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IELTS Writing Task 2: Government ( Discussion Essay)

Governments should support care vs finance for retired people while others believe that they should save money when they get older.

Discuss both views and give your opinion?

Sample Answer :

It is true that elderly people who have retired are in great need of care and financial support. Although I accept that the government should look after and financially support them, they need to have their own savings because the national budget does not suffice to pay for everything each citizen needs in their life.

On the one hand, it is necessary for the government to provide care and financial aid for retired citizens because each of them has certain contributions to society. Economically, some people enrich the national budget through the taxes they pay, while others spend money on commodities and services when going shopping, which allows businesses to earn profits and pay taxes as well. Such taxes can be used by the authorities to develop their country, such as building hospitals, and pay for officials like police officers or politicians. As a way of compensation for their devotion in their youth, the government ought to offer the elderly money-related assistance and care services, for example, regular free-of-charge health checkup.

On the other hand, the elderly should not entirely rely on the governmental support as this can cause a huge financial burden on the state budget. However wealthy a country can be, it can hardly satisfy each of their people’s demands, so every individual in society should save their own money to cover their non-essential expenses. Without a sum of savings, they would face a lot of difficulties when they need to afford entertainment or new fashion items. It is not advisable for the government to spend excessive amounts of money on public welfare as this will harm the budget used to solve pressing social issues such as environmental pollution or the housing crisis.

In conclusion, I believe the government should assist retirees with money and take care of them, but it is each retiree that needs to save certain amounts of money to stay financially independent.

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Government Spending Essays – IELTS Writing

Posted by David S. Wills | Feb 21, 2022 | IELTS Tips , Writing | 0

Government Spending Essays – IELTS Writing

In IELTS writing task 2, it is quite common to be asked about how governments should spend their money. In fact, I see this so frequently that it is almost a unique topic!

Today, I want to show you a few essays about government spending, looking at some sample answers and language points so that you can better understand how to approach this sort of essay.

Government Spending Essays for Task 2

First of all, let’s look at three IELTS task 2 questions that deal with government spending:

The prevention of health problems and illness is more important than treatment and medicine. Government funding should reflect this. To what extent do you agree?
The world today is a safer place than it was a hundred years ago, and governments should stop spending large amounts of money on their armed forces. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
The restoration of old buildings in major cities around the world causes enormous government expenditure. This money should be used for new housing and road development. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

The first question is about how governments should spend money on healthcare , the second is about whether or not they should spend money for military purposes , and the third is about maintaining old building s. As you can see, then, the issue of government funding could be applied to a range of areas.

Also, note the different words and phrases used to introduce the idea of government spending. In the first, it is “government funding,” in the second, “spending” is a verb,” and in the third, it says “government expenditure.”

Vocabulary about Government Spending

When it comes to the topic of government spending, you obviously need to be able to discuss money and specifically large amounts of money. You need to know words and phrases related to government expenditure. Here are some useful ones:

All of these words and phrases will be used in my sample answers below.

You can also see some money idioms here:

When it comes to money verbs, don’t forget that we need to collocate them with certain prepositions. Typically, we say “spend money on”, “invest money in,” or “allocate money for”. There are other common collocations as well. Here are a few examples:

  • He spent his birthday money on a new pair of shoes.
  • She spent most of her budget on building a social media following.
  • We’re going to invest in Apple.
  • They invested too much money in that doomed project.
  • We saved money on our gas bill by switching providers.

Finally, be careful with the word “budget.” This is one word that I see misused very frequently in IELTS essays. Here is a visual lesson about it, which I posted on Facebook .

government essay ielts mentor

You can learn more money vocabulary and also look at some IELTS speaking questions about money in this lesson .

Sample Answers

Ok, now let’s look at my answers to the above questions. These contain the vocabulary I taught you. Take note of how those words and phrases are used.

Essay #1: Government Spending on Healthcare

The prevention of health problems and illness is more important than treatment and medicine. Government funding should reflect this.

To what extent do you agree?

In many countries, government spending on healthcare is a major economic burden. Problems like obesity and heart disease are crippling healthcare systems, and some people suggest that rather than raise taxes to pay for treatments, more money should be invested in preventing these illnesses in the first place. This essay will argue that prevention is better than treatment.

The most obvious benefit of putting prevention before treatment is the reduction in human suffering that would inevitably result. Some of the biggest health problems in modern societies are utterly preventable, and therefore it is reasonable to suggest that money spent this way would cause less anguish. Government campaigns to reduce smoking would reduce cancer rates and this would increase people’s quality of life, and of course end the suffering of people who lose loved ones.

From a purely financial standpoint, it is beneficial to focus on preventing sickness rather than curing it. The cost of treating sick people with expensive medical procedures, equipment, and medicines is vastly higher than the cost of educating people not to smoke, eat unhealthily, or otherwise lead unhealthy lifestyles. Government campaigns have led to huge decreases in smoking in many Western countries, and it is likely that similar campaigns would yield similar results elsewhere. An additional benefit would be the lowering of taxes due to reduced expenditure on healthcare.

In conclusion, preventing a disease makes more sense than waiting to treat it. The benefits to average people and also to governments are significantly higher than simply investing in treatments.

Essay #2: Government Spending on Military

The world today is a safer place than it was a hundred years ago, and governments should stop spending large amounts of money on their armed forces.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

In many developed countries, people discuss the ethics of government spending on military forces, with many people pointing out that it is wasteful. This essay will suggest that they are probably right, but that it is a more complicated situation than they think.

To begin with, it is clear that some countries spend vast sums of money on their militaries when there are many other problems that could be tackled using that money. Between the USA and China, for example, more than $1 trillion is spent per year on equipping their various armed forces and this money could potentially have been invested into protecting the environment, ending homelessness and hunger, or improving education systems. Given that these two nations are highly unlikely to be attacked by any other, it seems absurd that they invest so much money in this way.

However, all of that overlooks the fact that geopolitics is complicated and human nature has some dark elements. Although people live in an unprecedented era of peace, it is nonetheless true that this peace is not guaranteed and that it is predicated to some extent upon the fear of reprisals. The US may seem incredibly wasteful with its military spending, but if it did not maintain such a huge military, other aggressive nations would surely attack their neighbours. They are dissuaded of this by the threat of American intervention. Whilst this is highly problematic as no single country should function as a “world police,” it has certainly helped deter and even end major conflicts over the past half century.

In conclusion, it is not easy to say whether countries should stop spending so much money on their militaries. Indeed, whilst it appears this is a reasonable suggestion, the truth is more complicated.

Essay #3: Government Spending on Old Buildings

The restoration of old buildings in major cities around the world causes enormous government expenditure. This money should be used for new housing and road development.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Government spending is a highly controversial issue because people naturally have different priorities and beliefs. Some of them think that the money spent on the restoration of old buildings is wasteful, but this essay will argue against that notion, suggesting instead that these are essential pieces of a nation’s heritage.

To begin with, it is understandable that people might feel this way because there are numerous ways that a national budget might be spent, and old buildings are probably not high on most people’s lists. However, not everything that is important is obvious and often people do not realise the value of something until it is gone. Around Asia, for example, many countries underwent the same sort of industrial development in just two or three decades that Europe went through over a period of several centuries. As a result, these countries lost most of their ancient buildings, and these cannot be recovered. Many governments fund the construction of replicas, but these obviously lack the authenticity of truly ancient buildings.

Letting these buildings fall into ruin shows a staggering lack of civic pride. Cities and countries must unite to fund the maintenance of important shared spaces, including these historic sites. Without these places, cities begin to look unremarkable and it is hard to tell one place from another. Whilst it is important to devote spending to new projects, governments must not overlook the heritage aspect that defined their city or country over a long period of time, and which continues to mark it in the modern era.

In conclusion, old buildings may seem like a waste of money because they can be expensive to maintain, but they are important in various ways, and so governments should set aside funding to ensure their upkeep. 

About The Author

David S. Wills

David S. Wills

David S. Wills is the author of Scientologist! William S. Burroughs and the 'Weird Cult' and the founder/editor of Beatdom literary journal. He lives and works in rural Cambodia and loves to travel. He has worked as an IELTS tutor since 2010, has completed both TEFL and CELTA courses, and has a certificate from Cambridge for Teaching Writing. David has worked in many different countries, and for several years designed a writing course for the University of Worcester. In 2018, he wrote the popular IELTS handbook, Grammar for IELTS Writing and he has since written two other books about IELTS. His other IELTS website is called IELTS Teaching.

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Government And Society IELTS Essay: Writing Task 2 Samples

  • Updated On December 12, 2023
  • Published In IELTS Preparation 💻

The IELTS Writing Task 2 can have a large variety of questions, so it can never be predicted which question you will get in the IELTS exam. However, there still are some common IELTS essay topics that many students have reported as repeated in the IELTS exam. Thus, the general theme or the essay topics can be determined. In this blog, we discuss Government And Society IELTS Essay.

Table of Contents

As an IELTS exam aspirant, it is important you go through as many common topics for Writing Task 2 as possible. One such common IELTS test theme is ‘government and society’. This theme can form a multitude of questions for the second writing task. Therefore, students should go through some sample answers for Government And Society IELTS Essays.

government and society ielts essay

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Types of Questions

There are several types of questions that can be framed from the theme of ‘government and society’ for Writing Task 2 in IELTS. Let’s take a look at the two primary kinds of possible questions that you may be presented within the exam:

Opinion-based

These questions will describe two sides of an argument to you. You will be required to either discuss both and then give your opinion, or pick one side and give your opinion on why that is logical and more sound than the other side of the argument.

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Government And Society IELTS Essay: Writing Task 2 Samples

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Government And Society IELTS Essay: Writing Task 2 Samples

Descriptive

This type of question usually asks the aspirant to either enlist some advantages and disadvantages or mention some effects and possible solutions to a particular social problem. These questions can also ask you to share your opinion with the examiner in writing the essay.

Whatever the type of question you get in the exam, to get a good band score, there are some general tips that you should apply:

  • Using excellent vocabulary and grammar is important to get a high band score in writing (as well as in speaking).
  • Providing relevant examples is the secret to scoring well.
  • Taking help from a mentor whenever you get stuck throughout your preparation can be very helpful to ensure you get a good band score. For this purpose, you can explore online platforms like LeapScholar that offer outstanding mentorship and preparation courses for IELTS .

Sample Answers for Government And Society IELTS Essay

Sample answer 1.

Q: Some people believe that only the government can bring about significant changes in society, while others think that even an individual can have a lot of influence on society. What is your opinion on the above statement? You should take about 40 minutes for this answer and write a minimum of 250 words.

Ans: It is often advocated that the leadership of a country holds the supreme power in its hands to be able to change society for the better and get rid of all its cons. However, this view is flawed in my opinion as I believe that without the cooperation of every individual, there is only so much the government can do for society’s betterment. The government can make strong policies and can mobilise resources for their execution, but the policy only yields the desired results when it is acted upon by all members of society. If the policy has been set in place, but no one acts in accordance with it, then it will never be able to achieve its stated primary objective. For instance, of late, many countries have come up with policies aligned with the goal of achieving lower carbon emissions by 2025. However, the individuals living in those countries assume a reckless attitude and hardly abide by the policy for curbing climate change. Hence, without individuals’ cooperation, the government cannot achieve any positive results. Moreover, the government’s efforts are often focused on driving results on a macro scale (nationwide). In contrast, an individual’s efforts will show results on a micro-level and can immediately lead to the betterment of society. The ruling party cannot become aware of all the problems their society faces in many regions. However, the people of the region will be well aware of the problems existing in their region. Thus, the individual holds more power to bring about immediate change in their locality with the help of the resources mobilised by the government on a large scale. For instance, if there is a flood in an Indian state, and the government comes up with an immediate disaster relief response, these efforts will bear more fruit when the individuals of the region cooperate in the rescue operations rather than leaving it all up to the politicians and their forces. In conclusion, I believe that individuals can bring about a more immediate impact on society when they work in tandem with the government.

Sample Answer 2

Q: The government should come up with policies to control the internet for reducing cybercrime and ensuring the safety of users. Do you agree or disagree?

Ans: The frequency of cybercrimes has rapidly surged in recent times and has become a cause of concern globally. With the aim of curbing the rate of cybercrime, some experts argue governments should regulate and control the various internet activities that users of a specific country engage in. I agree with this statement only partially because I believe the ambit of these policies should not be in violation of the fundamental rights of citizens. With the ever-increasing number of internet users, the incidence of cybercrimes is also on an upward trajectory. This can be controlled with government policies that protect users’ data. By protecting users’ private data online, the government can get ahead of online predators looking to commit crimes (especially financial and bureaucratic ones) by making use of that data. For instance, by installing a strong technological architecture in place, the government can protect its country’s users’ data. This will have a significant impact on curbing the rate of cybercrimes committed by stealing personal data. Moreover, by mandating the nation’s organisations increase transparency, the leadership can ensure that online crimes are controlled and eliminated. By asking organisations to clearly state the kind of data they will be extracted from their online users and to educate users about netiquette (‘net etiquette’), the government can significantly reduce the nation’s cybercrime rate. For instance, Instagram informs its users about the kind of content that will be viewed as offensive or inappropriate and can lead to legal action. This has resulted in bringing down the incidents of hate speech online and reduced the incidence of fraud through phishing schemes on the platform.

government and society ielts essay

In summary, governments should definitely put in place policies with the aim of reducing cybercrime. However, these steps should not undermine their citizens’ rights. A primary way forward to tackle this issue would entail raising awareness and establishing a strong online infrastructure. To gain a good band score, Government And Society IELTS Essay should be tackled with a clear thought process and excellent writing skills. Don’t forget to read more sample answers and keep practising!

Frequently Asked Questions

1. how do i prepare for writing an essay for ielts task 2.

Ans: You should start your preparation by first strengthening your vocabulary and grammar. Thereon, you should start by  reading  through some of the high band scoring model answers online, and then try to write answers for some common questions yourself.

2. What mistakes should I avoid in the IELTS writing task?

Ans: Certain pitfalls to avoid during writing the IELTS essay for task 2 are: a. Not taking time in the beginning to map out your main ideas for every paragraph b. Not proofreading your essay as it can lead to spelling and grammatical errors c. Not providing relevant examples

3. How can I get a band score of 8 in the IELTS writing exam?

Ans: The key tips of writing a high band scoring essay for IELTS task 2 are- Wide showcase of vocabulary, great sentence structuring, giving good examples and ensuring coherence between paragraphs.

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Band 9 essay sample: Should government provide free housing to the poor?

by Manjusha Nambiar · Published October 9, 2015 · Updated April 21, 2024

Essay topic

government essay ielts mentor

Sample essay

Global economy may have developed considerably over the last few decades; however, millions of people still do not have homes. This problem is particularly worse in developing and undeveloped countries. Some people argue that the government should take care of this situation by providing free housing to the poor. That demand certainly sounds logical; however, I don’t think that it is the best solution.

To start with, the government can’t provide free housing to all poor people. Any such attempt will put too much pressure on the public exchequer. The government already has a lot of other things to take care of. For example, in India, the government provides free education and free medical care through government schools and hospitals. Many government colleges and universities even provide higher education free of cost. There are also several government schemes for the rehabilitation of slum dwellers in urban areas. In the tribal areas, too, the government provides free housing to the homeless.

Having said that, providing free homes to all poor people in the country does not seem possible. A better solution is to make homes more affordable. If homes are unaffordable, that is because of the exorbitant land prices. The government can make homes less expensive by allotting government land at concessional rates and waiving taxes on the homes built on this land. Low cost housing projects can be launched all over the country. Only basic amenities should be provided in these homes to make them more affordable.

To conclude, although I do not think that government should provide free housing to all homeless people in the country, I am in favour of the government launching low cost housing projects. The government should also consider giving free land to the landless. These initiatives will certainly make homes more affordable and solve the problems of the poor to a great extent.

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Manjusha Nambiar

Hi, I'm Manjusha. This is my blog where I give IELTS preparation tips.

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IELTS Writing Task 2 – Topic: GOVERNMENT

ielts writing topics 2019

1.  Families who do not send their children to government-financed schools should not be required to pay taxes that support universal education. (AGREE)

Sample Answer

Families who do not send their children to government-financed school should not be  required to pay taxes that support universal education.

When families send their children to non-public (that is, parochial and private) schools,  they must pay tuition and other school expenses. Spending additional money to pay  taxes creates an even greater financial hardship for these families. They must make  sacrifices, trying to have enough money to pay for school in addition to other bills. For  example, my friend Amalia is a single mother with an eight-year-old son, Andrew.  Because they survive solely on her income, money is tight. Amalia works at least 10  hours of overtime each week to cover Andrew’s school expenses. This gives Amalia  and Andrew less time to spend together, and she is always so tired that she is impatient  with him when they do have family time. Clearly, this extra expense is an unfair burden  for hard-working parents like Amalia.

While some people may consider parochial or private school to be a luxury, for many  families it is essential because their community’s public schools fail to meet their  children’s needs. Unfortunately, due to shrinking budgets, many schools lack well qualified, experienced educators. Children may be taught by someone who is not a  certified teacher or who knows little about the subject matter. Some problems are even  more serious. For example, the public high school in my old neighborhood had serious safety problems, due to students bringing guns, drugs, and alcohol to school. After a gang-related shooting occurred at the high school, my parents felt that they had no choice but to enroll me in a parochial school  that was known for being very safe.

Unfortunately, even when families prefer public schools, sometimes they can’t send  their children to one. These families are burdened not only for paying expenses at  another school, but also by being forced to pay taxes to support a public school that  they do not use.

 (323 words)

2.  Families who do not send their children to government-financed schools should not be required to pay taxes that support universal education. (DISAGREE)

Families who do not send their children to public school should be required to pay taxes  that support public education.

Every child in my country is required to attend school and every child is welcome to  enroll at his/her local public school. Some families choose to send their children to other  schools, and it is their prerogative to do so. However, the public schools are used by the  majority of our children and must remain open for everyone. For example, my uncle  sent his two children to a private academy for primary school. Then he lost a huge  amount of money through some poor investments and he could no longer afford the  private school’s tuition. The children easily transferred to their local public school and  liked it even more than their academy. The public schools supported their family when  they had no money to educate their children.

Because the public schools educate so many citizens, everyone in my country-whether  a parent or not-should pay taxes to support our educational system. We all benefit from  the education that students receive in public school. Our future doctors, fire fighters, and  teachers people whom we rely on everyday-are educated in local public schools. When  a person is in trouble, it’s reassuring to know that those who will help you-such as fire  fighters-know what they’re doing because they received good training in school and  later. Providing an excellent education in the public school system is vital to the strength  of our community and our country.

Our government must offer the best education available, but it can only do so with the  financial assistance of all its citizens. Therefore, everyone-including families who do not  send their children to public school-should support public education by paying taxes.

 (291 words)

3.  Some people say the government should not put money into building theatres and sports stadiums; they should spend more money on medical care and education. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

What would the world be like without Shakespeare or the Olympics? While medical care  and education are perhaps the highest causes to which money can be contributed, the  arts and athletics are in some ways just as valuable. So, to ask the government to not  extend support to these two areas could be just as detrimental to the welfare of society  as the lack of sufficient health care and education.

The Romans believed in “mens sana in corpore sano”. In short, that there is indeed a  correlation between a healthy body and healthy mind. When we are healthy, we feel  better and so are more likely to be productive academically. Plus, the practice of sports  can also teach us the very same discipline we need for our studies. Why even a brisk  walk or watching an exciting athletic match can refresh the mind for greater work.  Moreover, sports can serve to create healthier bodies, which in turn would serve as a form of “preventive medicine” thereby cutting down on medical costs. In the same vein,  the arts are known to induce a sense of well-being in performers and audience alike,  reducing mental problems and their associated physical manifestations and again,  medical costs. As such, building theatres and stadiums, which spur interest in the arts  and sports respectively, actually would be practically identical to spending money on  medical care and education!

Now I realize the question specifically addresses the building of theatres and sports  stadiums by government. Some people would contend athletics and the arts can still be  enjoyed and practiced without such constructions. I would hazard that these buildings  stand as the altars to the sports and arts worlds, inspiring would-be athletes and  performers. Without such venues where would sports spectators and music aficionados  be able to enjoy these events? Now some other people would also say business could  support their construction, but we know the avarice of business could very likely  jeopardize the lofty spirit of athletics and the arts just as well. Therefore, allowing  government to retain some say in the matter on behalf of the people would, I believe, be  in the best interest of the people.

In short, as long as the government does no go overboard in its expenditures for these  buildings and uses such venues for the benefit of all, then, as mentioned above, people  will benefit in terms of both medical care and education as well. This is not to say the  government should neglect medical care and education, but rather to think of this not as  an either-or choice but as a win-win situation for all.

 (434 words)

4.  The costs of medical health care are increasing all the time. Governments are finding it difficult to balance the health care budget. Should citizens be totally responsible for their own health costs and take out private health insurance, or is it better to have a comprehensive health care system which provides free health services for all? Discuss.

A much debated issue these days is whether citizens should take out private health  insurance or not. The cost of providing free medical care for both the wealthy and the  poor is far too great for any government, and most people agree that if you can pay for  insurance, you should. In this essay, I will argue that all who can afford it should be  insured, but free medical care must be made available for those too poor to do so.

The most important reason for encouraging people to take out private health insurance  is the cost to the government of health care. Free health cover for people who are able  to pay for it is a waste of public money. Of course, people will only pay health insurance  premiums if they know that they are getting good value for their money. If they get sick,  they should pay very little or nothing at all. In addition, the privately insured are entitled to special benefits such as having the choice of their own doctors, and being able to  avoid long waiting lists for hospital beds.

On the other hand, those who really cannot afford to pay private insurance premiums,  which are often very high, are still entitled as citizens to the best medical care available  – they cannot be expected to pay their own medical bills. However, if they are working,  they should still pay a percentage of their wage (say 1 to 2%) as a tax which pays  towards the cost of providing “free” medical services.

In conclusion, most people should privately insure their health, but it is unreasonable to  suppose that all citizens can afford it. Therefore, a safety net in the form of a basic free  health care system must exist for the very poor and the unemployed.

 (300 words)

5.  All education, primary, secondary and further education, should be free to all people and paid for by the government. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

Different countries have different education systems. I don‛t know all the education  systems in the world but all the ones I do know about have free school education at  primary and secondary level. I certainly agree with the statement that this should be the  case. I believe university education is different.

No matter what standard of income someone has or what society someone comes from,  everyone should have the opportunity to have a good standard of education. This is not  always what happens but it is what should happen. Private schools can be available for  those who want and can afford it but the free schools should always be there. This is  certainly one of the best attributes of western democracy and all countries it seems  strive to attain situation although some have problems due to the economic and political  situations in their countries. Governments should make sure that all their citizens have  access to a good standard of free education at primary and secondary level.

Further education is different. In an ideal world this should be free but governments  have a lot of demands on their money. I think that students should have to pay, maybe  not all, but at least a contribution towards their tuition fees. They will be able to earn it  back once they have graduated. The UK has this system whereas in the US students  have to pay all their high tuition fees which can run into the tens of thousands of dollars  over a full course. I am not sure if I agree with this but it certainly would make sure that  students make the best of efforts to pass or all their money would be wasted.

Therefore I conclude that primary and secondary education should be freely available  for all if possible but that further education should not necessarily be wholly free.

 (309 words)

6.  Most writers of fiction do not earn enough money to live from their writing. Do you think the government should give them financial assistance to help encourage good literature?

There are some conditions under which a novelist could reasonably expect some  government support. In general terms, if the writer has already proved that he or she can write well, and if the stories produced are stimulating and interesting, then I consider that some financial help might be given.

Language quality is difficult to define, but if the writing shows, for example, good  grammar, a wide vocabulary, and elegance and imagination, then I can see a valid  reason for assisting an author to spend some time free from money problems. Such a  writing needs to be encouraged. the entertainment value of a book would be also a  factor in deciding whether to provide assistance to an author. Further consideration  would include social and educational values expressed in the author’s work.

However, if the ideas were socially irresponsible, or if the stories contain unnecessary  violence or pornography for its own sake, then I would not want to see the author  sponsored to write stories which do not benefit society. Other exceptions are the many  writers of good books who do not require financial help. Books which proved to be  extremely popular, such as the Harry Potter stories, clearly need no subsidy at all  because the authors have become rich through their writing.

Views on what good quality writing means will vary widely, and so if any author is to be  given money for writing, then the decision would have to be made by a committee or  panel of judge. An individual opinion would certainly cause disagreement among the  reading public.

 (259 words)

7.  The costs of medical health care are increasing all the time. Governments are finding it difficult to balance the health care budget. Should citizens be totally responsible for their own health costs and take out private health insurance, or is it better to have a comprehensive health care system which provides free health services for all? Discuss.

A much debated issue these days is whether citizens should take out private health  insurance or not. The cost of providing free medical care for both the wealthy and the  poor is far too great for any government, and most people agree that if you can pay for insurance, you should. In this essay, I will argue that all who can afford it should be  insured, but free medical care must be made available for those too poor to do so.

The most important reason for encouraging people to take out private health insurance  is the cost to the government of health care. Free health cover for people who are able  to pay for it is a waste of public money. Of course, people will only pay health insurance  premiums if they know that they are getting good value for their money. If they get sick,  they should pay very little or nothing at all. In addition, the privately insured are entitled  to special benefits such as having the choice of their own doctors, and being able to  avoid long waiting lists for hospital beds.

8.  Should governments spend money on art, when they have so many other important issues and concerns?

Sample Answer 1

Many people’s lives are richer because of art – music, paintings, calligraphy, pictures,  sculpture, poems and dance. However , some people feel that governments should be  spending money on housing, medical care, or defence, instead of on art. This essay  will discuss whether governments should or should not spend money on the arts.

There are several reasons why governments should not finance artists. First of all ,  artists should have to follow the same rules as the rest of the market. If there is a  demand for their music or sculpture, then they will be rich. Secondly , politicians  generally do not have good taste. They will waste public money on popular art or on  their own preferences. But the main reason why governments should minimize  spending on the art world is that there are more important areas like housing, roads,  hospitals, and factories which need the money first.

However, it would be wrong to say that governments should not spend any money at  all on art. Everybody needs some beauty in their life, but not everyone can afford a  Picasso or a piece of music. Governments should provide money for museums or  concert halls for everyone. Another point is that art allows people to express  themselves and this is good for society, culture and thought. Thirdly , artists can be  good for the economy by producing music, films, and attracting tourists.

All in all , governments should prioritize their spending carefully, but they should also  allocate some of their budget for art. It is part of their duty to society and to future  generations.

 (260 words)

Sample Answer 2

Throughout the ages, man has tried to create beauty through painting, music, sculpture  and other artistic expression. It seems to be a basic need of humans to surround  themselves with art. However some people feel that government money spent on art is  wasted, particularly when there are so many other demands on it. This essay will  examine the conflict between those who say art is important and those who feel it is a waste of money.

It can be wrong for governments to spend large sums of money on art. Too often,  governments spend unwisely. They spend money on art not because a picture is good  or a museum is needed, but for political reasons. Cities end up with huge statues or  empty expensive buildings that are used only by a few people or the elite. Another point  is that the artworks are often chosen to represent social or political rather than artistic ideas. The city gets yet another statue of the leader or an ugly monument to national  aspirations. A third point is that governments often respond to fashions, and tastes in art  can change very rapidly. Without careful advice an expensive collection of worthless  paintings or tasteless productions can be the result.

However, it would be wrong to say that governments should not spend any money at all  on art. Painters, musicians, and composers cannot survive without financial support.  Rich people or large companies do finance art, but then it is often inaccessible to  ordinary people. Governments have a duty to make this art available to everyone.  However, the most important reason why governments should support the arts is  because an appreciation of art is one of the things that makes life worthwhile. Humans  do not need just shelter and food. Creative people have always tried to look at things in  a new way and to make the world a better place through painting, music, poetry,  calligraphy, sculpture, dance, and numerous other forms of expression. While art may  not make us immortal, it does make the world a richer place for future generations.

In conclusion, although people do need to be provided with the necessities of life, such  as housing and medical care, governments also have a duty to provide their citizens  with something more. They should make sure that they pass on beauty, ideas and  expression to the next generation and make art available to all instead of being the  possession of only the few. I firmly believe that spending money on art is a vital part of a  government’s responsibility, and I am confident that my country will be able to contribute  its share to the richness of the world’s art and creativity.

 (447 words)

9.  In the fight against crime, police forces and governments are increasingly using security cameras in public places. Some people are opposed to this, saying that it invades our privacy. What do you think?

Security cameras have become ubiquitous in many countries. Whereas before they  appeared only in banks and at high-security areas, they are now entering public places  such as malls, streets, stadiums and transport. Many people feel this affects their  privacy. This essay will examine whether the advantages of these cameras outweigh  their negative impact.

Surveillance cameras have several benefits. An obvious benefit is that the police can  catch criminals in the act, thus reducing crime. This will make the streets safer for  ordinary people. A more important point is that criminals, particularly young offenders or  petty criminals will be deterred. They will not be tempted to carry out crimes, and thus  society will be a lot safer. Cameras are also cost-effective and unobtrusive. Authorities  do not need to spend large amounts of money on police.

However, security cameras are far from being a perfect solution. The biggest objection  concerns privacy. Many people feel that they should be free to travel or move around a  shop, mall, street or country without being photographed or recorded. They feel that  being watched constantly is like being in a jail, and that ordinary people are losing their  freedom because of these devices. Another point is that although the police say that only criminals have something to fear from the cameras, many people do not trust  governments with too much information. Corrupt authorities could use information in the  wrong way or twist it to victimize some groups. Thirdly, cameras and computers can  make mistakes.

In conclusion, although there are definite advantages to using surveillance devices such  as cameras, we need to balance the need for security with respect for the individual’s  privacy and freedom. If we do not trust the members of society, a situation like George  Orwell’s “1984” could be the result.

 (297 words)

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IELTS Discussion Essay Sample 7 – Government

In this post, we will look at a discussion essay  example from the IELTS writing task 2 test. Students often ask if the questions are repeated year after year and the answer is no, but the topics are. There are so many questions written each year, you may find your practice answering various questions on different topics. For example, you could write essays to answer questions about education or the environment, which benefits you because you learn vocabulary associated with those topics and develop ideas that can help you in your writing test.

IELTS Writing Task 2 Question Types

Agree/Disagree Essays ADVANTAGE / DISADVANTAGE ESSAY CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY IELTS Problem/Solution Essay IELTS Discussion Essay  POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ESSAY Direct Question Essay IELTS Writing Task 2 Student Essay

Practising writing IELTS task 2 essays  on a range of topics is a great way to learn new vocabulary for those topics, but also to practice your essay structures . You begin to develop your ideas around those topics, thinking of examples and giving your opinions.

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Take a look at the IELTS essay example  below >>

There are numbers of men and women who insist for the administration to allocate funds for space exploration while some believe that there are more important projects that need to be addressed.  Firstly this essay will discuss the reasons for space voyaging and secondly, the detrimental effects of allocating funds for this exploration.

On the one hand, space is a mysterious place, that requires large amounts of money to explore. The government and many people all over the world think that there are other kinds of species that dwell in the far galaxy. They believe that providing funds for space exploration is needed and vital in developing the future of our own planet. For instance, a report from NASA in 2016 revealed that there is a government funded scheme that allocates more than 30% of taxpayers money to further space exploration programmes.

On the other hand, building a spacecraft that can travel through space needs millions of dollars. This can dissolve the budget set aside for more important projects that could help the world to improve its condition. The time that they spend on space exploration is no joke, as many astronauts often stay 10 years or more to study the galaxy and since that’s unfamiliar territory the chances of experiencing malfunctions or encountering danger are far greater. For example, an article by the Space Explorer in 2016 revealed that only 3 out of 10 of Russia’s space explorations missions are successful.

In my opinion, I believe that although it is interesting to know if there are other forms of life living on the other planets, we should give our time and invest our money into more important problems that our world is experiencing now. Problems like famine, climate change and population explosion are the ones that we need to address in order to heal the earth. For instance, a study by the World Wildlife Fund in 2017 discovered that by the year 2030 more and more species of animals will be extinct if people do not change their lifestyle and habits.

In conclusion, space exploration can wait. We should first take care and heal the only planet that we are living in for this is the only place that we are sure can sustain our race.

(Word count – 377 / Band score 8)

Feedback

  • Task Achievement  – The essay provides an answer to the question asked, supported by relevant examples.
  • Coherence and Cohesion  – The answer has been divided into clear logical paragraphs and each main body paragraph only has one main idea. There are cohesive links between the main body paragraphs .
  • Lexical Resource  – There is evidence of a wide range of vocabulary, with no errors in the text.
  • Grammatical Range and Accuracy  – The answer has no grammatical errors. The sentences have a wide range of structures. 

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Vocabulary for Government Topic

Below is a list of vocabulary relating to the topic of “Government”. This word list will help refresh your memory and also expand your range to learn new words. Although the topic of politics doesn’t appear in IELTS, questions relating to general government policies do appear frequently in both IELTS Writing and IELTS Speaking.

On this page, you will find:

  • Synonyms and Types of Government
  • Useful Government Vocabulary
  • IELTS Speaking Questions & Model Answers
  • IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Questions

1. Word Forms:

  • government (n)
  • to govern (vb)
  • governmental (adj)

Common Errors 

There are two common errors when using the word “government”.

  • “n” – don’t forget the spelling – goverNment.
  • For example:
  • Wrong = Many people think government should improve the infrastructure in rural areas.
  • Correct = Many people think the government should improve the infrastructure in rural areas.

2. Synonyms & Types of Government

Below is a useful word list for synonyms. However, please note that is fine to repeat the word “government” in your essay even for high band score candidates.

  • the political system
  • the administration
  • the central government
  • the local government
  • the authorities
  • the people in authority
  • the leadership
  • those in power

Note, as with all synonyms, they cannot all be used in the same context in the same way. They do differ.

Types of Government and Governing

Below are words relating to types of government and the way countries are run.

  • republic = a country with no monarch and has an elected leader, usually a president
  • democracy = the government is elected by the people, each person has a single vote
  • autonomy = a self-governing country or region
  • dictatorship = a country ruled by one person who has not been elected and uses force to keep control
  • totalitarian state = a country with only one political power and people are forced to do what the government tells them
  • regime = an authoritarian government
  • capitalist = a free-market country
  • communist = a political and economic system with a classless society where business, factories, farms etc are publicly owned
  • monarchy = a country has a king or queen – in traditional monarchies, the monarch has absolute power but in a a constitutional monarchy (such as the UK), there is a democratic government, and the monarch is largely symbolic and politically neutral
  • anarchy = a situation where there is no government
  • constitutional government = a government which is limited in its power by a constitution
  • coalition government = with no direct winner after elections, a government can be formed in which two or more parties cooperate

3. Useful Government Vocabulary

Within a Government

  • politicians = people who hold an office within politics
  • branches of government- legislative, executive and judicial
  • executive branch = this is the part of the government which carries out the law
  • legislative branch = this part of the government makes the laws and raises money to run the government
  • judicial branch = this part of the government decides laws and settles disputes
  • state government = a local government within a particular region or area of a country
  • enforcement agencies = bodies within a government which can enforce the law, for example, the police
  • political party = a group of people with similar political aims that hopes to have a member elected to government
  • diplomats = people who represent their country in communication with other countries

 Useful Government Vocabulary

  • to pass a law / to enable a law / to bring in a new law = to have a law accepted
  • to abide by a law = to follow a law without breaking it
  • to elect = to choose
  • to have political influence / political power = the extent of a group’s or person’s ability to change the way political decisions are made
  • a citizen = a person living within a country
  • election = the process of voting for someone to come into power or into a role
  • laws = rules for governing a country
  • liberty = freedom
  • maintain order = providing organisation and safety for the people of a country
  • rights = freedoms which are protected and should be guaranteed
  • taxes = money paid by citizens to run and maintain a country
  • raise / lower taxes – to increase or decrease the money paid by citizens to the government
  • budget = money that is allocated to spend in a particular area
  • to increase the budget on X = to give more money to X
  • note that the word “defence” can also be spelled as “defense” in American English
  • policies = action proposed by an organisation
  • charismatic = a characteristic that attracts and appeals to other people – many successful politicians are charismatic
  • long term / short term goals
  •  to be proactive = doing something rather than just waiting for something to happen

Citizen’s Actions

  • campaign for something
  • demonstrations
  • to be involved in protests
  • organise a petition
  • speak at public meetings
  • put up posters
  • organise a public meeting
  • write to politicians

4. Government Topic Questions for IELTS Speaking 

IELTS Speaking doesn’t have one single topic called “the Government”. But most topics in IELTS Speaking, do contain questions that relate to how official organisations, such as the government, can improve aspects of life. Below are some examples of questions with model answers. Most of these questions are more likely to appear in Speaking part 3 which deals with broader issues.

  • Q) What is the role of a government?
  • A) A government is responsible to decide how a country is run and for managing how it is run. It rules and governs a body of people to make sure that those people abide by laws.
  • Q) Do you think the government should be responsible for public health?
  • A) While the government should be proactive in opening more exercises facilities for the public and to raise awareness of public health, I think it is ultimately the role of the individual to improve their own health.
  • Q) Do you think the government should pay to support the Arts?
  • A) Yes, in a way. I think the government should definitely provide some support for the Arts as a way to promote our cultural heritage. For example, local people can learn about their own culture from watching the dramatic arts and also from paintings and sculptures. This is also a huge draw for visiting tourists who wish to experience local culture. However, I do think that artists also need to be responsible for ensuring their own income and not just rely on the government.
  • Q) What do you think the government could do to protect natural beauty spots in your country?
  • A) Well, I suppose one of the key things that those in power could do is to establish stricter laws to ensure people treat places of natural beauty with respect. For example, littering is a huge problem in my country and this needs to be taken more seriously. Another thing is for the government to spend more money on conservation as well as raising awareness among the local population of the importance of these places.

5. IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Questions Samples

  • Many people think people should pay for their education, while others think the government should fund all education. Discuss both sides and give your opinion.
  • Some people believe the government should be responsible for the homeless and that society is not responsible. Do you agree?
  • Do you think artists should have the right to express any opinion through their work or do you think the government should censor their work?
  • Do you think the government should focus on supporting science or the Arts?
  • Do you think the government should be solely responsible for public safety or do you think individuals should also be held responsible for their own safety?
  • Some people believe that the government should spend more money on protecting wildlife. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Some people think that the government is wasting essential funds on space research and that these funds would be better allocated to health care. To what extend do you agree?

Tip: Don’t suggest in your essay that the government could introduce a particular law if there is already one in place. If you know a law is already in place, then you can suggest that the law serves harsher punishments and give examples of that. Try to keep your essay real. Think your ideas through and be sincere in your essay for a high score.

 Recommended

  • More Government Essay Questions
  • 100 IELTS Essay Questions
  • ALL IELTS SPEAKING LESSONS & TIPS
  • ALL IELTS WRITING TASK 2 LESSONS & TIPS
  • ALL IELTS VOCABULARY LESSONS

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Gorky Park in Moscow in summer

Moscow, the city for life – Russia

Moscow Urban Forum in Moscow

Moscow Urban Forum in Moscow © C.Horn 2013

Recently the Moscow Government published under the headline “Moscow, the city for life” its seven development priorities. A document distributed at the Moscow Urban Forum in December 2013.

Moscow is with a population of over 12 million people one of the biggest metropolis in the world. The real number of citizens is difficult to establish as Moscow is the destination of many migrants, legal and otherwise, drawn by higher salaries and better services and living conditions. In 2010 alone, 126,000 newcomers were officially registered in the city, but the actual number is certainly much higher. The Moscow International Internet Portal indicates that “By some estimates together with commuters working and studying in Moscow, migrants, transit visitors and tourists the daily actual population of Moscow amounts in general to 15 – 20 million people”. It is forecast that by 2035 the population of the Moscow region will increase by 4,000,000 people and amount to 22,800,000 people.  It is expected that by 2020 passenger traffic generated by the ‘New Moscow’ will double whereas the capacity of the existing infrastructure is already exhausted.

Inner city road in Moscow

Inner city road in Moscow © C.Horn 2012

After adopting in 2011 different government programs for the key directions of the capital’s development, the Moscow Government worked out in 2013 its main objectives for the creation of comfortable living conditions with the definition of seven development priorities: 1) Mobile City; 2) Comfortable urban environment; 3) Healthy city; 4) Well-educated city; 5) Socially protected city; 6) New economics of Moscow; 7) Open Moscow.

It is a large and ambitious programme highlighting the goals reached and progress made in the last years, and illustrating the objectives for the next years in numbers and graphics.

Moscow development priorities, Mobile City

Moscow development priorities, Mobile City © Moscow

An important part takes the improvement and development of the transport infrastructure. Moscow is literally suffocated by the significant growth of the personal car fleet, doubling from 2.6 millions cars in 2000 to 4.5 million in 2012 and the increase of commuting du amongst others to the ongoing separation of business centres and residential areas. Over two-thirds of the municipal investments have been assigned in future for the improvement and modernisation of the transport infrastructure, roads and public transport, an estimated 329 billion roubles for 2013.

Moscow Subway Plan 2013-2020

Moscow Subway Plan 2013-2020 © Moscow Subway

Today over 60% of the total volume of Moscow passenger transportation is carried by the subway and this traffic capacity should increase by 1.2 billions persons annually. Just to illustrate the ambitions, the program foresees to rise the average annual construction of subway stations from 2.75 stations, from 2009 – 2012, up to 9.1 stations per year for the period 2013-2020, with the final objective to construct 73 new stations by 2020. They say themselves, that it is the most rapid construction program in the entire history of the Moscow subway. In comparison the metro line of the Paris metropolis, Le Grand Paris Express, foresees to build 205 km of metro lines and 72 new stations between 2013 and 2030. It seems that Moscow want to do in less than half the time.

The development priorities draw the picture of a metropolis with a population using in the last years more intensely the public spaces, the cultural institutions, the shopping area and demanding for a higher urban living standard. A population that has better access to medical facilities and a growing life expectancy, 75.8 years in 2012, and a growing natality rate. A population with opportunities for a better education starting from more kindergartens over preschools to high schools. Interesting is the development of the average salary of a school teacher in Moscow, from 39200 roubles in 2010 up to 64100 roubles in 2013: an average annual growth of 12% in a context of an inflation of approximately 6 %, leaving a real salary growth of 6 % per year. Not bad, seen from a Western European perspective.

Pedestrian Street in Moscow

Pedestrian Street in Moscow © C.Horn 2013

But Moscow also wants to be a city that cares about its less fortunate citizens. The program is about social protection of older generations, assistance to needy families and persons with limited capabilities. It is about free access to public services, like transport, medical treatment, recreation, financial support and accessibility of public buildings. It also concerns providing housing for certain categories of citizens, probably one of the most difficult task, as Moscow has been ranked regularly among the five most expensive cities in the world in terms of the cost of housing.

To finance this new and improved public facilities and services, the Moscow Government counts on the dynamic of investments, supposed to grow from 732 billion roubles in 2010 up to 1719 in 2016. A mixture of better services for the investors, improved infrastructures and tax incentives should keep the dynamic going.

Gorky Park in Moscow in summer

Gorky Park in Moscow in summer © www.2away.de

The Open Moscow development priority aims to create and strengthen the links between to residents and the public services. Improvements in the information and communication with the citizens, in the collecting and carrying out of suggestions of the citizens, and monitoring the activities of the public officers of municipal services, probably to fight corruption and try to establish a kind of confidence. Different internet sites like the Our City Website , regrouped in one Open Data Portal , should play in mayor part in this new Open Moscow development.

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  1. IELTS Essay # 1395

    Model Answer: The allocation of government funds to either skills and vocational training or university education is a subject of significant debate. While some argue that resources should be primarily directed towards skills and vocational training, I firmly disagree with this viewpoint. This essay will present arguments against this ...

  2. IELTS Writing Task 2/ Essay Topics with sample answer.

    IELTS Writing Task 2 (also known as IELTS Essay Writing) is the second task of your IELTS Writing test.Here, you will be presented with an essay topic and you will be scored based on your ability to respond to the topic. You need to write at least 250 words and justify your opinion with arguments, discussion, examples, problem outlining, proposing possible solutions and supporting your position.

  3. IELTS Essay # 583

    Model Answer 1: While some argue that the government should play a significant role in promoting and safeguarding public health, others contend that individuals should have the freedom to make their own choices regarding their lifestyle. This essay will explore both perspectives, arguing in favour of the view that it is a personal choice and ...

  4. IELTS Writing Task 2/ Essay Topics with sample answer.

    IELTS Writing Task 2/ IELTS Essay: You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. People are now living longer than ever before and many old people are unable to look after themselves. Some people believe that it is the responsibility of families to look after the elderly, while others say governments should provide retirement homes for them ...

  5. 50 Latest Government IELTS Topics

    Show answers ». ···. Opinion. Eating too much sugar is harmful for health. Some people think that it is a government responsibility to limit people's sugar consumption, while others think that it is individuals responsibility to limit the amount of sugar they eat. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

  6. Government and Politics

    Government and Politics. IELTS essay questions for the topic of politics and the government. Should governments make decisions about people's lifestyle, or should people make their own decisions? A government has a responsibility to its citizens to ensure their safety. Therefore, some people think that the government should increase spending ...

  7. IELTS Essay: Governments Helping

    Any extra statement of the result will help. 1. In conclusion, there is little support for the efficacy of foreign aid and governments can intervene most effectively in their own nations. 2. Therefore, foreign aid should be limited to times of extreme crisis. Summarise your main ideas.

  8. IELTS Writing Task 2: Government ( Discussion Essay)

    As a way of compensation for their devotion in their youth, the government ought to offer the elderly money-related assistance and care services, for example, regular free-of-charge health checkup. On the other hand, the elderly should not entirely rely on the governmental support as this can cause a huge financial burden on the state budget.

  9. Government Spending Essays

    Government Spending Essays for Task 2. First of all, let's look at three IELTS task 2 questions that deal with government spending: The prevention of health problems and illness is more important than treatment and medicine. Government funding should reflect this.

  10. Government And Society IELTS Essay: Writing Task 2 Samples

    As an IELTS exam aspirant, it is important you go through as many common topics for Writing Task 2 as possible. One such common IELTS test theme is 'government and society'. This theme can form a multitude of questions for the second writing task. Therefore, students should go through some sample answers for Government And Society IELTS Essays.

  11. 50 Latest Government s IELTS Topics

    Check your IELTS essays right now! Some people believe that the government should make university education free for all. Others disagree and say students should pay for their own education. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. Some people argue that government should spend on their money elderly people care.

  12. Band 9 essay sample: Should government provide ...

    Essay topic. Sample essay. Global economy may have developed considerably over the last few decades; however, millions of people still do not have homes. This problem is particularly worse in developing and undeveloped countries. Some people argue that the government should take care of this situation by providing free housing to the poor.

  13. IELTS Writing Task 2

    A much debated issue these days is whether citizens should take out private health insurance or not. The cost of providing free medical care for both the wealthy and the poor is far too great for any government, and most people agree that if you can pay for insurance, you should. In this essay, I will argue that all who can afford it should be insured, but free medical care must be made ...

  14. IELTS Online Exam Preparation

    IELTS Mentor: 'IELTS Preparation' section is the best place for you to make yourself well equipped for the original IELTS examination and to achieve the band score you desire. The comprehensive preparation materials, exam-specific tips, how to address different question types and relevant examples give you the best IELTS preparation guideline ...

  15. IELTS Discussion Essay Sample 7

    IELTS Writing Task 2 discussion essay example that is a band score 8. The question is > Some people want the government to spend more money for looking life on other planets; however others think it a waste of public money when there are so many problems on earth that the government should be solving. Discuss both views and give your opinion. Take a look at the sample answer >>

  16. 100 IELTS Essay Questions

    100 IELTS Essay Questions. Below are practice IELTS essay questions and topics for writing task 2. The 100 essay questions have been used many times over the years. The questions are organised under common topics and essay types. IELTS often use the similar topics for their essays but change the wording of the essay question.

  17. Agree/Disagree Essay

    IELTS Essay Sample 1108 - Sport is a popular draw on television today : 02 August 2021 : IELTS Essay 1140 - Government is wasting money on the arts : 02 August 2021 : IELTS Essay Sample # 104 - Prevention is better than cure : 16 May 2022 : IELTS Essay # 26 - Without capital punishment our lives are less secure and crimes of violence increase ...

  18. IELTS

    Your test, your way. When you are ready so are we. Our tests are available online and in person at test centres across the globe. IELTS official resources can help you prepare for your success. From apps and webinars to training courses and practice tests, find what you need here.

  19. IELTS Essay # 1508

    IELTS Essay # 1508 - Online learning is a superior option to in-person learning . Details Last Updated: Wednesday, 01 May 2024 14:34 Written by IELTS Mentor Hits: 318 . IELTS Writing Task 2/ IELTS Essay: You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic:

  20. Vocabulary for Government Topic

    2. Synonyms & Types of Government. Below is a useful word list for synonyms. However, please note that is fine to repeat the word "government" in your essay even for high band score candidates. the political system. the administration. the central government. the local government. the authorities.

  21. Moscow, the city for life

    After adopting in 2011 different government programs for the key directions of the capital's development, the Moscow Government worked out in 2013 its main objectives for the creation of comfortable living conditions with the definition of seven development priorities: 1) Mobile City; 2) Comfortable urban environment; 3) Healthy city; 4) Well-educated city; 5) Socially protected city; 6) New ...

  22. Libraries in Moscow

    It is a subdivision of Moscow State University - a self-governed state higher educational institution of the Russian Federation. The Library was founded in 1756. It is a scientific and a methodological centre for other higher institutions libraries functioning in Russia. Address: Mohovaya str. 9 | Phone: +7 (495) 203-2656.

  23. PDF Moscow Case Study v2-s

    Objectives. The estimation of the current status of Moscow as a Smart City. The identification of current weaknesses in Moscow's smart strategy for the benefit of future planning. The identification of new directions for Smart City development based on expert opinions. Determining the most efficient way to share best practices in the Smart ...