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what are speeches in english language

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what are speeches in english language

10 famous speeches in English and what you can learn from them

Speech is an essential element of language, one that we all employ in our daily lives. What about a speech ?

A speech is a formal address, delivered to an audience, that seeks to convince, persuade, inspire or inform. From historic moments to the present day, the English language has given us some extraordinary examples of the spoken word. A powerful tool in the right – or wrong – hands, spoken English can, and has, changed the world.

We’ve chosen ten of the most famous speeches in English. They range from celebrated, world-changing pieces of rhetoric to our personal favourites, but most importantly they still rouse our emotions when we hear them today. We’ve examined each for the tricks of the oratory trade. After each speech you’ll find some bullet points outlining its most distinctive rhetorical features, and why a speech writer would include them.

Remember these celebrated rhetoricians the next time you have to give a speech in public – be this at a wedding, award ceremony or business conference.

Scroll down to the end of this post for our essential tips on crafting speeches.

1. Martin Luther King I Have a Dream 1963

We couldn’t have an article about speeches without mentioning this one. Incredibly famous and iconic, Martin Luther King changed the character of speech making.

I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification – one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.

What makes this a great speech?

– Abstract nouns like “ dream ” are incredibly emotional. Our dreams are an intimate part of our subconscious and express our strongest desires. Dreams belong to the realm of fantasy; of unworldly, soaring experiences. King’s repetition of the simple sentence “I have a dream” evokes a picture in our minds of a world where complete equality and freedom exist.

– It fuses simplicity of language with sincerity : something that all persuasive speeches seek to do!

– Use of tenses: King uses the future tense (“will be able”, “shall be”, “will be made””), which gives his a dream certainty and makes it seem immediate and real.

– Thanks to its highly biblical rhetoric , King’s speech reads like a sermon. The last paragraph we’ve quoted here is packed with biblical language and imagery .

2. King George VI Radio Address 1939

This speech was brought back to life recently thanks to the film, The King’s Speech (2010). While George VI will never go down in history as one of the world’s gifted orators, his speech will certainly be remembered.

In this grave hour, perhaps the most fateful in history, I send to every household of my peoples, both at home and overseas, this message, spoken with the same depth of feeling for each one of you as if I were able to cross your threshold and speak to you myself. For the second time in the lives of most of us, we are at war. Over and over again, we have tried to find a peaceful way out of the differences between ourselves and those who are now our enemies, but it has been in vain.  

– At only 404 words long, the speech is impressively economical with language. Its short length means that every word is significant, and commands its audiences’ attention.

– This is a great example of how speechwriters use superlatives . George VI says that this moment is “the most fateful in history”. Nothing gets peoples’ attention like saying this is the “most important” or “best”.

– “ We ”, “ us ” and “ I ”: This is an extremely personal speech. George VI is using the first person, “I”, to reach out to each person listening to the speech. He also talks in the third person: “we are at war”, to unite British people against the common enemy: “them”, or Germany.

3. Winston Churchill We shall fight on the beaches 1940

Churchill is an icon of great speech making. All his life Churchill struggled with a stutter that caused him difficulty pronouncing the letter “s”. Nevertheless, with pronunciation and rehearsal he became one of the most famous orators in history.

…we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender, and even if, which I do not for a moment believe, this Island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle, until, in God’s good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old.

What makes it a powerful speech?

– Structural repetition of the simple phrase “we shall…”

– Active verbs like “defend” and “fight” are extremely motivational, rousing Churchill’s audience’s spirits.

– Very long sentences build the tension of the speech up to its climax “the rescue and the liberation of the old”, sweeping listeners along. A similar thing happens in musical pieces: the composition weaves a crescendo, which often induces emotion in its audience.

4. Elizabeth I Speech to the Troops 1588

The “Virgin Queen”, Elizabeth I, made this speech at a pivotal moment in English history. It is a remarkable speech in extraordinary circumstances: made by a woman, it deals with issues of gender, sovereignty and nationality.

I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live and die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust. I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field.

– Elizabeth puts aside differences in social status and says she will “live and die amongst (her troops)”. This gives her speech a very inclusive message .

– She uses antithesis , or contrasting ideas. To offset the problem of her femininity – of being a “weak and feeble woman” – she swiftly emphasises her masculine qualities: that she has the “heart and stomach of a king”.

– Elizabeth takes on the role of a protector : there is much repetition of the pronoun “I”, and “I myself” to show how active she will be during the battle.

5. Chief Joseph Surrender Speech 1877

We’ve included this speech because there is something extremely raw and humbling about Chief Joseph’s surrender. Combining vulnerability with pride, this is an unusual speech and deserves attention.

Tell General Howard I know his heart. What he told me before, I have it in my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our Chiefs are killed; Looking Glass is dead, Ta Hool Hool Shute is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say yes or no. He who led on the young men is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets; the little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are – perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my Chiefs! I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.

What makes this a good speech?

– This speech is a perfect example of a how a non-native speaker can make the English language their own. Chief Joesph’s rhetoric retains the feels and culture of a Native American Indian speaker, and is all the more moving for this.

– Simple, short sentences.

– Declarative sentences such as “I know his heart” and “It is cold” present a listener with hard facts that are difficult to argue against.

6.  Emmeline Pankhurst Freedom or Death 1913

Traditionally silent, women tend to have been left out of rhetoric. All that changed, however, with the advent of feminism. In her struggle for the vote, Pankhurst and her fellow protesters were compelled to find a voice.

You have left it to women in your land, the men of all civilised countries have left it to women, to work out their own salvation. That is the way in which we women of England are doing. Human life for us is sacred, but we say if any life is to be sacrificed it shall be ours; we won’t do it ourselves, but we will put the enemy in the position where they will have to choose between giving us freedom or giving us death.

– Direct acknowledgement of her audience through use of the pronoun you .

– Pankhurst uses stark, irreconcilable contrasts to emphasise the suffragettes’ seriousness. Binary concepts like men/women, salvation/damnation, freedom/imprisonment and life/death play an important role in her speech.

7. John F. Kennedy The Decision to go the Moon 19 61

Great moments require great speeches. The simplicity of Kennedy’s rhetoric preserves a sense of wonder at going beyond human capabilities, at this great event for science and technology.

We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.

– Simple sentence structures: “We choose to go to the moon” = Subject + Verb + Complement. The grammatical simplicity of the sentence allows an audience to reflect on important concepts, i.e. choice. Repetition emphasises this.

– Kennedy uses demonstrative (or pointing) pronouns e.g. “ this decade”, “ that goal” to create a sense of urgency; to convey how close to success the US is.

8. Shakespeare The Tempest  Act 3 Scene 2 c.1610

Of course, any list of great speeches would be incomplete without a mention of the master of rhetoric, the Bard himself.  If you caught the London Olympic Opening Ceremony you would have noticed that Kenneth Branagh delivered Caliban’s speech, from The Tempest .

Be not afeard; the isle is full of noises, Sounds and sweet airs, that give delight and hurt not. Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments Will hum about mine ears, and sometime voices That, if I then had waked after long sleep, Will make me sleep again: and then, in dreaming, The clouds methought would open and show riches Ready to drop upon me that, when I waked, I cried to dream again.

– It expresses a wonder and uncertainty of the world, and an inability to comprehend its mystery.

– It is highly alliterative , a rhetorical trick that makes speech memorable and powerful.

– Shakespeare uses onomatopoeia (e.g. “twangling”, “hum”: words whose sound is like they are describing) to make Caliban’s speech evocative.

9.  Shakespeare  Henry V  Act 3 Scene 1, 1598

One of rhetoric’s most primal functions is to transform terrified men into bloodthirsty soldiers. “Once more unto the breach” is a speech that does just that. It is a perfect example of how poetry is an inextricable element of rhetoric.

Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more; Or close the wall up with our English dead. In peace there’s nothing so becomes a man As modest stillness and humility: But when the blast of war blows in our ears, Then imitate the action of the tiger; Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood, Disguise fair nature with hard-favour’d rage

What makes this such a great rousing battle speech?

-Shakespeare uses some fantastic imagery in King Henry’s speech. His “dear friends”, or soldiers, are tigers, commanded to block their enemies’ way with their dead comrades. This appeals to ideals of masculinity that men should be fierce and strong.

– Orders and imperative verbs give the speaker authority.

– Repetition of key phrases and units of sound: the vowel sounds in the repeated phrase “once more” are echoed by the words “or” and “our”. This makes it an extraordinarily powerful piece of rhetoric to hear spoken.

10. William Lyon Phelps The Pleasure of Books 1933

This speech was read a year before Nazis began their systematic destruction of books that didn’t match Nazi ideals. As major advocates of books at English Trackers, we’re naturally inclined to love speeches about their importance.

A borrowed book is like a guest in the house; it must be treated with punctiliousness, with a certain considerate formality. You must see that it sustains no damage; it must not suffer while under your roof. You cannot leave it carelessly, you cannot mark it, you cannot turn down the pages, you cannot use it familiarly. And then, some day, although this is seldom done, you really ought to return it.

– Phelps personifies books in this speech; that is, he gives books human characteristics – like the capacity to “suffer”. Comparing a book to a guest creates novelty , which engages and holds the interest of a listener.

– This speech uses both modal verbs (“must”, “ought”) and prohibitions (“you cannot”) to demonstrate both proper and improper behaviour.

Some tips to bear in mind when writing a speech

– KISS : the golden rule of Keep It Short and Simple really does apply. Keep your sentences short, your grammar simple. Not only is this more powerful than long rambling prose, but you’re more likely hold your audience’s attention – and be able to actually remember what you’re trying to say!

– Rule of 3 : another golden rule. The human brain responds magically to things that come in threes. Whether it’s a list of adjectives, a joke, or your main points, it’s most effective if you keep it to this structure.

– Imagery : Metaphors, similes and description will help an audience to understand you, and keep them entertained.

– Pronouns : Use “we” to create a sense of unity, “them” for a common enemy, “you” if you’re reaching out to your audience, and “I” / “me” if you want to take control.

– Poetry : Repetition, rhyme and alliteration are sound effects, used by poets and orators alike. They make a speech much more memorable. Remember to also structure pauses and parentheses into a speech. This will vary the flow of sound, helping you to hold your audience’s attention.

– Jokes : Humour is powerful. Use it to perk up a sleepy audience, as well as a rhetorical tool. Laughter is based on people having common, shared assumptions – and can therefore be used to persuade.

– Key words : “Every”, “improved”, “natural”, “pure”, “tested’ and “recommended” will, according to some surveys, press the right buttons and get a positive response from your listeners.

About the Author: This post comes to you from guest blogger, Natalie. Currently blogging, editing and based in London, Natalie previously worked with the English Trackers team.

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

What this handout is about

This handout will help you create an effective speech by establishing the purpose of your speech and making it easily understandable. It will also help you to analyze your audience and keep the audience interested.

What’s different about a speech?

Writing for public speaking isn’t so different from other types of writing. You want to engage your audience’s attention, convey your ideas in a logical manner and use reliable evidence to support your point. But the conditions for public speaking favor some writing qualities over others. When you write a speech, your audience is made up of listeners. They have only one chance to comprehend the information as you read it, so your speech must be well-organized and easily understood. In addition, the content of the speech and your delivery must fit the audience.

What’s your purpose?

People have gathered to hear you speak on a specific issue, and they expect to get something out of it immediately. And you, the speaker, hope to have an immediate effect on your audience. The purpose of your speech is to get the response you want. Most speeches invite audiences to react in one of three ways: feeling, thinking, or acting. For example, eulogies encourage emotional response from the audience; college lectures stimulate listeners to think about a topic from a different perspective; protest speeches in the Pit recommend actions the audience can take.

As you establish your purpose, ask yourself these questions:

  • What do you want the audience to learn or do?
  • If you are making an argument, why do you want them to agree with you?
  • If they already agree with you, why are you giving the speech?
  • How can your audience benefit from what you have to say?

Audience analysis

If your purpose is to get a certain response from your audience, you must consider who they are (or who you’re pretending they are). If you can identify ways to connect with your listeners, you can make your speech interesting and useful.

As you think of ways to appeal to your audience, ask yourself:

  • What do they have in common? Age? Interests? Ethnicity? Gender?
  • Do they know as much about your topic as you, or will you be introducing them to new ideas?
  • Why are these people listening to you? What are they looking for?
  • What level of detail will be effective for them?
  • What tone will be most effective in conveying your message?
  • What might offend or alienate them?

For more help, see our handout on audience .

Creating an effective introduction

Get their attention, otherwise known as “the hook”.

Think about how you can relate to these listeners and get them to relate to you or your topic. Appealing to your audience on a personal level captures their attention and concern, increasing the chances of a successful speech. Speakers often begin with anecdotes to hook their audience’s attention. Other methods include presenting shocking statistics, asking direct questions of the audience, or enlisting audience participation.

Establish context and/or motive

Explain why your topic is important. Consider your purpose and how you came to speak to this audience. You may also want to connect the material to related or larger issues as well, especially those that may be important to your audience.

Get to the point

Tell your listeners your thesis right away and explain how you will support it. Don’t spend as much time developing your introductory paragraph and leading up to the thesis statement as you would in a research paper for a course. Moving from the intro into the body of the speech quickly will help keep your audience interested. You may be tempted to create suspense by keeping the audience guessing about your thesis until the end, then springing the implications of your discussion on them. But if you do so, they will most likely become bored or confused.

For more help, see our handout on introductions .

Making your speech easy to understand

Repeat crucial points and buzzwords.

Especially in longer speeches, it’s a good idea to keep reminding your audience of the main points you’ve made. For example, you could link an earlier main point or key term as you transition into or wrap up a new point. You could also address the relationship between earlier points and new points through discussion within a body paragraph. Using buzzwords or key terms throughout your paper is also a good idea. If your thesis says you’re going to expose unethical behavior of medical insurance companies, make sure the use of “ethics” recurs instead of switching to “immoral” or simply “wrong.” Repetition of key terms makes it easier for your audience to take in and connect information.

Incorporate previews and summaries into the speech

For example:

“I’m here today to talk to you about three issues that threaten our educational system: First, … Second, … Third,”

“I’ve talked to you today about such and such.”

These kinds of verbal cues permit the people in the audience to put together the pieces of your speech without thinking too hard, so they can spend more time paying attention to its content.

Use especially strong transitions

This will help your listeners see how new information relates to what they’ve heard so far. If you set up a counterargument in one paragraph so you can demolish it in the next, begin the demolition by saying something like,

“But this argument makes no sense when you consider that . . . .”

If you’re providing additional information to support your main point, you could say,

“Another fact that supports my main point is . . . .”

Helping your audience listen

Rely on shorter, simpler sentence structures.

Don’t get too complicated when you’re asking an audience to remember everything you say. Avoid using too many subordinate clauses, and place subjects and verbs close together.

Too complicated:

The product, which was invented in 1908 by Orville Z. McGillicuddy in Des Moines, Iowa, and which was on store shelves approximately one year later, still sells well.

Easier to understand:

Orville Z. McGillicuddy invented the product in 1908 and introduced it into stores shortly afterward. Almost a century later, the product still sells well.

Limit pronoun use

Listeners may have a hard time remembering or figuring out what “it,” “they,” or “this” refers to. Be specific by using a key noun instead of unclear pronouns.

Pronoun problem:

The U.S. government has failed to protect us from the scourge of so-called reality television, which exploits sex, violence, and petty conflict, and calls it human nature. This cannot continue.

Why the last sentence is unclear: “This” what? The government’s failure? Reality TV? Human nature?

More specific:

The U.S. government has failed to protect us from the scourge of so-called reality television, which exploits sex, violence, and petty conflict, and calls it human nature. This failure cannot continue.

Keeping audience interest

Incorporate the rhetorical strategies of ethos, pathos, and logos.

When arguing a point, using ethos, pathos, and logos can help convince your audience to believe you and make your argument stronger. Ethos refers to an appeal to your audience by establishing your authenticity and trustworthiness as a speaker. If you employ pathos, you appeal to your audience’s emotions. Using logos includes the support of hard facts, statistics, and logical argumentation. The most effective speeches usually present a combination these rhetorical strategies.

Use statistics and quotations sparingly

Include only the most striking factual material to support your perspective, things that would likely stick in the listeners’ minds long after you’ve finished speaking. Otherwise, you run the risk of overwhelming your listeners with too much information.

Watch your tone

Be careful not to talk over the heads of your audience. On the other hand, don’t be condescending either. And as for grabbing their attention, yelling, cursing, using inappropriate humor, or brandishing a potentially offensive prop (say, autopsy photos) will only make the audience tune you out.

Creating an effective conclusion

Restate your main points, but don’t repeat them.

“I asked earlier why we should care about the rain forest. Now I hope it’s clear that . . .” “Remember how Mrs. Smith couldn’t afford her prescriptions? Under our plan, . . .”

Call to action

Speeches often close with an appeal to the audience to take action based on their new knowledge or understanding. If you do this, be sure the action you recommend is specific and realistic. For example, although your audience may not be able to affect foreign policy directly, they can vote or work for candidates whose foreign policy views they support. Relating the purpose of your speech to their lives not only creates a connection with your audience, but also reiterates the importance of your topic to them in particular or “the bigger picture.”

Practicing for effective presentation

Once you’ve completed a draft, read your speech to a friend or in front of a mirror. When you’ve finished reading, ask the following questions:

  • Which pieces of information are clearest?
  • Where did I connect with the audience?
  • Where might listeners lose the thread of my argument or description?
  • Where might listeners become bored?
  • Where did I have trouble speaking clearly and/or emphatically?
  • Did I stay within my time limit?

Other resources

  • Toastmasters International is a nonprofit group that provides communication and leadership training.
  • Allyn & Bacon Publishing’s Essence of Public Speaking Series is an extensive treatment of speech writing and delivery, including books on using humor, motivating your audience, word choice and presentation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Boone, Louis E., David L. Kurtz, and Judy R. Block. 1997. Contemporary Business Communication . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ehrlich, Henry. 1994. Writing Effective Speeches . New York: Marlowe.

Lamb, Sandra E. 1998. How to Write It: A Complete Guide to Everything You’ll Ever Write . Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Writing a speech

Topic outline.

The purpose of a speech is often to inform or persuade an audience. 

Speeches are usually written to be spoken directly to an audience and can be used to entertain, influencing the listeners that the viewpoint of the speaker is correct. 

Speeches can also be used to encourage the audience to take action or to change their behaviour in some way; for example, to join a particular school club or society, or to recycle more. 

The ways you use language and vocabulary when writing the words of a speech will depend on the audience and the purpose you are writing for; for example, in a speech to a group of teachers and parents giving your views on a recent proposal, formal language is most appropriate.

  • think about the audience that the speech is for  – are you giving your speech to a group of people you know, or do not know, or a mixture of both? If you know your audience well, you may be able to relax a little, but a speech is still a formal kind of talk and would usually not include slang
  • whether your audience are likely to disagree with what you say – you will need to consider any possible objections and deal with them. Use language carefully to make objections seem less significant; for example, using phrases like ‘A few people may still think, however’
  • the reason you are giving this speech and how you feel about this topic  – try to imagine the words of your speech as you would speak them out loud. Your tone of voice must match your message, so choose words that appeal to the emotions of your listeners. Focus on what you want your audience to know and feel by the end of your speech
  • how to engage your listeners  – f or example, you might use inclusive words or phrases like ‘we’, ‘all of us’ and ‘our’ to make your listeners feel that you are all on the same side.
  • Plan where you want to finish your speech and how you will get there before you start writing – t h e structure of a speech is usually in three parts. For example: 
  • An opening that grabs your audience's attention and makes the overall topic of your speech clear  – for example, pose a question to the audience where you can predict the answer.
  • A well-structured, supported and developed argument –  for example, to support your argument you might use real life examples or anecdotes.
  • A powerful conclusion  –  for example, group your final words or ideas in threes to help make them memorable or end with a thought- provoking question or image and thank your audience for listening.
  • Organise your ideas into paragraphs as appropriate – this will help you to develop and support your points convincingly, to build your argument and/or offer a full explanation of a particular point of view.
  • S how the connectio ns between ideas in sentences and paragraphs  –  where a new point or idea follows on from what you have already said you might use linking words or phrases such as, ‘in addition’, ‘likewise’ or ‘similarly’.
  • Example of a speech

what are speeches in english language

The 9 Parts of Speech: Definitions and Examples

  • Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia
  • M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester
  • B.A., English, State University of New York

A part of speech is a term used in traditional grammar for one of the nine main categories into which words are classified according to their functions in sentences , such as nouns or verbs. Also known as word classes , these are the building blocks of grammar.

Parts of Speech

  • Word types can be divided into nine parts of speech:
  • prepositions
  • conjunctions
  • articles/determiners
  • interjections
  • Some words can be considered more than one part of speech, depending on context and usage.
  • Interjections can form complete sentences on their own.

Every sentence you write or speak in English includes words that fall into some of the nine parts of speech. These include nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, articles/determiners, and interjections. (Some sources include only eight parts of speech and leave interjections in their own category.)

Learning the names of the parts of speech probably won't make you witty, healthy, wealthy, or wise. In fact, learning just the names of the parts of speech won't even make you a better writer. However, you will gain a basic understanding of sentence structure  and the  English language by familiarizing yourself with these labels.

Open and Closed Word Classes

The parts of speech are commonly divided into  open classes  (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) and  closed classes  (pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles/determiners, and interjections). The idea is that open classes can be altered and added to as language develops and closed classes are pretty much set in stone. For example, new nouns are created every day, but conjunctions never change.

In contemporary linguistics , the label  part of speech has generally been discarded in favor of the term word class or syntactic category . These terms make words easier to qualify objectively based on word construction rather than context. Within word classes, there is the lexical or open class and the function or closed class.

The 9 Parts of Speech

Read about each part of speech below and get started practicing identifying each.

Nouns are a person, place, thing, or idea. They can take on a myriad of roles in a sentence, from the subject of it all to the object of an action. They are capitalized when they're the official name of something or someone, called proper nouns in these cases. Examples: pirate, Caribbean, ship, freedom, Captain Jack Sparrow.

Pronouns stand in for nouns in a sentence. They are more generic versions of nouns that refer only to people. Examples:​  I, you, he, she, it, ours, them, who, which, anybody, ourselves.

Verbs are action words that tell what happens in a sentence. They can also show a sentence subject's state of being ( is , was ). Verbs change form based on tense (present, past) and count distinction (singular or plural). Examples:  sing, dance, believes, seemed, finish, eat, drink, be, became

Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns. They specify which one, how much, what kind, and more. Adjectives allow readers and listeners to use their senses to imagine something more clearly. Examples:  hot, lazy, funny, unique, bright, beautiful, poor, smooth.

Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, and even other adverbs. They specify when, where, how, and why something happened and to what extent or how often. Examples:  softly, lazily, often, only, hopefully, softly, sometimes.


Prepositions  show spacial, temporal, and role relations between a noun or pronoun and the other words in a sentence. They come at the start of a prepositional phrase , which contains a preposition and its object. Examples:  up, over, against, by, for, into, close to, out of, apart from.


Conjunctions join words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence. There are coordinating, subordinating, and correlative conjunctions. Examples:  and, but, or, so, yet, with.

Articles and Determiners

Articles and determiners function like adjectives by modifying nouns, but they are different than adjectives in that they are necessary for a sentence to have proper syntax. Articles and determiners specify and identify nouns, and there are indefinite and definite articles. Examples: articles:  a, an, the ; determiners:  these, that, those, enough, much, few, which, what.

Some traditional grammars have treated articles  as a distinct part of speech. Modern grammars, however, more often include articles in the category of determiners , which identify or quantify a noun. Even though they modify nouns like adjectives, articles are different in that they are essential to the proper syntax of a sentence, just as determiners are necessary to convey the meaning of a sentence, while adjectives are optional.


Interjections are expressions that can stand on their own or be contained within sentences. These words and phrases often carry strong emotions and convey reactions. Examples:  ah, whoops, ouch, yabba dabba do!

How to Determine the Part of Speech

Only interjections ( Hooray! ) have a habit of standing alone; every other part of speech must be contained within a sentence and some are even required in sentences (nouns and verbs). Other parts of speech come in many varieties and may appear just about anywhere in a sentence.

To know for sure what part of speech a word falls into, look not only at the word itself but also at its meaning, position, and use in a sentence.

For example, in the first sentence below,  work  functions as a noun; in the second sentence, a verb; and in the third sentence, an adjective:

  • The noun  work  is the thing Bosco shows up for.
  • The verb  work  is the action he must perform.
  • The  attributive noun  [or converted adjective]  work  modifies the noun  permit .

Learning the names and uses of the basic parts of speech is just one way to understand how sentences are constructed.

Dissecting Basic Sentences

To form a basic complete sentence, you only need two elements: a noun (or pronoun standing in for a noun) and a verb. The noun acts as a subject and the verb, by telling what action the subject is taking, acts as the predicate. 

In the short sentence above,  birds  is the noun and  fly  is the verb. The sentence makes sense and gets the point across.

You can have a sentence with just one word without breaking any sentence formation rules. The short sentence below is complete because it's a command to an understood "you".

Here, the pronoun, standing in for a noun, is implied and acts as the subject. The sentence is really saying, "(You) go!"

Constructing More Complex Sentences

Use more parts of speech to add additional information about what's happening in a sentence to make it more complex. Take the first sentence from above, for example, and incorporate more information about how and why birds fly.

  • Birds fly when migrating before winter.

Birds and fly remain the noun and the verb, but now there is more description. 

When  is an adverb that modifies the verb fly.  The word before  is a little tricky because it can be either a conjunction, preposition, or adverb depending on the context. In this case, it's a preposition because it's followed by a noun. This preposition begins an adverbial phrase of time ( before winter ) that answers the question of when the birds migrate . Before is not a conjunction because it does not connect two clauses.

  • Sentence Parts and Sentence Structures
  • 100 Key Terms Used in the Study of Grammar
  • Prepositional Phrases in English Grammar
  • The Top 25 Grammatical Terms
  • Foundations of Grammar in Italian
  • Pronoun Definition and Examples
  • What Is an Adverb in English Grammar?
  • What Are the Parts of a Prepositional Phrase?
  • Definition and Examples of Adjectives
  • Definition and Examples of Function Words in English
  • Lesson Plan: Label Sentences with Parts of Speech
  • Sentence Patterns
  • Nominal: Definition and Examples in Grammar
  • Constituent: Definition and Examples in Grammar
  • Adding Adjectives and Adverbs to the Basic Sentence Unit
  • The Difference Between Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives


Here you can find activities to practise your speaking skills. You can improve your speaking by noticing the language we use in different situations and practising useful phrases.

The self-study lessons in this section are written and organised by English level based on the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). There are videos of different conversations at work and interactive exercises that practise the speaking skills you need to get ahead at work and communicate in English. The videos help you practise saying the most useful language and the interactive exercises will help you remember and use the phrases.

Take our free online English test to find out which level to choose. Select your level, from A1 English level (elementary) to B2 English level (upper intermediate), and improve your speaking skills at your own speed, whenever it's convenient for you.

Choose a speaking lesson

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A1 speaking

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B1 speaking

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B2 speaking

Learn to speak english with confidence.

Our online English classes feature lots of useful learning materials and activities to help you develop your speaking skills with confidence in a safe and inclusive learning environment.

Practise speaking with your classmates in live group classes, get speaking support from a personal tutor in one-to-one lessons or practise speaking English by yourself at your own speed with a self-study course.

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Writing non-fiction - AQA Writing a speech

Non-fiction texts are those that deal with facts, opinions and the real world. Many non-fiction texts follow specific conventions of language and structure.

Part of English Language Writing

Writing a speech

President Obama opening a campaign rally addressing a large crowd

More guides on this topic

  • Audience, purpose and form - AQA
  • Writing fiction - AQA
  • Planning - AQA
  • Organising information and ideas - AQA
  • Using language effectively - AQA
  • Vocabulary - AQA

Related links

  • Personalise your Bitesize!
  • Jobs that use English
  • BBC Young Writer's Award
  • BBC News: School Report
  • BBC Writersroom
  • Pearson Education
  • Fast Past Papers
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How to Speak English Fluently: 33 Easy Tips to Reach Your Language Goals

Do you want to learn how to speak English well?

Read on for 33 solid tips that will help you speak English more fluently, in less time.

Our team includes language learners from different countries who picked up English as a second language as well as native English teachers, so these are all based on our own experiences.

From pronunciation practice to handy online resources, consider this your roadmap to becoming confident speaking English. 

1. Get Clear on What Fluency Means

2. immerse yourself in english every day  , 3. accept that english grammar has a lot of exceptions, 4. use mirroring to answer english questions, 5. focus on whole phrases instead of single words, 6. learn intonation, body language and gestures, 7. use speech-to-text for text messaging, 8. talk yourself through everyday activities, 9. memorize and use conversation starters, 10. share your opinions online, 11. get direct feedback, 12. read along with podcasts, 11. learn some english slang, 12. look out for common pronunciation issues , 13. pay attention to the sounds native speakers use , 14. record your own english-language audiobooks , 15. record what you want to learn, then listen to it throughout the day, 16. think directly in english instead of translating, 17. set specific language goals, 18. figure out your weak spots, 19. don’t be afraid to make mistakes when talking, 20. record your mistakes , 21. review and test yourself often, 22. practice using new words right away , 23. expand your vocabulary with spaced repetition, 24. learn basic grammar rules  , 25. but don’t worry too much about grammar , 26. get comfortable first with the english words you know, 27. learn from everyone who speaks english, 28. hire a personal tutor, 29. make sure to use resources appropriate for your level, 30. consider a big move, 31. pre-plan conversations that you’ll need to have, 32. sing some karaoke, 33. remind yourself why you want to speak english, helpful resources for learning to speak english fluently, faqs about how to speak english well, and one more thing....

Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. Click here to get a copy. (Download)

how to speak english fluently

You know that you want to become fluent in English, but what does that mean?

There are two parts to fluency: knowing the language and knowing how to produce the language.

Being fluent means that you can use the English language comfortably. You can communicate freely and you can have conversations with native speakers without having to constantly look for help.

Fluency can also be seen in how you speak. You can know plenty of English vocabulary, but if you have to pause or repeat a lot when speaking, your fluency might not be so obvious to someone. If you speak very slowly or in a very flat, unemotional manner, then you won’t sound very fluent, either.

On the other hand, sounding fluent doesn’t mean you actually are speaking good English.

To be fluent in English, you need to master both the language and how you speak it!

There’s often an expectation that you must know a certain number of words for fluency. But it’s important to remember that you can’t just study the words and grammar. It can be scary, but you’ll also need to practice speaking.

The tips below will help you master your speaking skills so that you can speak proper English and sound good doing it. Don’t forget how important both features of fluency are!

To read about how many words you need to know to be considered fluent, read this post:


how to speak english fluently

Studying English for an hour once a week isn’t usually enough to make any real progress. The best way to quickly improve your English is to spend at least a few minutes practicing every day.

There’s a special language learning method called “immersion.” With immersion, you try to surround yourself with the language as much as you can in your day-to-day activities. You want English to become part of your daily schedule so that you’re frequently learning and practicing until it becomes natural to hear and speak the language.

You can create immersion in a lot of fun, creative ways, besides just constantly studying English from a book or a course! You can switch your phone settings to the English language. You can start watching and listening to English movies and songs, keep an English diary or volunteer in a place where English is required.

Immerse yourself in English as much as possible every time you study. Challenge yourself to listen to, read and even say things in English that you think might be too difficult for you. If you want to speak English fluently, you need to make it an essential part of your everyday life.

Watching authentic movies and videos can help with this, by exposing you to the natural sounds of the language.

how to speak english fluently

Sometimes, you can find patterns in English grammar, but other times English doesn’t make sense at all.

For example, why are “read” (pronounced reed) and “read” (pronounced red) the same word, but said differently depending on whether you’re speaking in the past or present tense? Or why is “mice” the plural of “mouse,” but “houses” is the plural of “house”?

Unfortunately, there are many exceptions to English rules. It’s easy to get stuck on learning how to speak English properly if you try to find a reason for everything. Sometimes, English is just weird! So the best thing to do is just memorize the strange exceptions and move on.

A monkey holds up a mirror to its face

Listen carefully when someone asks you a question in English and you’ll answer perfectly every time. English questions are like mirrors:

  • Does he…..? → Yes, he does .
  • Can she….? → Yes, she can .
  • Is it….? → No, it isn’t .

If someone asks you a question and you’re not sure how to answer, start by thinking about the words used in the question. The person has already said most of the words you need to make your answer.

Instead of just memorizing English grammar, start to look for patterns like this one. There are a lot of simple ways to “cheat” and make it easier to remember the right words.

how to speak english fluently

Speaking English fluently means being able to express your thoughts, feelings and ideas. Your goal is to speak English in full sentences, so why not learn it in full sentences?

You’ll find that English is more useful in your everyday life if you study whole phrases, rather than just vocabulary and verbs. Start by thinking about phrases that you use frequently in your native language, and then learn how to say them in English.

A woman waves on a video call

True English fluency is about more than just vocabulary and grammar. If you can figure out intonation , body language and gestures, you’ll really look and sound like a native speaker.

Intonation is the “rise and fall” or tone changes in how a person speaks. Body language is how a person uses their own body to support (or go against) what they mean. Gestures are hand and body movements that work together with what someone is saying.

It’s not easy to learn these three things because they seem very natural. One way to learn is to just watch how native English speakers communicate with each other.

One way to study these aspects of the language is by hiring an English teacher, if that’s in your budget. Another is watching YouTube videos, if you can avoid getting distracted with other videos.

A man reads a text message on his smartphone

You can practice speaking English even when you’re texting people. Just speak your texts instead of typing them!

You may need to change your settings to enable speech-to-text first. Then, find the “speech” option on whatever keyboard you’re using. Often, you just need to tap a microphone icon on the right side of the keyboard.


But what if most of your communication is with friends and family in your native language? Microsoft Translator has a way around this. Check to see if your native language is included in Microsoft’s Conversations feature—if it is, you can speak out loud in English, and have your words automatically translated into text in your native language.

Your chat partner can speak in your native language and have their words show up for you in English. This way, you get English speaking (and reading) practice while having the conversations you’d be having anyway.

cooking pasta

Think about all the things you might do that have a beginning, a middle and an end. For example, following a recipe when cooking dinner or putting together a piece of furniture.

Try writing out instructions for a process in English and make them as simple as possible.

For cooking something, your instructions might start like this:

  • Peel the garlic.
  • Dice the garlic.
  • Peel the onions.
  • Slice the onions.

Once you have your instructions, follow them. In the meantime, say what you’re doing out loud. For example, “Now I’m cutting up the onions. Uh oh, my eyes are starting to water!”

A more challenging version of this would be to keep an audio diary. Record yourself on your phone describing your day or a specific experience, from beginning to end. This would force you to learn words that you often use in everyday life (or think about!), and you’ll also get more comfortable with speaking smoothly.

Two men talk in a cafe

You might miss out on opportunities to practice English speaking if you just can’t think of anything to say.

An easy solution to this is to memorize conversation starters or ideas for beginning conversations. You can find lots of these online. For example, here’s a list of 250 conversation starters from Conversation Starters World.

Of course, you wouldn’t want to use all of these at any moment. It would probably seem weird if you just walked up to someone and said, “What three words best describe you?” But memorizing some ideas will help you feel better about talking to people in casual situations or to keep conversations going when talking to exchange partners .

how to speak english fluently

To really learn English speaking, you need to learn how to express yourself in English. Even if you have ideas for conversations, it can be hard to know how to put them into your own words.

You can practice this by participating in conversations online. Posting on social media, leaving comments on articles or writing reviews are all good approaches.

Goodreads is a site where people leave their thoughts about books they’ve read. Writing about books and movies is always a nice way to practice sharing your opinions in English, because they give you a lot to think about!

But if you don’t have time to do this, there are simpler options: Watch a short video on YouTube and leave a comment underneath it. Post short opinions on Twitter about anything. There are many options for practicing your English skills before you speak out loud!

Two women doing a language exchange

To improve your speaking, you can ask directly for feedback. Since you usually can’t do this with casual conversations, it might be worth setting up a language exchange , where you can ask the person to tell you directly if any of your sentences sound awkward or unnatural. 

There are even apps for this, like Go Correct where you can connect with English teachers. HelloTalk also allows you to chat (or voice call) in English, and then your conversation partner will literally mark out your mistakes. 

For self-studying, you can work on your grammar and sentence constructions when speaking by typing out a simple message or paragraph. Try running this through Grammarly to check your grammar. Afterwards, correct any mistakes you might have made, then try reading everything out loud! 

Woman listening to music

Podcasts and audiobooks don’t just make for amazing English listening practice —they can help with your speaking too! Most of the top English podcasts have word-for-word transcripts.

What you can do is download the transcript and then try reading the first few lines out on your own. Then play the podcast while reading along out loud, matching the speed and accent of the speaker. This is a handy technique that’s called shadowing, which can really help with your intonation and pronunciation. 

Of course, choose a podcast that matches the type of English you’re learning. This would usually be American or British English since you’ll also have to imitate the accent! 

While you should be focusing on learning standard English, it can be helpful to know English slang words and phrases so that you can “stay current” and understand modern English speech. Slang is always present, especially online , so you can’t really avoid seeing it.

Knowing slang , idioms and other casual expressions can improve real English fluency, because they can let you follow along with the kinds of conversations that happen today.

If you want to learn some great English slang, check out this post and this helpful video:

Learn popular American slang words with this guide, which covers must-know terms like “hype,” “bae” and “simp.” You’ll find these all over the internet (and even…

A group of friends sitting around and talking

While there’s no single “correct” English, if people have trouble understanding you, it’ll be hard for you to speak confidently.

There’s no magic to improving pronunciation—you just need to learn the mechanics, and then practice. It’s all about how you move your mouth and use your lips, tongue and throat. For this, you should watch native speakers while they’re talking and observe not just what they say, but how they say it.

It’s also helpful to know about well-known pronunciation issues . Sounds like th and r  are difficult for a lot of English learners, but your native language has a major impact on your pronunciation. Try looking up the most common pronunciation mistakes made by speakers of your native language!

To read more about English pronunciation rules, check out this post:

English pronunciation can seem tricky, but with this guide, you will be able to speak clearly in no time! This post will take you through the 25 most important English…

how to speak english fluently

When most students listen to a native English speaker, they focus on understanding what all the words mean. This is definitely important, but there’s a lot more you can learn from listening.

If you listen closely to English speakers, you’ll notice that sometimes vowels in English are pronounced as uh, such as in “th e “ , “ a gain” and “reas o n” . This is called the schwa sound . It’s the most common sound in the English language, but most English learners don’t notice it, which leads to sounding a bit different from a native speaker.

In English, words also aren’t pronounced in a disconnected way. Sometimes one word flows into another —for example, “leave it” and “no idea” both sound like they have no spaces between the words. Native speakers do this a lot!

Try to remember these details the next time you speak and your English will begin to sound more natural.

how to speak english fluently

When we think of practicing a language, we often think of putting ourselves in situations where we have to use the language. But the truth is, a lot of confidence and fluency come from actually speaking. This technique can help you do a lot more of that.

Think about your favorite books. Even if you don’t have any favorite books that were written in English, you can probably find some in English translations. For example, the Harry Potter series has been sold all over the world.

Take any English-language book that you already enjoy, and record yourself reading it in English. This will take you a while, of course. But it’s a way to practice your English pronunciation every day in a way that’s fun and interesting for you.

Once you finish recording the book, you’ll have a homemade audiobook of it to listen to, which will give you a way to practice your listening skills, too.

A woman records herself reading a text

Use the same technique described above to learn English in general while also practicing your speech.

For example, let’s say that you’d like to get better at talking to waitstaff. Maybe you see a blog post that includes examples of English conversations to have in restaurants . Instead of just reading the post and trying to remember the examples, record yourself reading it!

This will give you multiple opportunities to remember the material: when you first read it, when you read it out loud and when you listen to yourself reading it later.

A woman deep in thought

Stop thinking of yourself as someone who is learning English, and start thinking of yourself as someone who speaks English. It’s a small change, but it’ll make you feel more confident and help you to better use the English you already know.

This also means you need to start thinking in English. If you want to say the word “apple” in English, for example, you probably think of the word in your native language first, and then try to think of the correct word in English. Instead, try imagining a picture of an apple, and then just think of the English word “apple.”

Real fluency happens when you stop mentally translating conversations. This is the biggest step from learning English to just being an English speaker!


Fluency is a very high level to reach and will take a long time to achieve, so “becoming fluent” can be a pretty unclear goal. Having such a big, non-specific target won’t be helpful in planning out your studies.

That’s why you should think of more concrete and obvious goals that can lead you to fluency. By themselves, they may seem like small steps, but all together they’ll provide a steady path in your English learning journey.

Good goals should be specific and achievable. When setting a goal, you should decide exactly what you want to learn, and how long you want to spend learning it.

Here are some examples of good goals:

  • Learn 30 new English words in 30 days
  • Have a conversation with a native English speaker this week
  • Learn to conjugate five irregular verbs before your next tutoring lesson
  • Perfect your pronunciation of 10 words over the weekend (then ask a native speaker to tell you how you did!)

Make sure that the goals you set are reasonable and challenging enough to keep you motivated . You want to achieve your goals without over-stressing yourself!

A man holds his hand over his face after making a mistake

You might find some parts of the English language are especially difficult for you. These “weak spots” can be anything: grammar usage, pronunciation, sentence formation and so on. It’s important that you find out what they are so that you can focus on improving them.

English does have a lot of tricky features, and some can be even trickier depending on your native language. Pay attention to what you’re having problems with and dedicate more studying to it.

You want to make sure you improve in all parts of the English language without lagging behind in any of them.

To read more in depth about common errors in English, check out this post:

Read this to learn the 26 most common mistakes in English, why people make them and how to correct them. This guide includes common grammar errors, like subject-verb…

A woman holds her hands up to her head after making a mistake

Sometimes, it can be difficult to put all those rules and words together into a simple sentence. Don’t let the fear of saying something wrong stop you from speaking at all.

Even if you think you’re making a mistake, keep speaking anyway. Most of the time, people will understand what you’re trying to say, even if you make a mistake.

Plus, the more you speak, the easier it gets, and the faster the right words will come to mind.

To read about some common mistakes when speaking a new language, check out his post:


how to speak english fluently

Don’t be afraid to make mistakes… but also make sure that you understand them!

When you know that something went wrong in your English conversation, make a note of it (in your mind or, better yet, on paper). In your own time, study what exactly made you trip up. Did you use the wrong vocabulary? Was something pronounced incorrectly? Maybe you were using the wrong tense in your sentences?

Mistakes are inevitable and necessary, but to lower the chance of repeating the same mistakes, you must learn (and not run away!) from them.

A man taking an examination in a classroom

Reviewing what you learn is just as important as, well, actually learning!

Without proper review, you can easily forget a lot of previously learned material. This can greatly slow you down in your path to fluency because advanced English constantly builds upon basic, easier concepts. That’s why you must frequently test your skills.

You can review your learning in a number of different ways. You can make your own vocabulary quizzes , do translation exercises or have quick training sessions with a speaking partner. There are also online resources that you can use for review .

You should also think about when to review. Maybe you want to review right after you finish a new topic or after completing a whole unit of study. Or maybe you want to be extra studious and just review every time you study English!

Your reviews and tests will help you see your progress in English. Seeing how much you’ve improved can greatly increase your motivation to learn!

If you want to find out some free websites for testing yourself, check out this post:


A close-up on a dictionary page

There’s an expression in English: “Use it or lose it,” which basically means if you don’t practice an ability, you might forget it. This idea can be used to help you remember new English vocabulary.

The best way to remember a new word is to use it right away so that it stays in your memory. When you learn a new word, try to say it in sentences a few times over the next week and you’ll be less likely to forget it.

Sometimes, you may learn a word or phrase that might not be immediately useful to you. It’s okay to not focus on memorizing that vocabulary right away, especially if there are other more important things to learn.

Do you want to find out the most common 1028 English words? Then check out this post:

The most common words in English, when added to your vocabulary, can give your communication skills an instant boost! Read on for a list of 1,028 words you will most…

Rows of repeating orange stadium seats with one man sitting

Aside from using new words on your own, there’s a trick to remembering English vocabulary for good and making your reviews efficient: spaced repetition. 

Anki Logo

If you keep it up, you’ll avoid a common pitfall: learning new words—and then forgetting them. 

No need to keep track of this manually too! There are flashcard apps like Anki  that make reviewing automatic, and many language learning apps with flashcards already have this feature. 

To read more about spaced repetition, read this post:


Scrabble tiles laid out reading "choose your words"

Speaking English confidently also means having a good grasp of grammar. While you can pick up grammar just from listening and reading a lot of English, studying grammar intentionally still helps. You’ll probably have to memorize irregular verbs , which aren’t very predictable when they change tenses.

Other tricky grammar topics include subject-verb agreement —for example, saying “he smile” instead of the grammatically correct “he smiles.” Here are other tricky topics that confuse even native speakers sometimes:

  • Your vs. You’re
  • Fewer vs. Less

Since it’s easy to forget a new grammar concept, you can get it to stick faster in your mind with quizzes and exercises. Most grammar books, including “ English Grammar in Use”  and “Practical English Usage” , have exercises that you can work through. There are also tons of exercises and drills online about practically every grammar topic. 

To read more about English grammar rules, see this post:

Check out these top 12 English Grammar tips that can help you avoid common mistakes and speak like a natural! Whether you’re a learner or a native speaker, these tips will…

worrying about grammar

While you should still devote some time to studying grammar, don’t worry too much about having to get it right all the time. The key to learning a language is finding a balance between studying and practicing. Speaking English fluently isn’t the same as knowing perfect English grammar—even native English speakers make grammar mistakes!

Fluency is about being able to communicate. That’s why it’s also important to go out and practice your writing, reading, listening and speaking skills in the real world. As you keep practicing, you can learn plenty of grammar rules along the way.

A pile of magnetic English words

When you’re writing and saying your own sentences, focus on using the words you’re already familiar with. You may want to use more difficult, advanced English words to sound more fluent, but you should stay true to your skill level and keep practicing what you already know.

Make sure that you’re “comfortable” with the English you use, instead of just trying out new, unfamiliar words just because you want to. Doing so can lead you to say incorrect or strange things.

Of course, you do want to learn more and more words and skills to advance. We recommend studying a new word for a little while in context (in sentences and videos) before you use it in real conversations.

Learn the 300 most used words in English here:

Are you looking for an English vocabulary list of common words? Click here to find out 300 useful English words, including nouns, verbs, adjectives and more. If you master…

Language Exchange

You don’t have to only learn English from textbooks and teachers—anyone who speaks English can help you practice.

Imagine how you’d feel if someone asked you, in your native language, how to pronounce something. Would you be angry? No! You’d probably be happy to help, just like most English speakers are happy to help you.

If you know any English speakers, whether it’s a friend or co-worker, take advantage of the opportunity to practice and learn from them. Make sure to also ask any specific questions you have and be open to feedback.

A tutor helping a student in a computer lab

Sometimes you have to “throw money at the problem.” This common English idiom means that sometimes, you have to invest in your future. And because this future is about speaking English, it may be a wise investment to hire a personal language tutor.

It’s like having a teacher to yourself for hours at a time. You can ask literally any question you want and get an immediate answer, and you don’t have to follow a textbook unless you want to.

To learn about some amazing websites for hiring an English tutor, read this post:

Find English tutors online to guide you on your language-learning journey with this 2024 guide! Read on for 16 excellent websites for finding a suitable English tutor…

A row of old books on a table

Tailoring learning materials to your own proficiency ensures that you’re not overwhelmed by complex content or bored by material that is too basic. This approach promotes a balanced and gradual progression, allowing learners to build a solid foundation before advancing to more challenging concepts.

Level-appropriate resources also help learners stay engaged and motivated, fostering a positive learning experience. By gradually increasing the complexity of language input, learners can develop their skills in a systematic manner, leading to improved comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and overall language proficiency. 

To find out where to get some great online English resources, check out this post:

Free online English courses are a convenient and accessible way to learn the language at your own pace. Check out these 26 resources you can get online for free (or mostly…

Sydney Opera House along Sydney Harbor in Australia

This isn’t for everyone, I know, and there are many, many considerations you need to deal with before moving, but I can promise you this: there’s no faster way to learn English than by being completely immersed in an English language culture. 

You’ve got lots to choose from. The United States of America, of course, but also the United Kingdom, South Africa, Australia , Canada and plenty of smaller countries too: Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Ireland, Jamaica, Malta, New Zealand, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and lastly, Trinidad and Tobago.

To learn about even more English-speaking countries, check out this post:

How many countries speak English? To date, we count 96 countries that speak English as a native language, an official language, or a lingua franca in the context of…

A group of students sits on the grass and talks

Thinking ahead about potential topics, relevant vocabulary and common phrases allows you to feel more confident and prepared during conversations. This proactive approach helps alleviate anxiety and enhances their ability to express themselves more effectively.

Pre-planning also encourages you to anticipate potential challenges in communication, enabling you to strategize solutions in advance.

Additionally, it allows individuals to focus on specific language aspects they aim to improve, such as pronunciation or grammatical structures. 

To find out some basic conversations to have in English, see this post:

English small talk is easy to learn. It will help you fill in silences and make other people happy to chat with you. All you need are these seven great topics, and you…

A woman singing karaoke on stage

Yes, really.

Singing karaoke provides a relaxed and enjoyable environment for practicing pronunciation and intonation. Singing along to English songs helps you develop a natural feel for the rhythm and melody of the language, improving your overall oral communication skills.

Karaoke also exposes learners to a variety of vocabulary and colloquial expressions found in song lyrics, contributing to an expanded understanding of conversational English.

Additionally, it fosters a sense of confidence and comfort with the language, as singing allows learners to express themselves creatively.

To read more about learning through karaoke, see this post:

Put your English studies to music with these awesome karaoke resources! Don’t like the crowd? These musical programs can be used at home or on the go!

A group of friends holding their hands up at sunset on a beach

No matter what your reason is for wanting to learn English, from work, academics, friendships, dating or travel, this is your number one motivator!

If you remind yourself each day why you’re learning English, you’ll be much more likely to stick with it.

So write it down, put it on your bathroom mirror or fridge and think about this reason every day. Believe me, it works.

To read about some of the best reasons to learn English, check out this post:

Why learn English? There are plenty of great reasons! Yes, learning English can be difficult, but it is extremely valuable. Check out these 13 reasons why learning English…

The English Speaking Practice app


This app lets you practice having basic conversations in English. It’s really simple to use!

Just choose a subject that you want to hear a conversation about. Then, listen to the conversation. After that, you can take a quiz to test your understanding, or use the “Record” tab to practice speaking.

Decide which person in the conversation to speak for, and go through the dialogue talking as them. You can then save the recording and play it back.

The SayHi translation app


This is a simple voice translation app that you can use to have bilingual conversations. However, you can also use it as a quick way to look up translations or to practice speaking, as long as the app has an option for your native language.

Set up the translator for a conversation between English and your native language. Then, try speaking English and see how your English translates. This will give you an idea of how well the app understands your English speech.

Also, if you ever forget how to say something in English, you can speak your native language into the mic and see how it translates into English. This can be much faster than using a dictionary!

Preply for Private Tutoring

Preply logo

Preply, an online language learning platform, is a valuable resource for English language learners looking to enhance their speaking skills.

Choose a suitable tutor by reviewing profiles and trying trial lessons for compatibility. Consistency is crucial, so schedule regular lessons for continuous improvement. Come prepared with topics or questions to ensure focused learning.

Actively engage in conversations during lessons, embracing mistakes as part of the learning process. Supplement Preply lessons with external resources like language apps or podcasts.

Practice English outside of lessons through activities like watching movies or reading books. Seek constructive feedback from tutors, addressing common mistakes. Expand vocabulary by discussing various topics during lessons and exploring recommended materials. Leverage Preply’s platform features, such as chat options and lesson reviews, for enhanced communication and progress tracking. 

American superhero movies and TV

Watching English-language movies and TV, in general, is a good way to get used to natural speech.

American superhero movies and TV series are especially great for learning English because they’re meant to appeal to a wide audience, sometimes including children. This means that it’s usually pretty easy to figure out what’s going on.

Another reason why superhero stories are easier to understand is that they tend to be very dramatic and emotional. Characters will often talk about what’s happening in a very loud and obvious way.

While there’s a lot to choose from, a good way to start is with some of the CW network shows that are available on Netflix, like “The Flash” and “Black Lightning.” These shows have a lot of talking in them, and focus a lot on relationships between characters. You can keep up with them for multiple seasons and become used to the way different characters talk to each other, all while being entertained by exciting storylines.

The English TV YouTube Channel

This YouTube channel has a bunch of videos that you can use to hear different types of English speech and conversation. For example, this video  includes over 50 minutes of multiple conversations between native English speakers.

The audio in this video and others like it on the English TV YouTube channel are actual recorded conversations. American English is the dialect of English mostly used in these conversations, but there are examples of British English and Australian English , as well.

These conversations are also spontaneous (done without a script, natural), so this is the way that English is actually spoken by native speakers. There’s a bit of slang used, but these conversations will help build your listening skills so that you can understand English speech in real life.

Loecsen Learn English


This is a free online English course with a big focus on speaking. To practice your English speaking, scroll down to “Start a new quiz.” You’ll then be able to choose from different lists of phrases that you can listen to and repeat.

When you repeat a phrase using the microphone on your computer, you get to see if the program is able to understand your speech. This is useful even if you already know the material in the lessons because you get a chance to speak English out loud and practice your pronunciation.

How can I improve my English pronunciation?

  • Practice regularly by listening to native speakers, mimicking their pronunciation.
  • Use pronunciation guides, online resources, or language learning apps for targeted exercises.
  • Record yourself speaking and compare it to native speakers to identify areas for improvement.

What are some effective ways to expand my English vocabulary?

  • Read widely in English, including books, articles and online content.
  • Make use of flashcards or vocabulary apps to memorize and review new words.
  • Engage in conversations with native speakers to encounter and learn new words in context.

How can I overcome the fear of speaking English in public?

  • Start by practicing with friends or language exchange partners in a supportive environment.
  • Gradually expose yourself to larger groups or join conversation clubs to build confidence.
  • Remember that making mistakes is a natural part of the learning process and an opportunity for improvement.

What are some effective strategies for improving English fluency?

  • Engage in regular conversations with native speakers or fellow learners.
  • Watch movies, TV shows or listen to podcasts in English to improve comprehension and fluency.
  • Set aside dedicated time each day for language practice, focusing on speaking and listening skills.

Are there specific tips for learning English as a second language?

  • Immerse yourself in English-speaking environments whenever possible.
  • Take advantage of language exchange programs or conversation partners.
  • Use language learning apps and online platforms to supplement traditional learning methods.

How can I maintain consistency in learning and practicing English?

  • Create a schedule and set realistic, achievable language-learning goals.
  • Integrate English into your daily life, such as labeling items in your home in English.
  • Stay motivated by celebrating small achievements and tracking your progress over time.

If you’re wondering how to improve your English speaking skills, there isn’t one easy answer.

Learning how to speak English fluently isn’t something that happens overnight. Because of this, it’s important to have tools and techniques ready for practicing every day.

Ultimately, if you have activities that you enjoy and that require you to speak English, your skills will improve more and more over time.

Try the resources and suggestions above, and pay attention to how they make you feel. Which ones help your confidence? Which ones seem to help you speak English over longer periods of time?

Use the methods that work for you, and your speaking will come together naturally.

If you like learning English through movies and online media, you should also check out FluentU. FluentU lets you learn English from popular talk shows, catchy music videos and funny commercials , as you can see here:


If you want to watch it, the FluentU app has probably got it.

The FluentU app and website makes it really easy to watch English videos. There are captions that are interactive. That means you can tap on any word to see an image, definition, and useful examples.


FluentU lets you learn engaging content with world famous celebrities.

For example, when you tap on the word "searching," you see this:


FluentU lets you tap to look up any word.

Learn all the vocabulary in any video with quizzes. Swipe left or right to see more examples for the word you’re learning.


FluentU helps you learn fast with useful questions and multiple examples. Learn more.

The best part? FluentU remembers the vocabulary that you’re learning. It gives you extra practice with difficult words—and reminds you when it’s time to review what you’ve learned. You have a truly personalized experience.

Start using the FluentU website on your computer or tablet or, better yet, download the FluentU app from the iTunes or Google Play store. Click here to take advantage of our current sale! (Expires at the end of this month.)

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what are speeches in english language

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  • Knowledge Base
  • Parts of speech

The 8 Parts of Speech | Chart, Definition & Examples

The 8 Parts of Speech

A part of speech (also called a word class ) is a category that describes the role a word plays in a sentence. Understanding the different parts of speech can help you analyze how words function in a sentence and improve your writing.

The parts of speech are classified differently in different grammars, but most traditional grammars list eight parts of speech in English: nouns , pronouns , verbs , adjectives , adverbs , prepositions , conjunctions , and interjections . Some modern grammars add others, such as determiners and articles .

Many words can function as different parts of speech depending on how they are used. For example, “laugh” can be a noun (e.g., “I like your laugh”) or a verb (e.g., “don’t laugh”).

Table of contents

  • Prepositions
  • Conjunctions
  • Interjections

Other parts of speech

Interesting language articles, frequently asked questions.

A noun is a word that refers to a person, concept, place, or thing. Nouns can act as the subject of a sentence (i.e., the person or thing performing the action) or as the object of a verb (i.e., the person or thing affected by the action).

There are numerous types of nouns, including common nouns (used to refer to nonspecific people, concepts, places, or things), proper nouns (used to refer to specific people, concepts, places, or things), and collective nouns (used to refer to a group of people or things).

Ella lives in France .

Other types of nouns include countable and uncountable nouns , concrete nouns , abstract nouns , and gerunds .

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A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. Pronouns typically refer back to an antecedent (a previously mentioned noun) and must demonstrate correct pronoun-antecedent agreement . Like nouns, pronouns can refer to people, places, concepts, and things.

There are numerous types of pronouns, including personal pronouns (used in place of the proper name of a person), demonstrative pronouns (used to refer to specific things and indicate their relative position), and interrogative pronouns (used to introduce questions about things, people, and ownership).

That is a horrible painting!

A verb is a word that describes an action (e.g., “jump”), occurrence (e.g., “become”), or state of being (e.g., “exist”). Verbs indicate what the subject of a sentence is doing. Every complete sentence must contain at least one verb.

Verbs can change form depending on subject (e.g., first person singular), tense (e.g., simple past), mood (e.g., interrogative), and voice (e.g., passive voice ).

Regular verbs are verbs whose simple past and past participle are formed by adding“-ed” to the end of the word (or “-d” if the word already ends in “e”). Irregular verbs are verbs whose simple past and past participles are formed in some other way.

“I’ve already checked twice.”

“I heard that you used to sing .”

Other types of verbs include auxiliary verbs , linking verbs , modal verbs , and phrasal verbs .

An adjective is a word that describes a noun or pronoun. Adjectives can be attributive , appearing before a noun (e.g., “a red hat”), or predicative , appearing after a noun with the use of a linking verb like “to be” (e.g., “the hat is red ”).

Adjectives can also have a comparative function. Comparative adjectives compare two or more things. Superlative adjectives describe something as having the most or least of a specific characteristic.

Other types of adjectives include coordinate adjectives , participial adjectives , and denominal adjectives .

An adverb is a word that can modify a verb, adjective, adverb, or sentence. Adverbs are often formed by adding “-ly” to the end of an adjective (e.g., “slow” becomes “slowly”), although not all adverbs have this ending, and not all words with this ending are adverbs.

There are numerous types of adverbs, including adverbs of manner (used to describe how something occurs), adverbs of degree (used to indicate extent or degree), and adverbs of place (used to describe the location of an action or event).

Talia writes quite quickly.

Other types of adverbs include adverbs of frequency , adverbs of purpose , focusing adverbs , and adverbial phrases .

A preposition is a word (e.g., “at”) or phrase (e.g., “on top of”) used to show the relationship between the different parts of a sentence. Prepositions can be used to indicate aspects such as time , place , and direction .

I left the cup on the kitchen counter.

A conjunction is a word used to connect different parts of a sentence (e.g., words, phrases, or clauses).

The main types of conjunctions are coordinating conjunctions (used to connect items that are grammatically equal), subordinating conjunctions (used to introduce a dependent clause), and correlative conjunctions (used in pairs to join grammatically equal parts of a sentence).

You can choose what movie we watch because I chose the last time.

An interjection is a word or phrase used to express a feeling, give a command, or greet someone. Interjections are a grammatically independent part of speech, so they can often be excluded from a sentence without affecting the meaning.

Types of interjections include volitive interjections (used to make a demand or request), emotive interjections (used to express a feeling or reaction), cognitive interjections (used to indicate thoughts), and greetings and parting words (used at the beginning and end of a conversation).

Ouch ! I hurt my arm.

I’m, um , not sure.

The traditional classification of English words into eight parts of speech is by no means the only one or the objective truth. Grammarians have often divided them into more or fewer classes. Other commonly mentioned parts of speech include determiners and articles.

  • Determiners

A determiner is a word that describes a noun by indicating quantity, possession, or relative position.

Common types of determiners include demonstrative determiners (used to indicate the relative position of a noun), possessive determiners (used to describe ownership), and quantifiers (used to indicate the quantity of a noun).

My brother is selling his old car.

Other types of determiners include distributive determiners , determiners of difference , and numbers .

An article is a word that modifies a noun by indicating whether it is specific or general.

  • The definite article the is used to refer to a specific version of a noun. The can be used with all countable and uncountable nouns (e.g., “the door,” “the energy,” “the mountains”).
  • The indefinite articles a and an refer to general or unspecific nouns. The indefinite articles can only be used with singular countable nouns (e.g., “a poster,” “an engine”).

There’s a concert this weekend.

If you want to know more about nouns , pronouns , verbs , and other parts of speech, make sure to check out some of our language articles with explanations and examples.

Nouns & pronouns

  • Common nouns
  • Proper nouns
  • Collective nouns
  • Personal pronouns
  • Uncountable and countable nouns
  • Verb tenses
  • Phrasal verbs
  • Types of verbs
  • Active vs passive voice
  • Subject-verb agreement

A is an indefinite article (along with an ). While articles can be classed as their own part of speech, they’re also considered a type of determiner .

The indefinite articles are used to introduce nonspecific countable nouns (e.g., “a dog,” “an island”).

In is primarily classed as a preposition, but it can be classed as various other parts of speech, depending on how it is used:

  • Preposition (e.g., “ in the field”)
  • Noun (e.g., “I have an in with that company”)
  • Adjective (e.g., “Tim is part of the in crowd”)
  • Adverb (e.g., “Will you be in this evening?”)

As a part of speech, and is classed as a conjunction . Specifically, it’s a coordinating conjunction .

And can be used to connect grammatically equal parts of a sentence, such as two nouns (e.g., “a cup and plate”), or two adjectives (e.g., “strong and smart”). And can also be used to connect phrases and clauses.

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Everything you need to know about parts of speech in English

Parts of Speech in English | An overview on 8 important sections

Are looking to explore new ventures by gaining a firm grasp of spoken english if yes, you have come to the right blog because we break down the 8 important parts of english speech. read on to build your knowledge, table of contents, parts of speech in english | why are they important, 1. noun , 2. pronoun , 4. adjective , 5. adverb , 6. preposition , 7. conjunction , 8. interjection , key takeaways .

English is the world’s most widely-spoken language, with as many as 1.5 billion speakers across the globe. However, an unusual fact is that many English speakers are not native. Statistics show that less than 400 million people speak English as a first language. 

Proficiency in English is one of the essential requirements for academic and professional opportunities abroad. If you are entering a new phase of your career overseas, knowing the rules of spoken English can help you communicate effectively. 

So keep reading to discover everything you need to know about the eight parts of speech in English! 

What are the eight parts of speech in English? 

Every word in a sentence refers to a ‘part of speech’ or a ‘word class’. This phrase refers to the role a specific word plays in the sentence. Combining the roles played by different parts of speech can help create meaningful sentences in English . 

The 8 parts of English speech are as follows-

  • A noun is the name of a person, place, idea, or thing. 
  • Nouns are often used with articles such as a , an , and the. 
  • Nouns take on several different roles in a sentence and can talk about subjects & objects. This includes direct & indirect objects, subject complements, and objects of prepositions. 
  • Nouns classify into two categories – common nouns & proper nouns. 
  • Common nouns are general names for places and things. An example is – planets. 
  • On the other hand, proper nouns refer specifically to an individual thing. An example is – Saturn. 
  • A tip to identifying proper nouns is that they are usually capitalized. 

parts of English speech

Example –

This is my cat . She lives in my house in London . 

  • A pronoun is a word that is commonly used in the place of a noun. Pronouns substitute for a specific noun (referred to as its antecedent ). 
  • Pronouns are used when a reader or listener is aware of the specific noun being referenced. 
  • In sentences that refer to nouns more than once, replacing them with pronouns helps ensure your sentence is concise and grammatically correct. 

Sarah is always early. She has a habit of making sure she reaches her destination well before time. I will have to ask her to start a little late from her home today. 

  • Verbs are parts of speech in English that express a state of being and action. 
  • Verbs always need to agree with the subject they refer to in numbers (if the subject is singular, the verb should be singular – and vice-versa). 
  • Perhaps, Verbs also take on the role of expressing the tense of a sentence. 
  • It is important to note that verbs do not always refer to literal actions. They can also refer to states of being and feelings. 

Run as fast as you can! You will win the race! 

  • An adjective is used to modify or describe a noun or pronoun. 
  • Adjectives commonly answer questions such as – what kind , how many , and which one . 
  • These parts of speech in English specify the why, when, where, and how of an event. 

She entered the room as quietly as she could. 

  • Adverbs are parts of speech in English that modify or describe adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs. 
  • Adverbs commonly answer questions such as – why , where , how , and when . 
  • A key to identifying adverbs is that they usually end with ‘ly’. 

My dog eats very quickly when she is hungry. 

Parts of English speech

  • Prepositions are parts of speech in English that are usually placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase. They serve as the link between nouns and other words in a sentence. 
  • Prepositions describe the temporal, role, and spatial relations between words in a sentence. 

My children went to school on Saturday as well! 

  • Conjunctions help build complex sentences that can express multiple kinds of ideas. 
  • This word-class joins clauses, phrases, and words to indicate the relationship between the elements combined. 

I like oranges and pineapples, but I don’t like pineapples on pizza. 

  • Interjections are word classes that express emotion. 
  • These parts of speech in English can either stand by themselves or are usually contained within a sentence. 
  • Exclamation points commonly follow interjections. 

Oh my! That noise startled me. 

what are speeches in english language

  • English is the most commonly spoken language in the world. If you are considering pursuing academic or professional interests overseas, proficiency in English is a must. 
  • Understanding the different rules of spoken English can help you communicate as clearly and effectively as possible. 
  • There are 8 parts of speech in the language: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, & interjections. 
  • Understanding the role taken by each of these word classes can help you structure coherent and meaningful English sentences. 

We hope you found this blog informative. Don’t forget to comment below and share your thoughts! You can also  get in touch  with us if you have any doubts. 

Liked this blog? Read:  Top 5 motivational stories every student should know | Get inspired today!

Q1. What is an example of the main verb and a helping verb in a sentence? 

Answer – Here is an example – He can sing very well. 

In this sentence, can is the helping verb, and sing is the main verb. 

Q2. What are possessive pronouns? 

Answer – A specific kind of pronoun, possessive pronouns, commonly indicate ownership. 

Example – That bag is mine . 

Q3. Can nouns be used to show possession? 

Answer – Yes! Adding ‘s to a noun is the best way for this word class to show possession. Example – This is Sean ’s book.

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The Eight Parts of Speech

  • Prepositions
  • Conjunctions
  • Interjections
  • Basic Sentence Structure
  • Sentence Fragments
  • Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices
  • Sentence Type and Purpose
  • Independent and Dependent Clauses: Coordination and Subordination
  • Subject Verb Agreement
  • Consistent Verb Tense
  • Other Phrases: Verbal, Appositive, Absolute
  • Pronoun Reference
  • Relative Pronouns: Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses
  • Avoiding Modifier Problems
  • Transitions
  • Would, Should, Could
  • Achieving Parallelism
  • Definite and Indefinite Articles
  • Two-Word Verbs


There are eight parts of speech in the English language: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. The part of speech indicates how the word functions in meaning as well as grammatically within the sentence. An individual word can function as more than one part of speech when used in different circumstances. Understanding parts of speech is essential for determining the correct definition of a word when using the dictionary.


  • A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.

man... Butte College... house... happiness

A noun is a word for a person, place, thing, or idea. Nouns are often used with an article ( the , a , an ), but not always. Proper nouns always start with a capital letter; common nouns do not. Nouns can be singular or plural, concrete or abstract. Nouns show possession by adding 's . Nouns can function in different roles within a sentence; for example, a noun can be a subject, direct object, indirect object, subject complement, or object of a preposition.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher , and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Nouns" for further information.


  • A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.

She... we... they... it

A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. A pronoun is usually substituted for a specific noun, which is called its antecedent. In the sentence above, the antecedent for the pronoun she is the girl. Pronouns are further defined by type: personal pronouns refer to specific persons or things; possessive pronouns indicate ownership; reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize another noun or pronoun; relative pronouns introduce a subordinate clause; and demonstrative pronouns identify, point to, or refer to nouns.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Pronouns" for further information.


  • A verb expresses action or being.

jump... is... write... become

The verb in a sentence expresses action or being. There is a main verb and sometimes one or more helping verbs. (" She can sing." Sing is the main verb; can is the helping verb.) A verb must agree with its subject in number (both are singular or both are plural). Verbs also take different forms to express tense.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared . Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Verbs" for more information.


  • An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun.

pretty... old... blue... smart

An adjective is a word used to modify or describe a noun or a pronoun. It usually answers the question of which one, what kind, or how many. (Articles [a, an, the] are usually classified as adjectives.)

See the TIP Sheet on "Adjectives" for more information.


  • An adverb modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

gently... extremely... carefully... well

An adverb describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, but never a noun. It usually answers the questions of when, where, how, why, under what conditions, or to what degree. Adverbs often end in -ly.

See the TIP Sheet on "Adverbs" for more information.


  • A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence.

by... with.... about... until

(by the tree, with our friends, about the book, until tomorrow)

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence. Therefore a preposition is always part of a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase almost always functions as an adjective or as an adverb. The following list includes the most common prepositions:

See the TIP Sheet on "Prepositions" for more information.


  • A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses.

and... but... or... while... because

A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses, and indicates the relationship between the elements joined. Coordinating conjunctions connect grammatically equal elements: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet. Subordinating conjunctions connect clauses that are not equal: because, although, while, since, etc. There are other types of conjunctions as well.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

See the TIP Sheet on "Conjunctions" for more information.


  • An interjection is a word used to express emotion.

Oh!... Wow!... Oops!

An interjection is a word used to express emotion. It is often followed by an exclamation point.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my !

See the TIP Sheet on "Interjections" for more information.

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  • Speech Topics For Kids
  • Speech On The Importance Of English

Speech on the Importance of English Language

The English language plays a very important role in our lives. As a result of globalisation and with the help of the English language, the entire world has now become familiar to all people. It is considered the principal language of communication by many nations, and everyone has accepted it as the global language. Do you want to know more about the topic? Read the article for cues and tips, and prepare a mesmerising speech on the importance of the English language – one of the interesting speech topics for kids .

Table of Contents

Sample speeches on the importance of the english language, speech about the importance of learning english.

  • Importance of Learning English Speech

Frequently Asked Questions on the Importance of English Language

A couple of sample speeches are given below. Go through them, utilise the resources, and prepare a speech about the importance of the English language on your own.

Have you ever wondered about our condition if there was no common language like English to share our thoughts and feelings with one another? There are numerous languages in our world. Most countries have a national language, and there are multiple regional languages within a nation. The English language is a great boon in such situations; it serves as a common language and helps everyone to communicate.

The English language bridges the gap between nations and offers everyone the possibility of attaining wide exposure. The adoption of the English language as the principal source of communication has resulted in increasing international relationships in travel and tourism, education, business, entertainment, science, technology, and so on.

The English language helps individuals to transcend international boundaries and get a global reach. For example, a book written in English will get far better reach than a book written in any of the regional languages. A regional language has limitations; it cannot be understood by anyone who doesn’t know it; as a result, the audience will be minimal. A common language like English will eradicate this limitation and help everyone to connect with wider audiences. Similar is the condition for any content presented in English.

The worldwide reach of the English language is the main reason for setting English as the language of the internet. By knowing the English language, a person can easily access all the information on any topics that are available on the internet. English content like songs, movies, news, entertaining programmes, public events, and all can be enjoyed by everyone who knows the language. Like the words of Frank Smith, “One language sets you in a corridor for life. Two languages open every door along the way”. Let’s try to learn more languages and open every opportunity in our lives.

Speech on the Importance of Learning English

The English language was initially the national language of England. Later, as a result of British imperialism and colonisation, the language was introduced to many nations. Eventually, it became the primary and secondary language of their colonies, such as India, Australia, Sri Lanka, Canada etc. Gone are the times when the British ruled over more than half the world, but their language is still ruling almost half the entire world.

Today, nearly sixty-seven countries all over the world have declared English as their official language, and twenty-seven countries consider English as their secondary language. Without a second thought, we can declare the English language as one of the most dominant languages in the world.

The English language is the key to opening the door to the world. It is one of the most used languages in the world. The knowledge of the English language helps everyone to attain personal and professional growth. As a result, people all over the world have started to learn English as a second language. Many nations have included English as their second language in their school curriculums to assist students in learning English at a young age. Almost all the materials and subjects for learning are drafted in English to make it more accessible for everyone all around the world. The initiative of using the English language as a medium of instruction in schools and colleges brings a commonality to the structure of education and brings multiple positive impacts to the students.

Good communication skills in English is considered one of the most important soft skills required for an employee. Other than this benefit provided by the English language, it helps us understand different nations’ cultures. A piece of good knowledge in English guides us to travel to any new nation. With the support of good understanding and communication skills, a person can easily transfer ideas and thoughts to one another. An insight of the English language increases the chance of setting up a good career.

The impacts brought by the English language on our lives are boundless. Let’s realise the true potential of language and remember the words of Roger Bacon – “Knowledge of languages is the doorway to wisdom.”

How did English become a global language?

The English language is one of the most dominant languages in the world. The English language was initially the national language of England. Later, as a result of British imperialism and colonisation, the language got introduced to many nations. Eventually, it became the primary and secondary language of their colonies, such as India, Australia, Sri Lanka, Canada etc. Today, nearly sixty-seven countries all over the world have declared English as their official language, and twenty-seven countries consider English as their secondary language.

What is the importance of learning English?

The English language bridges the gap between nations and offers everyone the possibility of attaining wide exposure. The adoption of the English language as the principal source of communication has resulted in increasing international relationships in travel and tourism, education, business, entertainment, science, technology, and so on. The English language helps individuals to remove international boundaries and helps them to get a global reach.

List some advantages of the English language.

  • English is considered the principal language of communication by many nations, and everyone has accepted it as the global language.
  • The English language knowledge helps everyone attain personal and professional growth.
  • A piece of good knowledge in English guides us to travel to any new nations.
  • English helps every content creator to receive a wider audience.
  • The English language helps us to enjoy content like songs, movies, news, entertaining programmes, public events and so on.

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Dr. John Gartner: The world is watching "a fundamental breakdown in Trump’s ability to use language"

Experts say trump's decline may be "caused by his incapacity to manage the stress caused by multiple indictments", by chauncey devega.

It has become undeniably clear and obvious to any reasonable person that Donald Trump is experiencing increasing challenges with his speech, language, and memory during these last few weeks and months. Such a conclusion does not require a huge team of investigative journalists: a person only has to watch the corrupt ex-president’s speeches, interviews and other public behavior. For example, at a series of rallies and other events last weekend, Trump repeatedly confused one person with another. Like a broken computer in a science fiction movie, Trump appears to have moments where he cannot speak, appears lost in his thinking, and is more generally confused as he spouts nonsense words and non-sequiturs.

MediasTouch editor Ron Filipowski shared a montage online of 32 examples of Trump experiencing severe challenges during his recent speeches in Virginia and North Carolina last Saturday. 32 examples from just two speeches where the ex-president “mispronounced words, got confused, mixed up names, forgot names, and babbled insane nonsense.”

One of Donald Trump’s former advisors, Alyssa Farah Griffin of ABC's "The View", told CNN in an interview on Monday that Trump "is not as sharp as he was in 2016": 

I have said this before, he is not as sharp as he was in 2016 and not even as sharp as he was in 2020….Listen, he's never been a super articulate or eloquent person….But he's consistently missing up — uh, mixing up names of heads of state. He's mixing up names like Nancy Pelosi and Nikki Haley. I mean, this is it's gotten worse, it hasn't gotten better he's not nearly as sharp as he was.

Also on Monday, during an appearance on Morning Joe, MSNBC contributor Jonathan Lemire reported that Trump’s inner circle is aware of his apparent cognitive challenges and are trying to conceal them from the public:

We're seeing with more and more frequency, even as the media — and we talked about it earlier, how the weekend was full of polls and obsession about President Biden's age — it is this, Trump, who day after day is showing the signs of age but also pressure….because he is not getting as much of the share of the Republican vote as he'd like….Nikki Haley posting a win over the weekend. Pressure because of the money he now  owes , nearly half a billion dollars in a couple  cases  in New York City, and pressure that his first criminal case, a case that could theoretically put him in prison, starts in just three weeks. We are seeing it night after night on the rally stage, where he seems to even just lose control of the English language. Mika [Brzezinski] cringes, I can't help it either at the end of that clip. His team knows, but they're just forging forward.”

Whatever one may think of Donald Trump the political leader, and all of the evil and vile things he has done in that capacity, he is a human being who appears to be in crisis. Moreover, that Donald Trump is leading President Biden in the polls and has a real chance of becoming the next president of the United States should be a source of great alarm for anyone who claims to care about the well-being of the country and its future.

"The shift is radical and ominous."

In a series of widely-read conversations with me here at Salon, Dr. John Gartner, a prominent psychologist and contributor to the bestselling book "The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump: 27 Psychiatrists and Mental Health Experts Assess a President,” has issued the following, almost prophetic warnings, about the ex-president’s behavior:

I had to speak out now because the 2024 election might turn on this issue of who is cognitively capable: Biden or Trump? It's a major issue that will affect some people's votes. Not enough people are sounding the alarm, that based on his behavior, and in my opinion, Donald Trump is dangerously demented. In fact, we are seeing the opposite among too many in the news media, the political leaders and among the public. There is also this focus on Biden's gaffes or other things that are well within the normal limits of aging. By comparison, Trump appears to be showing gross signs of dementia. This is a tale of two brains. Biden's brain is aging. Trump's brain is dementing.

Continuing with this ongoing conversation, I asked Dr. Gartner, and several other leading mental health and medical professionals via email for their thoughts and insights about Donald Trump’s deeply troubling behavior last weekend (and more generally), what they believe is happening based on the public evidence, and what advice they would give Trump and those who care about him.  

Dr. John Gartner is a psychologist and former professor at the Johns Hopkins University Medical School. 

"In the past six months, Trump's rallies are filled with strange lapses of logic."

This is becoming a weekly ritual: A round-up of the latest behaviors evidencing Trump’s apparent dementia. For the eighth time, Trump announced that he was running against Obama. No one believed it when he said he was joking the first seven times, and he keeps saying it, showing just how deeply disoriented he is and how advanced his apparent dementia has become.

Trump is continuing to show more of these phonemic aphasias: “Venezuero” instead of Venezuela. He is also demonstrating semantic aphasias: “steak mountain or steak hill,” instead of “Snake mountain.” Trump is continuing to slur words. What is even more troubling is how Trump sometimes can’t form words at all but just makes sounds. For example, “Saudi Arabia and Russia will…. bluh-ub-bll….”

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And finally, there were more examples last week of a fundamental breakdown in Trump’s ability to use language, to think and to communicate. When Trump visited the border, he said: “Nobody [can] explain to me how allowing millions of people from places unknown, from countries unknown, who don’t speak languages — we have languages coming into our country, we have nobody that even speaks those languages. They are truly foreign languages. Nobody speaks them.” In my opinion, Donald Trump is getting worse as his cognitive state continues to degrade. If Trump were your relative, you’d be thinking about assisted care right now.

Harry Segal is a senior lecturer at Cornell University and Weill Cornell Medical School. He holds a Ph.D. in English Literature from Yale University and a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of Michigan. He also conducts a part-time practice in Ithaca, New York, and has written extensively on personality disorders.

I see a dramatic change since he announced his candidacy in November 2022. That speech was more typical of Trump during his presidency – he relied on the teleprompter, but his digressions were easy to follow even if they were filled with lies. But over the past year, his appearances have been erratic. Sometimes, as with the CNN Town Hall, he made few gaffes . But in the past six months, Trump's rallies are filled with strange lapses of logic. He has confused Biden with Obama, spoke of World War II, and has lapsed into bewildering digressions that are hard to follow. Only this weekend he said: “We have languages coming into our country that no one can speak,” a strange grasping for meaning, bordering on neologism. At other times, he seems to get lost in the middle of a sentence.

Since this is an intermittent problem, it suggests that when Trump is especially stressed and exhausted, he suffers cognitive slippage that affects the way he associates words or their meaning. Note, though, that Trump’s pathological lying is itself a form of mental illness, so these cognitive lapses are literally sitting atop what appears to be an already compromised psychological functioning.

"Trump’s pathological lying is itself a form of mental illness, so these cognitive lapses are literally sitting atop what appears to be an already compromised psychological functioning."

There seems to be an emerging difficulty maintaining linguistic control that may well be caused by his incapacity to manage the stress caused by his multiple indictments, court appearances, and huge legal fines. In addition, his daughter and son-in-law are no longer supporting him, and his wife hasn’t appeared with him in public at any of his rallies or victory speeches. This lack of support may be contributing to what appears to be his intermittent cognitive disorganization.

First, I would recommend a full neuro-psychological assessment to identify the deficits in his cognitive functioning. Given those results, I would then recommend limiting his daily activity, scheduling tasks that require high-level cognition early in the day to avoid “sun-downing,” and psychotherapy to explore the sources of stress contributing to mental difficulties. I would certainly recommend that he immediately cease running for president.

Vincent Greenwood, Ph.D, is the founder and executive director of the Washington Center For Cognitive Therapy, a mental health program that provides clinical services in the Washington D.C. area. He has worked as a research associate and training leader at Johns Hopkins University and the National Institute of Health. In 2020, he launched DutyToInform.org to disseminate information about the intersection of psychology and our recent political turmoil. He is the author of The Open And Shut Case Of Donald Trump.

In the past week, we have seen Trump say the following things which could indicate a larger problem with speech and cognition: “Putin has so little respect for Obama…we have a fool for a president." This is an example of mixing up people, not just an occasional mix-up of a name. It is similar to his going on and on about Nikki Haley being responsible for security at the Capitol rather than Nancy Pelosi.

Trump has displayed this kind of confusion with increasing regularity over the past few years. It is meaningful because the confusion of people, in contrast to the occasional forgetting of names, is a sign of early dementia, as noted by the Dementia Care Society.

In his speech in North Carolina, Trump said “migrant cime” leaving out the “r”; and was unable to say “Venezuela” which came out sounding like “Venezwheregull.” These are examples of what we call phonemic paraphasia which is associated with underlying brain damage.

Want a daily wrap-up of all the news and commentary Salon has to offer? Subscribe to our morning newsletter , Crash Course.

(Aphasia is the term we use for disorders of communication. Aphasia is a symptom of some other underlying condition, such as dementia, stroke or head injury. A phoneme is the smallest unit of speech - often a letter or two - that distinguishes one word from another. For example, the letter “r” in the word “far” separates that word from “fad,” “fan,” and “fat.” Phonemic paraphasia is the inappropriate substitution of one sound for the other).

We all stumble over and mispronounce words occasionally. This is not what is going on with Trump. The incidence of these kinds of mistakes takes him into this realm of phonemic paraphasia, which is a sign of underlying brain damage, not just aging. Even when compared to his speech of a few years ago, you can observe a noticeable difference. When you compare it to his speech as a middle-aged man, the shift is radical and ominous.

"I would certainly recommend that he immediately cease running for president."

Trump has also been displaying another kind of paraphasia, called semantic paraphasia, also associated with cognitive deterioration. (Semantic paraphasia involves choosing incorrect words). Last week in his South Carolina speech, he said, “soup pie cane” when he meant to say “supply chain,” and “lady, lady, lady,” when he meant to say “later.” As a younger man Trump’s linguistic style might be characterized as glib but was not marked by the use of the substitution of incorrect words. Semantic paraphasia is a qualitative marker - not of aging -but of underlying disease.

Trump’s unscripted speech of late has also revealed other signs of likely dementia. These include mid-thought change of subject, repetition of words, the use of fillers (“well,” “um,” “so,”), trouble formulating complete sentences not to mention paragraphs, getting words in the wrong order, and simpler word choice.

Loss of vocabulary is not a correlate of normal aging. If anything, there appears to be a slight increase in vocabulary as one gets into their seventies and eighties. It is noteworthy that Trump exhibits a markedly declining vocabulary with overreliance on superlatives over the years. He has gone from what might be described as possessing a somewhat sophisticated vocabulary to one sorely lacking in suppleness.

The key question at the moment regarding Trump’s fitness is the following one. Is there a significant change in his cognitive baseline and are the changes markers of disease rather than normal decline linked to aging? In my professional opinion, the answer to that two-part question is yes. Trump has shown a noteworthy decline in his linguistic competency from his previous baseline, and the decline exposes clinical signs of disorder, not simply aging.

about this topic

  • "Like someone pulled the metaphorical plug": Dr. John Gartner on Trump's "accelerating dementia"
  • Dr. John Gartner on a tale of two brains: "Biden's brain is aging. Trump's brain is dementing"
  • Trump's CPAC speech showed clear signs of major cognitive decline — yet MAGA cheered

Chauncey DeVega is a senior politics writer for Salon. His essays can also be found at  Chaunceydevega.com . He also hosts a weekly podcast,  The Chauncey DeVega Show . Chauncey can be followed on  Twitter  and  Facebook .

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what are speeches in english language

The English high street: Finally, Faversham is the town that got it right

Thank goodness local folk saved the medieval Abbey Street from demolition

Faversham in Kent

It was nearly as exhilarating walking through Faversham the other day as it was when I first enjoyed it 30 years ago. 

The great thing here is that one of the most beautiful medieval streets in the south of England had almost been demolished, but was saved by a few determined local people. 

The crisis for historic Faversham came when the 85-year-old owner of Arden’s House in Abbey Street gave notice of his intention to demolish the property unless he could sell it. Arden’s House had in the Middle Ages been the guest house of the town’s great abbey; its owner, Thomas Arden, did well out of the dissolution of the monasteries, but was murdered by his wife and her lover in 1551. The Elizabethan play about that, Arden of Faversham , was a smash hit.

Arden's House

But historical fame couldn’t save Arden’s House in the 20th century. A new school nearby didn’t want to use it, but a side road could be made if it was knocked down. Kent County Council said: “No objection will be raised to the owner’s proposal to demolish the building.” 

If the most historic house in Faversham could be knocked down (though a listed building) what could save dozens of others, in Abbey Street and the town centre – unwanted, ill-repaired and unsuited to modern needs? In a council meeting at the Guildhall, one Alderman remarked: “All Abbey Street wants is a bloody good fire.”

At the last minute John and Isabel Hallward stepped in by buying Arden’s House to live in. This was a lifetime ago, in 1957, and it was to see how attempts to preserve the old town had gone since that I was walking up from the station.

The walk was not strenuous. Like the Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Stakes at Ascot, it’s six furlongs on the flat. Just go northwards up Preston Street to the Market Place then keep going, along old Abbey Street to the Anchor public house (Shepherd Neame, welcomes dogs) at journey’s end. 

“David and Donna welcome you to the Railway Arms,” said the blackboard opposite the station, but I resisted. The shops of Preston Street were two-storey, built on traditional lines. Some homeless person had pitched a tent in the entrance of the empty Cain’s Cash Casino amusement arcade. Until recently, that would have made headlines. But now London has shamefully many such tents. This was the only one I saw in Faversham.

Nearer the Market Place, Preston Street was pedestrianised and paved in brick, with many a timber-framed building. Faversham folk seemed glad to talk about their town. A man getting into his car liked the place, but remembered when it was half the size of its present 20,000. He thought it was now “on the cusp” because new housing at the edges put pressure on doctors and schools.

At 76 Preston Street I saw a building that embodies the town’s history. The ground floor is the Spice Lounge Indian restaurant, sheltering between great oak timbers. The whole first floor looked like solid red brick, but had a mere skin of curious “mathematical tiles” nailed onto woodwork beneath. I’d come across them in Lewes in neighbouring Sussex. 

76 Preston Street

The idea in the 18th century was to lend old buildings regularity and finish. Here the facade was dominated by two beautiful Venetian windows – wide sashes with a central arch. At one corner the mathematical tiling had been broken off, revealing the planking beneath. The Georgian makeover of the old timber-frame building here must always have looked a little absurd, but I found it very enjoyable.

This refacing of buildings, some going back several hundred years, is characteristic of Faversham. It boasts 400 buildings listed for their special architectural and historic interest. On Historic England’s online map, they are strung along the central streets like swallows on telegraph wires ready to migrate.

The Guildhall, Faversham

Just before the Market Place stands a rendered and painted house with a jettied first floor supported on a long bressumer beam. It is 15th-century, once called the Flower-de-Luce Inn, refaced in the 18th-century and now a secondhand bookshop run by the Faversham Society. 

Inside, Richard, a volunteer like all the staff, told me that selling donated books is the society’s biggest source of income. “I came to live here nine years ago, and it was the best thing I ever did.” I would see a little later how important the Faversham Society has been.

First, there were two more enjoyable absurdities in Market Place. (The market claims to be celebrating its 1,000th anniversary.) One was the Royal Cinema, built in 1936. Astonishingly, to go with surrounding buildings, it was constructed in Tudor style, with a great first-floor diamond-paned window and a lead turret in the middle. It is now an independent cinema with Kung Fu Panda 4 , but also a National Theatre Live production of The Motive and the Cue .

The Royal Cinema

Most gloriously, in the middle of the square stood the Guildhall, like Noah’s Ark moored to a church tower. The ground floor was of massive timber arches in three rows, sheltering market goods and a Victorian pump painted red and gold. In 1814 the big first floor was given a classical overcoat, like the Spice Lounge. 

All around, buildings cheek by jowl hemmed in a busy open space. Behind the Guildhall was the Bear (Victorian in front, Elizabethan behind). Beside it, a yarn shop sported a studded medieval door. 

At the corner with West Street a very old house looked as though it shouldn’t be standing at all. Its ground floor walls were a continuous 18th-century shop front. The two floors above were jettied and zagged with bay windows. Altogether it looked like an untidy pile of cardboard boxes, with windows seeming to support brick walls. Once again these were of mathematical tiles, later painted with a pink wash. 

Just at the moment this building is empty. Application has been made for a chicken restaurant to open there. The Faversham Society is not happy. It “formally and strongly objects to the proposals for internal and external alterations and to the proposed fascia advertisement sign”. It gives reasons, technical and factual. 

Such planning representations take time and resources. Faversham’s special need for them is demonstrated by Abbey Street, which stretches north from the Market Place. On a gate pillar by Nos 3 and 4, a plaque says: “One of Britain’s finest medieval streets, saved from demolition and restored in 1958. Among those responsible were Frederick Bishop, John Hallward, Geoffrey King, Herbert Richards, Sydney Wilson.”

It was right to name the heroes, and there were a few more. A handful of dedicated people stood against the destruction of this quarter-mile of medieval street. It had fallen into poverty, overcrowding and disrepair. Four two-room cottages had 20 people living in them, with shared lavatories at the end of the garden; they were demolished as “slum clearance”. This, wrote the architectural historian Ian Nairn, “had been the bad end of town for a long time. ‘Nice people don’t go there’.”

On May 27 1958, The Daily Telegraph reported that the council “is to appeal to owners in preserving the street”. David Nye, a leading member of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, was to submit a detailed report to the council.

A 1958 edition of The Daily Telegraph

Nye stressed the need to conserve the street as a whole, not just outstanding buildings. “The sum was greater than the individual parts.” With demolition still in the balance, one of the names on the gate pillar, Frederick Bishop, was appointed town clerk and in 1965 drew up a paper making the case for refurbishing the street.

The council began a scheme to buy houses under slum-clearance powers and rehouse their tenants. Then instead of demolishing historic houses, it sold them to sympathetic owners who made a legal covenant to restore them. The council bought smaller houses for £250 each and sold them for £300. Gradually Abbey Street looked less dilapidated. Pavements were widened, trees planted. 

Some old buildings remain under threat today. The timber-framed 15th-century Town Warehouse by the Creek needs repair. It is known as Training Ship Hazard (named after a ship that Faversham sent to fight the Armada) because it is used by the Sea Scouts. If repaired for £1 million or more, what other uses might it have and how could it be financed? Faversham Town Council and Swale Borough Council are at odds over its future.

The 15th-century Town Warehouse

Faversham has avoided becoming an empty museum. Abbey Street used to have five pubs and five general stores (the modest Victorian windows of which now light domestic sitting rooms). For shopping today, people go to the big Tesco superstore occupying some of the huge old Rigden brewery in the middle of town, which closed in 1990. There’s a Sainsbury’s west of the town, an Aldi south of it. Lidl has closed, as has Morrisons. The nearest Waitrose is in Canterbury. 

The empty former Morrisons supermarket

So Faversham town centre is pretty good, but not perfect. When I dropped into the Phoenix (dating from the 1330s) the barman said they didn’t take cash. It wasn’t the effect of the pandemic so much as the closure of the bank, which meant a drive to Canterbury instead. 

When I reached journey’s end, at the ultimate north of Abbey Street, I walked over to the long, low, timbered, tiled bulk of the Anchor public house, which made me think of the Admiral Benbow in Treasure Island , and opened the door. Or tried to. It was locked while the place was redecorated. I hear it is open again now. I’d like to return. 

Which English high street would you like to see featured? 

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Many Black Americans speak African American English. But is it embraced in schools?

what are speeches in english language

Geneva Smitherman ended up in speech therapy in her freshman year at Wayne State University in the 1950s, when she failed a test to screen incoming teaching students for possible speech problems.

The speech therapy class was largely made up of people of color, including Black students like Smitherman, who spoke in Black English, a language spoken by many Black people across the country. The teaching assistant leading the class quickly realized that neither Smitherman nor most of the other students had speech impairments the test screened for, such as stuttering. They just spoke differently, pronouncing words contrary to standard American English and used different phrases.

Being placed in a speech class made Smitherman mad, but she was used to being underestimated. As a child, her family was among Black Southerners who migrated north where good-paying jobs were plenty in the Midwest and to escape Jim Crow laws. When she moved north from Tennessee, Smitherman recalled, she was placed in second grade when her school records indicated she was supposed to be in third, even though she'd already learned to read.

"I was just repeating stuff I learned already," she said.

After getting placed in speech therapy, Smitherman committed her career to teaching and researching sociolinguistics, African American language specifically, and its place in the country. She's a co-founder of the African American and African Studies Department at Michigan State University. Multiple professors raised her name as one of the foundational researchers in African American English and its treatment in schools. Smitherman was also a central expert in a federal court case in Ann Arbor, a battle that revolved around the treatment of Black English speakers learning to read.

As debates rage across the country over the way children learn to read and state lawmakers work to adopt measures that would promote the science of reading in schools, there's an oft-overlooked component to teaching children how to read: the language in which students speak, and specifically the language many Black students speak.

Embracing the language that some Black students speak can encourage literacy, education leaders say. But other scholars still say there's work to be done to embrace Black English in the classroom and in understanding the most effective ways to teach speakers how to read and stoke enthusiasm about reading and literature as they age.

Black English, or African American English, is a language spoken among Black Americans, according to scholars. The language originated as Africans and Europeans interacted during the slave trade, according to Smitherman.

Raven L. Jones, an associate professor of teacher education at Michigan State University and co-founder of the Zuri Reads Initiative, which promotes literacy across metro Detroit, said the word "Yo" is one example of another way to say "hello" or refer to something as "your" in African American English. Jones wants her students, prospective teachers, to understand that there are many valid ways of speaking, reading and articulating ideas, including in academic environments.

"I'm not saying that there shouldn't be a certain criticality or skill set that you bring into these environments," she said. "But they should also be representative of who you are."

Ann Arbor school was front-and-center in Black English debate

An Ann Arbor school in the late 1970s was once central in a court battle that started out about literacy and morphed into a case around Black English.

In July 1977, about a dozen Black children attending Martin Luther King Jr. Elementary School sued Ann Arbor Public Schools, claiming the district was providing an inadequate education. While the school was largely white, according to news stories from that time, the students who sued lived in public housing, and the suit claimed a higher proportion of students living in the public housing development were classified as students with disabilities, which they claimed was not a proper designation. Many of the students in the suit struggled to read.

As the suit evolved, the judge limited the case to a language barrier issue. Attorneys with the Student Advocacy Center argued the children did not possess learning disabilities, but instead spoke African American English, a language the school's white teachers struggled to grasp or accept.

Smitherman, now a distinguished professor emerita at Michigan State University, was tapped as an expert in the case.

"This failure of the teachers to recognize the language as legitimate and the corresponding negative attitudes toward the children's language led to negative expectations of the children which turned into self-fulfilling prophecies," Smitherman wrote in 1981, reflecting on the case. "One critical consequence was that the childrenwere not being taught to read."

A federal district court judge ruled in July 1979 that the school district had discriminated against the students due to the language barrier. According to a Free Press article from that time, the district was ordered to better train its teachers to understand Black English. Later, in 1997, the children and mothers involved in the case expressed mixed feelings about its outcome, and whether the training teachers received made a difference.

Still, the case remains a milepost for a larger discussion of African American English in schools.

In 1980, 5,000 people came to a symposium organized by Smitherman at Wayne State University, where the writer and civil rights activist James Baldwin delivered an address on Black English, telling the crowd that "all Americans speak an English that has been transformed by language of Black Americans." The symposium brought Baldwin, attorneys from the case and other education leaders together, who spoke about the impact of the judge's decision and the broader treatment of Black students in reading instruction.

Teaching African American English

African American English still isn't fully embraced in the classroom, scholars and advocates said, but Smitherman and others said they're optimistic that educators today are doing a better job of responding to students who speak the language. And research by dozens of linguistics scholars, many of whom are in Michigan, has contributed to understanding the nuances and particulars of the language, including its role in the classroom and reading instruction.

Yolanda Holt, a professor in the department of communication sciences and disorders and sociolinguist at East Carolina University, said consciously involving community members in research around reading and language is crucial to understanding how educators can better teach students who speak African American English.

"All languages have value; if the child is able to communicate effectively, that's good," she said. "We want to use the language that they bring to school to engage them with literacy practices."

Often, the conversation around African American English has seen the language as a deficit that needs to be addressed in school, Holt said, instead of an asset. And much of the broader research and dialogue around how children learn to read, often referred to as the science of reading, often leaves out the science of how African American English speakers learn to read, Holt said.

One important nuance, Holt explained, is how African American English speakers might pronounce certain words. While words like "knob" are often universally pronounced the same way, there might be variations in how a child pronounces the word "fire," for example. An African American English speaker might pronounce fire like "fiyah." Using a science of reading approach, teachers often help students through phonics, mapping sounds to letters. But they may not take into account different pronunciations or language variations or may see the different pronunciation as a problem.

If a student is using the "fiyah" pronunciation of the word, Holt said, "You have to direct them: 'Well, there's an 'R' sound on the end. ... So I understand what you're saying and that's perfect and beautiful, but we want to make sure that when you're reading, writing and listening, that we map that,' " she said. "That's a really simple thing. But we rarely see that talked about in the literature."

Jamesia Nordman, a professor of English at Grand Valley State University who has taught English Language Arts and English across different grade levels, said, like Spanish speakers, young African American English speakers tend to oscillate between languages, from African American English to standard American English (SAE).

Teachers should "let them vacillate between AAE and SAE, and gradually teach them the SAE rules and mechanics and things like that. ... I think you just teach them in conjunction with one another," Nordman said.

'A place of understanding'

Beyond the mechanics of reading instruction, there's another dimension to understanding African American English in classrooms: embracing it and showing children that they should value their language, Nordman said.

"It is a language, it's not slang," she said. "We need to teach our kids that they're both valid and valuable."

Nordman didn't always feel like her first language, African American English, was seen as valuable as a student growing up in Detroit, and felt she was often made to feel ashamed for the way she spoke, constantly being corrected. In college at Eastern Michigan University, people always noted her "accent," even though she was from Detroit, a 40-minute drive to EMU's campus.

"It would have been really powerful if I had been able to come from a place of understanding," she said.

To foster inclusion and hone a passion for reading, school libraries, classroom bookshelves and required reading should include books that include African American English, Nordman and others said. Some examples: "Game" by Walter Dean Myers, "Bud, Not Buddy" by Christopher Paul Curtis, "The Hate U Give" by Angie Thomas, and "An Ode to the Fresh Cut" by Derrick Barnes.

Jones said to show they value the identities and experiences of students, educators can teach standard and Black English ideas side-by-side. For example, she said, standard English-speakers might say, "I'm OK." But there are other ways of communicating that in different communities, such as: "I'm straight," "We alright" and "I'm good."

"Even though standard English is telling us one way of being and saying, it's the same with African American English: we're doing the same thing just in a different way, which is more culturally responsive to our needs," Jones said. "Sometimes, I'm not going to get out of 'To Kill a Mockingbird' what I'm going to get out of 'Push' by Sapphire, and 'Push' is saturated with African American English."

Research around African American English is ongoing, and Holt encourages Detroit residents, if asked to participate in such research, to ask questions about the research being conducted, and to ask whether researchers are engaging Black families as part of that research process.

"African American English, it's positive, it's not going anywhere," she said. "We want to encourage people to use a language that speaks to their soul."

Smitherman is optimistic. Attitudes around "everything that's not the queen's English" have changed for the better, she said, adding, "I feel very good about the changes that have been made and that I've been a part of."

Contact Lily Altavena: [email protected].

April 1, 2024

Does My Child Have a Speech Delay?

It’s hard to know whether a toddler needs help with early speech. Here are some tips and guidelines

By Yolanda F. Holt

Mother talking to young son outdoors

The Good Brigade/Getty Images

This piece is part of Scientific American's column The Science of Parenting. To learn more, go here .

My son Grayson was about two and a half years old when his preschool teacher called me. A child development specialist had visited his classroom and had some concerns about his development.

As a speech-language pathologist , I had been carefully monitoring my twins’ development since they were born, so I was surprised to receive the call. Even so, I was terrified that I had missed some critical issue in his development. I wondered: What if the specialist misdiagnosed my child? I couldn’t decide which scenario was worse: if I had missed something myself, or if my child was about to be misidentified. As those thoughts raced through my head, I asked to have the specialist call me immediately. I listened as she described Grayson’s typically developing motor and social/emotional abilities. Then she described his speech as mostly not intelligible.

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The specialist was telling me she thought my son had a developmental delay in his speech and language.

My experience is not unique. Every day in the U.S., some parent will field this sort of unsettling phone call about their child.

As a speech-language pathologist, I understand the duty to connect with parents to share professional concerns. As a parent, I understand how scary and confusing these calls can be. My son was two and a half! How many children that age engage in intelligible conversations with a stranger? Fortunately for all of us there are some benchmarks we can use to help us understand typical speech and language development and where our children’s skills fall.

Hearing : In the U.S. and other industrialized nations, audiologists test hospital-delivered newborns before the babies go home. While the child is sleeping, the audiologist places a small probe (sort of like an earbud) in the baby’s ear. The probe sends a signal into the ear. That signal causes organs in the ear to vibrate and send the signal back to the device. This hearing test is safe, short and causes no discomfort to a sleeping newborn. If they fail, a second test is completed with the audiologist sometime later. If additional testing reveals a hearing difficulty the child will receive early interventions. These can include family training, baby hearing aids or perhaps a cochlear implant. Parent counseling is also a part of this process. Speech and hearing professionals will work with the family to ensure the child never misses out on early language development because of a hearing difficulty.

Listening : Between birth and 18 months, children listen to the sounds of the language(s) spoken around them and learn the rules to combine those sounds to make words. They learn where to add stress or pauses, or to get louder in case you weren’t listening. There are universal linguistic rules , including the general order of speech sound acquisition, word acquisition and sentence development that are relatively consistent across languages. If an infant does not respond to environmental sounds or the voice of the caregiver, or a 4–10-month-old baby does not coo, babble and make many different sounds, or a 12-month-old is not attempting to say words “mama, dada, bubu, uh-oh,” you should consider a hearing evaluation .

What’s interesting is that children in multilingual households (even children with developmental disorders) don’t mix up the rules for different languages. For example a child learning both Mandarin (a tone-based language where rises and falls in pitch change word meaning) and English (which has different rules to change word meaning) doesn’t apply the English rules to Mandarin. So the final pitch rise typically produced to indicate an English question—“Can I go?”—won’t be used to distinguish questions from statements in Mandarin.

Telling : Children learning multiple languages may demonstrate a longer learning period (they have more to learn) than monolingual language-learners. However, the quality and quantity of language output for typically developing mono- and multilingual children should be roughly equivalent. Parents who grew up in households where multiple languages were spoken may be familiar with this construct. If, however you are new to this experience you may find your multilingual child spends more time using one language over the other; or speaks to one caregiver exclusively in one language; or responds in English to questions posed in another language. All these behaviors are typical. Parents of mono- and multilingual children should reach out for help if their child (a) doesn’t respond in the expected manner in any language; (b) has trouble following simple instructions; or (c) does not name, tell, comment, request using from one to four words by the age of three.

Children learn to talk through practice, even if we sometimes don’t understand it. Based on what parents report to researchers , strangers typically understand about 25 percent of the words spoken by a one-year-old. For typically developing children speech intelligibility increases at a rate of around 25 percent each year so by age four most children should be understood by most people nearly 100 percent of the time. At two and a half, a child would be roughly 50 percent understandable to unfamiliar listeners.

Understanding : At two and a half, a child can understand between 100 to 500 words, but may only use 50 to 150 words . The child will arrange those words to communicate many ideas such as “all gone,” “dada go night-night” and other routine phrases. Over time and with practice the toddler’s receptive (listening) and expressive (telling) vocabulary increases exponentially. By age three vocabulary may grow to 1,000 words, and by age five the young pre-reader may have a vocabulary of around 10,000 words. Child speech and language development are roughly the same regardless of languages used, family income or family structure.

In our case Grayson’s speech was just below the developmental target for his age. As the specialist observed, he said lots of words; she just didn’t understand most of them. She made the responsible decision to call us and share her concerns. Although we were quite surprised, we listened to her concerns and discussed them as a family. We chose not to pursue early intervention. Instead, we continued to read and talk to Grayson and his twin every day. By age three, both twins were well above the developmental milestones expected for their age.

Our choice not to pursue therapy was based on several factors. As a speech pathologist, I had the training to provide support at home. As a result of frequent chronic ear infections, Grayson had ear tubes placed at 18 months. His ear infections could have negatively affected his language development, but still Grayson was not three months behind the milestones. Without this knowledge and the intervention we could provide at home, we would have accepted the referral.

In thinking about a child’s speech and language development, parents need to remember that hearing is foundational for both. Children develop language only by interacting with other people. For more information, the CDC provides a helpful checklist to assist parents in deciding when to ask their pediatrician for a speech and language referral. In general, if children are three months behind in one or more areas, a request for referral, to a speech language pathologist or child development specialist, is probably a good idea. Talk to your pediatrician. As parents we all want to provide the greatest opportunity for our children’s success. Creating a language-rich environment by talking with, reading with and listening to your child is one of the best ways to do that.

This is an opinion and analysis article, and the views expressed by the author or authors are not necessarily those of Scientific American .

  • Publication of IIMM Analytical Reports

Mar 27, 2024

Reports on Myanmar military’s anti-Rohingya hate speech campaign and Myanmar authorities’ failure to investigate and punish sexual violence committed against Rohingya

Statement by Nicholas Koumjian, Head of the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar

Geneva, 27 March 2024 – Today the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar is publicly releasing two analytical reports. One report details the Myanmar military’s covert Facebook network that systematically distributed hate speech against the Rohingya at the time of the 2017 clearance operations. The second report examines the response of Myanmar state authorities to allegations of sexual and gender-based crimes committed by security forces against the Rohingya. This report concludes that the authorities failed in their duty under international law to investigate and punish these acts.

These reports form a small part of the evidence and analysis that the Mechanism has shared with authorities working on ongoing cases concerning the Rohingya at the International Criminal Court, the International Court of Justice and in Argentina.

These two reports have been made public on an exceptional basis. The vast majority of the material the Mechanism has collected and analyzed must remain confidential. Confidentiality protects the security and privacy of witnesses and sources. It is also standard procedure to maintain the confidentiality of ongoing criminal investigations before evidence is presented at trial to prevent efforts to hide or destroy evidence, to protect the integrity of witness testimony, and to avoid alerting suspects who could evade arrest or detection.

However, the Mechanism recognizes that there is a significant public interest in our work, and we aim to be transparent whenever possible. Perhaps some of our analysis can be used by others to advance the purpose of creating the Mechanism: ensuring accountability for the most serious international crimes committed in Myanmar and contributing to ending the very worst violence inflicted upon Myanmar’s people.

After careful evaluation we have decided to publish these reports. Some redactions have been made in the versions of the reports released today in order to preserve future investigative opportunities, avoid disclosing information that could assist perpetrators’ efforts to destroy or conceal evidence, and protect the safety and privacy of witnesses, sources and other persons. The material that has been redacted includes several annexes to the hate speech report.

Report on hate speech

The hate speech report provides a rigorous analysis of content posted on 43 Facebook Pages between July and December 2017. All of these Pages were removed by Facebook in 2018. Six Pages were removed because they were connected to individuals or organizations that Facebook banned from the platform as international experts had found evidence that they had “committed or enabled serious human rights abuses (in Myanmar)”. The other 37 Pages were removed for engaging in “coordinated inauthentic behaviour” in violation of the company’s misrepresentation policies. 1

The Mechanism’s analysis concluded that these seemingly unrelated Pages, some of which were devoted to celebrity news and popular culture, were part of a network with clear ties to the Myanmar military. These Pages often shared creators, administrators, and editors and regularly posted material using the same IP addresses used by the Myanmar military. Identical material was often posted on multiple Pages in this network, sometimes within minutes. The report identifies more than 10,000 posts on these Pages that the Mechanism considered hate speech. One such post received more than 200 comments calling for Rohingya to be shot, killed, or permanently removed from Myanmar.

The report concludes that at the very time of mass violence against the Rohingya, the Myanmar military was carrying out a coordinated hate speech campaign against the group. 

Report on failure to investigate and punish sexual and gender-based crimes

The report analyzes how state authorities in Myanmar responded to multiple allegations of sexual and gender-based crimes against the Rohingya during the 2016 and 2017 clearance operations.

Under international law, military and civilian leaders are obliged to investigate and, where appropriate, punish acts of those under their command that could amount to serious international crimes, including acts of sexual violence. Furthermore, rape can constitute an underlying act of genocide if committed with the intent to destroy a group. Therefore, the failure to investigate and punish these crimes could amount to a violation of Myanmar’s obligations under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

The report summarizes a variety of material that was publicly available about sexual and gender-based crimes against the Rohingya during the clearance operations, including information published by the media, NGOs and various UN bodies, as well as discussions in the UN Security Council and findings of the International Criminal Court Pre-Trial Chamber and demonstrates that Myanmar state authorities would have been aware of these very serious allegations. The report then examines the response of Myanmar state authorities, including several investigations and inquiries, and explains why these were grossly inadequate both in the process and the results. The report notes that there is no evidence that any soldier or police officer was charged or prosecuted for sexual and gender-based crimes, nor any commander dismissed, demoted, or sanctioned for failing to stop or punish those committing these crimes.

The Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar (IIMM or Mechanism) was created by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2018 to collect and analyze evidence of the most serious international crimes and other violations of international law committed in Myanmar since 2011. It aims to facilitate justice and accountability by preserving and organizing this evidence and preparing case files that can be used by authorities to prosecute individuals in national, regional, and international courts.

For more information, visit   iimm.un.org  or contact   [email protected]

  • “Removing Myanmar Military Officials from Facebook”, 28 August 2018, https://about.fb.com/news/2018/08/removing-myanmar-officials ↩︎

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Gato Grande Ups Megan Espinoza and Moises Amsel to VPs of Development for New English-Language Unit (EXCLUSIVE)

By Anna Marie de la Fuente

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  • Gato Grande Ups Megan Espinoza and Moises Amsel to VPs of Development for New English-Language Unit (EXCLUSIVE) 1 day ago
  • Onza Distribution Snaps Up Sports Docs From Wakai and Prime Video Spain (EXCLUSIVE) 6 days ago
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Moises Amsel and Megan Espinoza

Gato Grande , an Amazon MGM Studios company, has upped Megan Espinoza and Moises Amsel to the positions of VPs of Film & TV Development in the company’s newly-launched English-language division.

Espinoza and Amsel will assume responsibility for the daily operations of the new unit, focusing on the creation of original intellectual property in English for both TV and film, sourced from Latin American IP. Additionally, they will be tasked with identifying and managing projects to be developed and produced under the Gato Grande label.

Espinoza will center on comedy and Young Adult content for both TV and Film, starting with the recently unveiled satirical mystery series “Miami Spice,” based on the novel “Mango, Mambo and Murder” from author Raquel V. Reyes’ celebrated Caribbean Kitchen Mystery book series.

Amsel will oversee drama and thriller projects for all media, including the previously announced adventure/survival drama series “Clipperton,” based on the best-selling Colombian author Laura Restrepo’s widely-acclaimed debut novel, “The Isle of Passion.”

“At Gato Grande, I have the creative freedom to dive into the kind of innovative, character-driven stories that I have always been passionate about,” said Espinoza, adding: ”I feel incredibly lucky to be part of a team that has been so open to pursuing unique IP; the properties we’ve acquired have attracted passionate and incredibly talented creators, and I can’t wait to share our current slate of projects with the world.”

Espinoza’s decade of experience in the entertainment industry started at Warner Bros. Television before she oversaw development for Ted Melfi’s Goldenlight Films. While at Gato Grande, she handled the creative development of the company’s award-winning documentary series, “Libre de Reír.”

Prior to taking this position, Amsel oversaw development for Latin America and executive produced the documentary series “Monstruos,” which is currently in post for Paramount+. 

The new division was launched in late January in a bid to explore the wealth of stories coming from the region. To that end, Vargas Gonzalez announced a multi-million-dollar budget to draw on more Latin American IP and adapt them for mainstream audiences worldwide, a strategy that more Iberoamerican-led companies have been pursuing.

Founded by the Emmy-nominated Vargas Gonzalez, the bi-cultural company with offices in Los Angeles and Mexico is 50% owned by MGM, which was acquired by Amazon for $8.5 billion in 2022. The company has produced Latin-American hit: “Luis Miguel: The Series” (Netflix) and “Libre de reír “(Prime Video) among several others.

Gato Grande is represented by Brian Dobbins and Kimberlin Belloni at Artists First. 

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Two study leaders speak to participants in a computer lab

USF research reveals language barriers limit effectiveness of cybersecurity resources

  • April 1, 2024

Research and Innovation

By: John Dudley , University Communications & Marketing

The idea for Fawn Ngo’s latest research came from a television interview.

Ngo, a University of South Florida criminologist, had spoken with a Vietnamese language network in California about her interest in better understanding how people become victims of cybercrime.

Afterward, she began receiving phone calls from viewers recounting their own experiences of victimization.

Fawn Ngo

Fawn Ngo, associate professor in the USF College of Behavioral and Community Sciences

“Some of the stories were unfortunate and heartbreaking,” said Ngo, an associate professor in the USF College of Behavioral and Community Sciences. “They made me wonder about the availability and accessibility of cybersecurity information and resources for non-English speakers. Upon investigating further, I discovered that such information and resources were either limited or nonexistent.”

The result is what’s believed to be the first study to explore the links among demographic characteristics, cyber hygiene practices and cyber victimization using a sample of limited English proficiency internet users.

Ngo is the lead author of an article, “Cyber Hygiene and Cyber Victimization Among Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Internet Users: A Mixed-Method Study,” which just published in the journal Victims & Offenders. The article’s co-authors are Katherine Holman, a USF graduate student and former Georgia state prosecutor, and Anurag Agarwal, professor of information systems, analytics and supply chain at Florida Gulf Coast University. 

Their research, which focused on Spanish and Vietnamese speakers, led to two closely connected main takeaways:

  • LEP internet users share the same concern about cyber threats and the same desire for online safety as any other individual. However, they are constrained by a lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate resources, which also hampers accurate collection of cyber victimization data among vulnerable populations.
  • Online guidance that provides the most effective educational tools and reporting forms is only available in English. The most notable example is the website for the Internet Crime Complaint Center, which serves as the FBI’s primary apparatus for combatting cybercrime.

As a result, the study showed that many well-intentioned LEP users still engage in such risky online behaviors as using unsecured networks and sharing passwords. For example, only 29 percent of the study’s focus group participants avoided using public Wi-Fi over the previous 12 months, and only 17 percent said they had antivirus software installed on their digital devices.

Previous research cited in Ngo’s paper has shown that underserved populations exhibit poorer cybersecurity knowledge and outcomes, most commonly in the form of computer viruses and hacked accounts, including social media accounts. Often, it’s because they lack awareness and understanding and isn’t a result of disinterest, Ngo said.

“According to cybersecurity experts, humans are the weakest link in the chain of cybersecurity,” Ngo said. “If we want to secure our digital borders, we must ensure that every member in society, regardless of their language skills, is well-informed about the risks inherent in the cyber world.”

The study’s findings point to a need for providing cyber hygiene information and resources in multiple formats, including visual aids and audio guides, to accommodate diverse literacy levels within LEP communities, Ngo said. She added that further research is needed to address the current security gap and ensure equitable access to cybersecurity resources for all internet users.

In the meantime, Ngo is working to create a website that will include cybersecurity information and resources in different languages and a link to report victimization.

“It’s my hope that cybersecurity information and resources will become as readily accessible in other languages as other vital information, such as information related to health and safety,” Ngo said. “I also want LEP victims to be included in national data and statistics on cybercrime and their experiences accurately represented and addressed in cybersecurity initiatives.” 

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    Holly Niemi walked around her Baldwin High School classroom one day earlier this month, listening as students in her third period English as a second language...

  28. Amazon MGM's Gato Grande promotes Megan Espinoza, Moises ...

    Gato Grande, an Amazon MGM Studios company, has upped Megan Espinoza and Moises Amsel to the positions of VPs of Film & TV Development in the company's newly-launched English-language division. ...

  29. In Haiti, Türk reports "unprecedented" violations

    Excellencies,Distinguished delegates,This session on Haiti is taking place at a critical moment for the country.A situation that was already alarming has deteriorated rapidly in recent weeks. This is clearly documented in the report presented by my Office today.Haiti is in the grip of total chaos which started with civil unrest at the beginning of the year.

  30. USF research reveals language barriers limit effectiveness of

    By: John Dudley, University Communications & Marketing The idea for Fawn Ngo's latest research came from a television interview. Ngo, a University of South Florida criminologist, had spoken with a Vietnamese language network in California about her interest in better understanding how people become victims of cybercrime.