Here are the key guidelines for creating tables in APA format:

General Guidelines:

  • Label and Title : Place the table label (e.g., “Table 1”) above the table, in bold, and flush left. Below the label, provide a brief but descriptive title in italics and title case.
  • Table Number : Each table should have a unique number, assigned in the order they are first mentioned in the text.
  • Headings : Include clear, concise headings for each column, including a heading for the first column (stub column).
  • Body : Present the data in the body of the table in a clear and organized manner.
  • Notes : Provide notes below the table as needed, including explanations of abbreviations, symbols, and any additional information necessary to understand the table.

Formatting:

  • Font : Use the same font as the rest of your paper (e.g., 12-pt Times New Roman).
  • Spacing : Tables can be single- or double-spaced, but consistency throughout the document is key.
  • Borders : Only horizontal lines should be used to separate information and clarify the structure.

Example Table:

Below is an example of how to format a table in APA style.

Note. N = Number of participants.

Reference Pages in APA Format

The references page in APA format provides a detailed list of all the sources cited in your paper. It is placed at the end of your document and should follow specific guidelines to ensure consistency and proper citation. Here’s a comprehensive guide:

  • Title : Center the word “References” at the top of the page. Use bold font.
  • Spacing : Double-space all entries.
  • Alphabetical Order : List references alphabetically by the author’s last name.
  • Hanging Indent : Use a hanging indent for each reference (the first line is flush left, and subsequent lines are indented 0.5 inches).

Example References Page:

References Brown, R. (2018). Cognitive development in children. In M. Green (Ed.), Child Psychology Today (pp. 45-67). Educational Press. Clark, D. (2020, November 5). Innovations in technology. Tech World, 15(4), 58-62. Davis, P. K. (Ed.). (2020). Modern theories of learning. Knowledge Press. Doe, J. (2021, March 15). How to study effectively. Learning Hub. https://www.learninghub.com/study-tips Green, M. (2018, June 10). The rise of online education. The Daily Times, pp. A1, A4. Johnson, L. M. (2019). The impact of social media on mental health. Journal of Social Research, 45(2), 123-134. Lee, S. T. (2017, April). Advances in behavioral science. In G. H. Collins (Chair), Annual Conference on Behavioral Research. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the National Behavioral Association, Chicago, IL. Nelson, B. (2021, January 10). How to manage time effectively. Time Management Blog. https://www.timemanagementblog.com/effective-tips Smith, J. A. (2020). Understanding psychology: A guide for students. Academic Press. Taylor, K. R. (2016). The effects of sleep on academic performance (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (UMI No. 1234567)

APA format in-text citation

In-text citations in APA format are used to give credit to the sources you use within the body of your paper. They are brief references that direct readers to the full citation in your reference list. Here’s a guide on how to format in-text citations in APA style:

  • Author-Date Method : APA uses the author-date method for in-text citations.
  • Parenthetical Citation : Includes the author’s last name and the year of publication, separated by a comma.
  • Narrative Citation : Includes the author’s name in the text and the year of publication in parentheses.
  • Page Number for Direct Quotes : When quoting directly, include the page number(s).
  • Parenthetical : (Smith, 2020)
  • Narrative : Smith (2020)
  • Two Authors
  • Parenthetical : (Johnson & Lee, 2019)
  • Narrative : Johnson and Lee (2019)
  • Three or More Authors
  • Parenthetical : (Brown et al., 2018)
  • Narrative : Brown et al. (2018)
  • Direct Quote
  • Parenthetical : (Doe, 2021, p. 15)
  • Narrative : Doe (2021) stated, “…” (p. 15).
  • Organization as Author
  • Parenthetical : (American Psychological Association, 2020)
  • Narrative : American Psychological Association (2020)

APA Format Example in Research

Below is an example of how to format a research paper using APA guidelines. This includes the title page, abstract, in-text citations, and references.

Running head: EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON MENTAL HEALTH 1

Effects of Social Media on Mental Health

University of Example

This study examines the relationship between social media usage and mental health among adolescents. Using a sample of 500 high school students, the study found a significant correlation between high social media use and increased levels of anxiety and depression. The implications of these findings suggest the need for awareness and interventions to mitigate the negative impacts of social media on young people’s mental health.

Keywords: social media, mental health, adolescents, anxiety, depression

Introduction

Social media has become an integral part of modern life, particularly among adolescents. While it offers numerous benefits, such as connecting with peers and accessing information, concerns have arisen regarding its impact on mental health. This study aims to explore the effects of social media usage on mental health among high school students.

Participants

The study involved 500 high school students aged 14-18 from various schools in the metropolitan area.

Participants completed an online survey assessing their social media usage and mental health status. The survey included questions about the frequency and duration of social media use, as well as standardized measures of anxiety and depression.

The analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between high social media usage and increased levels of anxiety (r = .45, p < .01) and depression (r = .50, p < .01).

The findings indicate that excessive social media use is associated with negative mental health outcomes among adolescents. These results underscore the need for interventions aimed at reducing the adverse effects of social media on young people’s well-being.

In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of addressing the mental health implications of social media use among adolescents. Further research is needed to develop effective strategies for mitigating these negative impacts.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association.

Chou, H. T. G., & Edge, N. (2012). “They are happier and having better lives than I am”: The impact of using Facebook on perceptions of others’ lives. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(2), 117-121. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0324

Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents: Evidence from a population-based study. Preventive Medicine Reports, 12, 271-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.10.003

What is APA format?

APA format is a style guide used for academic writing in the social sciences, providing guidelines for formatting, in-text citations, and references.

How do you cite a book in APA format?

Include the author’s name, year of publication, title in italics, and publisher: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work . Publisher.

How do you format in-text citations in APA?

Use the author-date method: (Author’s Last Name, Year). For direct quotes, include the page number: (Author’s Last Name, Year, p. Page Number).

How is the references page formatted?

The references page is double-spaced, with entries in alphabetical order by the author’s last name, using a hanging indent for each reference.

What font and size are recommended in APA?

Use a readable font such as 12-pt Times New Roman, 11-pt Arial, or 11-pt Calibri.

How do you format a title page in APA?

Include the title, author’s name, institutional affiliation, course number and name, instructor’s name, and due date, centered and double-spaced.

How do you cite a journal article in APA format?

Include the author’s name, year, title of the article, title of the journal in italics, volume number, issue number, and page range: Author, A. A. (Year). Title. Journal Name, Volume (Issue), pages.

How do you format an abstract in APA?

Center the word “Abstract” (bold) at the top. Write a 150-250 word summary without indentation, and include keywords at the end.

How do you cite a website in APA format?

Include the author, date, title of the web page, website name, and URL: Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of web page. Website Name . URL

How are headings formatted in APA?

Use a five-level heading structure: Level 1: Centered, bold; Level 2: Left-aligned, bold; Level 3: Left-aligned, bold, italic; Level 4: Indented, bold, ends with a period; Level 5: Indented, bold, italic, ends with a period.

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How To Cite Sources: In-depth Guide

cite sources

Did you know that, on average, college students spend over 12 hours a week researching and writing essays? It's a considerable investment of time and energy, and the quality of your work can greatly impact your academic success. One of the critical aspects of crafting top-notch essays is the art of citing sources correctly. Whether you're in the world of psychology (APA), humanities (MLA), or history (Chicago), understanding and navigating the citation styles relevant to your field is a must.

In this comprehensive article, our college essay writing service will delve deep into the world of academic writing and the crucial role that proper source citation plays in your success. Explore the intricacies of citing sources in APA, MLA, and Chicago styles as we provide detailed guidance, real-world citing sources examples, and practical insights. Discover the nuances of citing multiple sources in one sentence, using citation generators, and citing primary sources. Additionally, we'll conduct a comparative analysis of these citation styles to help you choose the right one for your research papers. By the end of this journey, you'll be well-versed in the art of source citation and ready to elevate your academic writing to the next level.

When to Source Sources in Academic Writing?

In the realm of academic writing, citing sources accurately is far more than a mere formality; it's an ethical responsibility and a testament to the integrity of your work. Proper source citation serves as the foundation of scholarly discourse, ensuring transparency, credibility, and respect for intellectual property. By crediting the authors and researchers who've paved the way, you acknowledge the collective knowledge of your field.

Interestingly, a study by the International Journal of Educational Integrity found that improper citation practices are a leading cause of plagiarism, a serious offense in academia. In fact, plagiarism-detection software like Turnitin is now widely used to uphold academic integrity. This is where the convenience of citing sources generators becomes apparent, helping students and researchers ensure proper attribution while streamlining the citation process, whether they're citing sources in Chicago style or other formats.

Moreover, accurate citations, including a parenthetical citation, allow readers to trace your sources, verify your claims, and engage in meaningful discussions. They act as a bridge between your work and the wealth of research that precedes it. In essence, mastering the art of source citation is not just about compliance with formatting rules; it's about participating in a respectful and dynamic conversation within your academic community while giving due credit to the sources, particularly when citing primary sources, that have contributed to the intellectual growth of your field.

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APA Citation Style Basics

American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely used and meticulously structured citation format primarily designed for disciplines in the social sciences. Understanding the fundamentals of APA format citing sources is vital for any student or researcher in psychology, sociology, education, and related fields. Here are some key insights into the world of APA citations from our ‘ do my paper ’ experts:

apa citation

  • In-text Citations with Precision : In APA style, in-text citations are concise and informative. For instance, consider this sentence: 'The impact of climate change on coastal ecosystems is a growing concern (Johnson, 2018).' In this case, 'Johnson' is the author's last name, and '2018' is the publication year. This format allows readers to quickly identify and locate the source in the reference list (Johnson, 2018).
  • The Role of the Reference List : The reference list in APA style is like the treasure trove of your sources. It's a comprehensive list of all the materials you've cited in your work. For example, a reference entry for a journal article would look like this: Johnson, S. (2018). Climate Change Effects on Coastal Biodiversity . Environmental Studies, 36 (3), 255-269.
  • DOI and Electronic Sources : In the digital age, many sources are found online, which is why APA has introduced the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) system. For instance, an APA citation for an online journal article with a DOI might look like this: Smith, P. (2021). Renewable Energy Solutions for Sustainable Future . Environmental Science Review, 45 (2), 101-120. https://doi.org/10.12345/esr.2021.2.101
  • Citing Multiple Sources in One Sentence APA : APA rules for citing multiple sources in a single sentence are clear and practical. Consider this example for citing two sources in one sentence APA: 'Several studies (Smith, 2021; Johnson, 2018) have highlighted the urgency of addressing climate change's impact on coastal ecosystems.' Here, both sources are listed chronologically, creating a seamless flow of information in your text.
  • The Power of Consistency : Consistency is a cornerstone of APA style. From the formatting of headings (e.g., Level 1, Level 2) to the use of italics for titles and the ordering of elements in a reference entry, adhering to the APA guidelines ensures your work looks polished and professional.
  • Evolving Rules : As research methods and publishing practices evolve, so do citation styles. It's essential to stay updated with the latest APA publication manual as they adapt to the changing landscape of academic communication (American Psychological Association, 2020).

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MLA Citation Style Basics

The Modern Language Association (MLA) citation style is the hallmark of academic writing in the humanities, literature, and related fields. It's known for its simplicity, elegance, and focus on clarity. Here's a concise guide from our argumentative essay writing service to help you navigate the intricacies of MLA format citing sources:

mla citation

  • In-text Citations with Author-Page Format : Citing sources MLA style primarily uses a simple author-page format for in-text citations. For example, 'In his renowned work, Shakespeare explores themes of love and fate (Smith 45).' Here, 'Smith' is the author's last name, and '45' is the page number. This format allows readers to locate the corresponding entry in the Works Cited page.
  • The Works Cited Page : The Works Cited page is the heart of MLA citation. It's a detailed list of all the sources you've referenced in your paper. Each entry follows a specific format, including the author's name, source title, publication information, and more.
  • Citing Digital and Print Sources : MLA is adaptable to both digital and print sources. For a print book, an MLA citation would look like this: Smith, John. The Art of Writing . Random House, 2020. For an online article, you might format it as follows: Johnson, Sarah. 'The Digital Literary Landscape.' Digital Humanities Review , vol. 28, no. 3, 2021, www.example.com/dhr/28-3/johnson.
  • Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author : When citing multiple works by the same author, use a shortened version of the title to differentiate them. For instance, (Smith, Art of Writing 34) and (Smith, 'Literary Exploration' 18).
  • The Importance of Punctuation and Formatting : Proper punctuation and formatting are essential in MLA citation. Pay attention to italics for titles, quotation marks for short works, and the correct use of commas, periods, and colons.
  • Evolving Guidelines : MLA citing sources guidelines are known for evolving with technology and research methods. Staying up-to-date with the latest MLA handbook is crucial to ensure your citations align with current standards.

Chicago Citation Style Basics

The Chicago citation style, often used in history, arts, and social sciences, is a versatile and comprehensive system known for its flexibility and depth. Here's a guide to help you embrace the intricacies of Chicago citation:

chicago citation

  • Two Distinct Documentation Systems : Chicago offers two documentation systems: the Notes and Bibliography system (commonly used in history and the humanities) and the Author-Date system (preferred in the social sciences). Understanding which system your discipline employs is crucial.
  • Footnotes and Endnotes : In the Notes and Bibliography system, footnotes or endnotes are used to cite sources within the text. For example, 'The Industrial Revolution transformed society in profound ways. [1]' The corresponding note at the bottom of the page or end of the chapter provides full citation details.
  • Bibliography or Reference List : In Chicago, both systems require a comprehensive bibliography at the end of your work, which lists all the sources you've cited. Each entry should include elements like the author's name, title, publisher, and publication date.
  • Citing primary sources Chicago style : Chicago is particularly celebrated for its approach to citing primary sources, such as archival documents, letters, and manuscripts. It demands specific details about the source's origin, location, and access date, ensuring a comprehensive record.
  • Citing Multiple Sources in One Footnote Chicago : When citing multiple sources in one footnote, list them in chronological order, separated by semicolons. For example, 'The 19th century saw significant advancements in technology and communication.[1];[2].'
  • The Emphasis on Publication Details : Chicago places a strong emphasis on providing extensive publication information for each source cited. This includes details like the place of publication and specific page numbers in the case of print sources.
  • Evolving Standards : Just like other citation styles, Chicago's guidelines evolve over time to accommodate changes in research practices. Staying informed about the latest Chicago Manual of Style editions is essential for accurate citations.

APA vs. MLA vs. Chicago: Key Similarities and Differences

Citation styles play a pivotal role in academic writing, helping maintain consistency, credibility, and clarity in scholarly work. Among the most widely used styles are APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago. Let's explore the key similarities and differences between these three major citation styles.

Similarities:

  • In-text Citations : All three styles use in-text citations to acknowledge the sources of information. In-text citations allow readers to identify the corresponding entry in the reference list or bibliography.
  • Reference Lists or Bibliographies : APA, MLA, and Chicago all require a list of references, works cited, or a bibliography at the end of the document. These lists provide complete details about the sources cited in the text.
  • Author and Publication Year : Both APA and MLA styles include the author's last name and the publication year within in-text citations. This allows readers to easily locate the source in the reference list.
  • Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) : APA and MLA provide guidelines for citing sources with DOIs, ensuring the accuracy and stability of online references.

Differences:

Disciplines and Focus:

  • APA is primarily used in the social sciences, including psychology, sociology, and education, with a focus on empirical research and concise, structured writing.
  • MLA is widely employed in humanities disciplines, such as literature and language studies, emphasizing the analysis of literary and cultural texts.
  • Citing sources Chicago style is versatile, used in history, arts, and social sciences, offering both Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date systems to accommodate different research needs.

In-text Citation Styles:

  • APA uses an author-date format, e.g., (Smith, 2020), for in-text citations.
  • MLA uses an author-page format, e.g., (Smith 45), for in-text citations.
  • Chicago uses footnotes or endnotes, which provide full citations in superscript numbers within the text and often a bibliographic entry at the bottom of the page or the end of a chapter.

Reference List/Bibliography Format:

  • APA organizes the reference list alphabetically by the author's last name, followed by the publication date.
  • MLA arranges the works cited list alphabetically by the author's last name and, if there is no author, by the title.
  • Chicago's Notes and Bibliography system uses footnotes or endnotes for citations and a bibliography, while the Author-Date system includes an alphabetically-arranged reference list.

Handling Multiple Sources in One Citation:

  • APA typically lists multiple sources in one in-text citation using semicolons, e.g., (Smith, 2020; Johnson, 2019).
  • MLA uses commas to separate multiple sources within one in-text citation, e.g., (Smith 45, Johnson 22).
  • Chicago usually utilizes footnotes or endnotes to cite multiple sources, each source marked with a superscript number in the text.

Citing Page Numbers:

  • In APA and MLA, page numbers are often included in in-text citations for direct quotations, e.g., (Smith, 2020, p. 25) or (Smith 25).
  • Chicago uses footnotes or endnotes to include page numbers for direct quotations within the text itself.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, mastering the nuances of APA, MLA, and Chicago citation styles, including the specific requirements for citing primary sources, is an invaluable skill for academic success. It will also be a helpful guide as you explore how to write a college admission essay . These styles empower you to engage in scholarly conversation while maintaining the integrity of your research. Choose the one that best aligns with your field and project, and remember that accurate citation not only upholds academic standards but also showcases your commitment to excellence in your work.

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  6. Citation for a Textbook Reading APA 6th edition

COMMENTS

  1. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  2. APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.)

    In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper. APA in-text citations consist of the author's last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p.

  3. In-text citations

    APA Style provides guidelines to help writers determine the appropriate level of citation and how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism. We also provide specific guidance for in-text citation, including formats for interviews, classroom and intranet sources, and personal communications; in-text citations in general; and paraphrases and direct quotations.

  4. How to Cite a Journal Article in APA Style

    If you want to cite a special issue of a journal rather than a regular article, the name (s) of the editor (s) and the title of the issue appear in place of the author's name and article title: APA format. Last name, Initials. (Ed. or Eds.). ( Year ). Title of issue [Special issue]. Journal Name, Volume ( Issue ).

  5. In Text Citations

    APA follows an author and date of publication model for citing sources in your research paper and are presented as either narrative or parenthetical citations. The formatting does not vary due to format type, however it may deviate from the norm due to factors such as: number of authors, organization instead of individual author, lack of author, or lack of date.

  6. In-Text Citations

    In-text citations. Using references in text. For APA, you use the authors' surnames only and the year in text. If you are using a direct quote, you will also need to use a page number. Narrative citations: If an in-text citation has the authors' names as part of the sentence (that is, outside of brackets) place the year and page numbers in ...

  7. Library Guides: APA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

    Using In-text Citation. Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005).

  8. In-Text Citation

    In-Text Citation When you use others' ideas (paraphrases) and direct quotes, you must cite your source by including: Author's last name; Publication year (Only for direct quotes) Page number of the quote . The purpose of in-text citation is to direct the reader to the full citation on the References list, which will have the full publication ...

  9. Research Guides: APA 7th Edition : In-Text Citations

    Basic Structure of APA In-Text Citations. Author last name (s) Publication date. Page number (Required for direct quotes; Encouraged for paraphrasing) There are two ways to write your in-text citations: Type of citation. Example citation. Parenthetical: All components of the in-text citation are included in parenthesis at the end of the sentence.

  10. Library Guides: APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

    What Is In-Text Citation? In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the text of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Reference list. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.

  11. In-text Citation

    If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation (for long titles just use the first few words). Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). Below are examples of using in-text ...

  12. The Basics of In-Text Citation

    Quotes should always be cited (and indicated with quotation marks), and you should include a page number indicating where in the source the quote can be found. Example: Quote with APA Style in-text citation. Evolution is a gradual process that "can act only by very short and slow steps" (Darwin, 1859, p. 510).

  13. Research Guides: Citations: APA Style (7th ed.): In-Text Citations

    Each in-text citation will, at a minimum, refer to an author's name or authors' names and the year of publication. (If there isn't an author, your in-text citation will refer to the first couple words of the article title.) If the original source has page numbers, include the relevant page, too.

  14. APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): In-Text Citation

    In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper. In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a comma and the publication year ...

  15. Citations

    In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to the full citation on the References list at the end of the paper. ... italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation. If you are citing an article, a chapter of a ...

  16. Basic principles of citation

    The following are guidelines to follow when writing in-text citations: Ensure that the spelling of author names and the publication dates in reference list entries match those in the corresponding in-text citations. Cite only works that you have read and ideas that you have incorporated into your writing. The works you cite may provide key ...

  17. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    How to refer to authors in-text, including single and multiple authors, unknown authors, organizations, etc. Reference List. Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats. Basic Rules Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper

  18. Journal article references

    Narrative citation: Grady et al. (2019) If a journal article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference. Always include the issue number for a journal article. If the journal article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range (for an explanation of why, see the database information ...

  19. APA In-Text Citations for Research Writing

    When quoting directly from a work, include the author, publication year, and page number of the reference (preceded by "p."). Method 1: Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name; the publication year will follow in parentheses. Include the page number in parentheses at the end of the quoted text.

  20. Research Guides: Citation Styles: APA (7th edition)

    It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers. In APA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places: In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation. In the Reference list at the end of your paper where you give more ...

  21. Citation Machine®: APA Format & APA Citation Generator

    An APA in-text citation is included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects ...

  22. How to Cite Sources

    6 Interesting Citation Facts. The world of citations may seem cut and dry, but there's more to them than just specific capitalization rules, MLA in-text citations, and other formatting specifications.Citations have been helping researches document their sources for hundreds of years, and are a great way to learn more about a particular subject area.

  23. APA style

    APA style (also known as APA format) is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books. It is commonly used for citing sources within the field of behavioral and social sciences, including sociology, education, nursing, criminal justice, anthropology, and psychology.It is described in the style guide of the American Psychological Association (APA ...

  24. APA Format

    The APA format is a widely used style for writing academic papers, developed by the American Psychological Association. It provides guidelines for formatting documents, citing sources, and structuring content.APA format is commonly used in the social sciences, education, and psychology. Key features include in-text citations, a reference list, and specific rules for headings, margins, and font.

  25. Applying adult behavior change theory to support mediator-based

    A majority of evidence-based interventions in schools are delivered through consultation models and are implemented by a mediator, such as a teacher. Research indicates that mediators do not always adequately implement adopted evidence-based interventions, limiting their effectiveness in transforming student outcomes. We propose that to transform student outcomes through evidence-based ...

  26. PDF APA Style Research Article Activity

    Research Article Activity. This activity helps students find, cite, analyze, and summarize a scholarly research article. For each step of the activity, type your responses directly into the text fields provided, or copy the questions into your preferred word-processing program and answer them there. Complete this activity multiple times to help ...

  27. How To Cite Sources: In-depth Guide

    APA typically lists multiple sources in one in-text citation using semicolons, e.g., (Smith, 2020; Johnson, 2019). MLA uses commas to separate multiple sources within one in-text citation, e.g., (Smith 45, Johnson 22). Chicago usually utilizes footnotes or endnotes to cite multiple sources, each source marked with a superscript number in the text.

  28. Racism, bias, and discrimination

    Racism, bias, and discrimination. Racism is a form of prejudice that generally includes negative emotional reactions to members of a group, acceptance of negative stereotypes, and racial discrimination against individuals; in some cases it can lead to violence. Discrimination refers to the differential treatment of different age, gender, racial ...

  29. Misinformation and disinformation

    Misinformation is false or inaccurate information—getting the facts wrong. Disinformation is false information which is deliberately intended to mislead—intentionally misstating the facts. The spread of misinformation and disinformation has affected our ability to improve public health, address climate change, maintain a stable democracy ...