Unruly Gardening

All About Ghost Pipe (Monotropa uniflora)

In this article, you’ll learn what the data says about ghost pipe ( Monotropa uniflora ). Is it endangered? Edible? Poisonous? Find out the answers to all of your questions below!

monotropa uniflora flower

Around June 8 every year, we start finding Ghost Pipe (also called Indian Pipe), mainly around our creek area. This year so far, we’ve had a nice amount of rain and have counted many dozens of clusters of this unique flower rising from the leaves. During dry years, we’ll see less. While the bulk of the flowers bloom in June, we still find sporadic random clumps all the way through September. (Here in zone 7a USA.)

We’ve also seen a lot of confusion, misinformation, and even a few arguments about ghost pipe while navigating foraging groups, so we decided to organize all of the available data and see if we can clear up some of the confusion out there.

Without further ado, let’s jump into the questions and known facts!

ghost pipe and reishi mushrooms growing together

Is Ghost Pipe a Mushroom? Or a Flower?

Even though it looks kind of like a mushroom, ghost pipe is a woodland flower.

However, mushrooms and ghost pipe have a connection – because ghost pipe depends on a mushroom network to survive!

Ghost pipe is pale white and doesn’t contain chlorophyll, that green substance that most plants use to turn sunshine into food.

So how does it get its food?

It taps into a mutual relationship that the roots of trees like oak and beech have with certain kinds of fungi (in the Russulaceae family.) The trees and fungi help each other out and they live together in harmony.

Ghost pipe attaches itself to the fungi and gets indirect nutrition from the tree that way. From what we can tell, the interloper doesn’t seem to cause problems for the tree or fungi. Pretty clever!

Can You Grow Ghost Pipe at Home?

Some say it’s super difficult, if not impossible, to cultivate ghost pipe at home. (If you’ve done it though, let us know – a lot of people would be interested, including us!)

You need to have the right tree with the right fungal network in place or the seed won’t germinate, so it’s not just a matter of just sticking some seeds in the ground and waiting for them to grow.

If you see seeds for sale, it’s normally a scam. There is a study where scientists used some complicated finagling to germinate monotropa uniflora and one of them developed a nest-like root cluster after one year in a lab, but that’s pretty far out of the reach of us everyday gardeners!

a large cluster of monotropa uniflora flowers

Is Ghost Pipe on the United Plant Savers Species at Risk List?

No, but sort of.

If you look at the full list of at-risk plants at the United Plant Savers website , you won’t spot ghost pipe, Indian pipe, or monotropa uniflora .

However, in their printable chart version , “Indian Pipe, Monotropa uniflora ” is listed as “Requested to Score” along with chaga, wild cherry, solomon’s seal, yaupon, and wild geranium. So perhaps we’ll see it on there one day.

Is Ghost Pipe Endangered?

Yes, no, and maybe. It depends on where you live and whether your state has done the work to study the plant’s status.

over a dozen ghost pipe flowers peeking out from the leaves

States Where It’s At Risk

Here are the states in the US that have Ghost Pipe ( Monotropa uniflora ) listed as being in trouble:

  • Alaska – listed as S1 (S1 = critical imperilment within the state)
  • California – listed as 2B.2 (“2B” = Plants rare, threatened, or endangered in California but common elsewhere. “.2” = Moderately threatened in California — 20-80% of occurrences threatened / moderate degree and immediacy of threat.)
  • Florida – listed as S3 (S3 = vulnerable) ( Monotropa hypopithys listed as S1, but do not see M. uniflora listed on FL Natural Areas Inventory list . )
  • Nebraska – listed as S1 (critical imperilment within the state)
  • North Dakota – listed as S3 (vulnerable)
  • Oklahoma – listed as S1 (critical imperilment within the state) ( listed as S2 – imperiled – on the OK Natural Heritage site)
  • South Dakota – listed as S1 (critical imperilment within the state)

RarePlants.org has a helpful glossary for when you’re trying to figure out the conservation status of a plant.

States Where It’s Considered Secure:

Then there are a few states that list monotropa uniflora as secure (S5) :

  • West Virginia

And it’s “apparently secure” (S4) in Montana and Iowa .

As you can see by THIS map at the Nature Serve Explorer many states have unknown statuses. That doesn’t mean that ghost pipe is secure, or that it is at risk in those states, it just means that there’s not enough data for us to know.

( Side note : Monotropa uniflora is also found outside of North America in places such as Nepal, Japan, Taiwan, and parts of Eastern Asia, and Colombia, Mexico, and parts of Central America.)

Video: Ghost Pipe Slideshow

Here’s a slideshow highlighting ghost pipe. ( Sometimes an ad plays first, but the video will start right after. The video player won’t show up if you have an adblocker. )

From what we do know about the plant:

  • It has highly specialized growing conditions.
  • You cannot grow it from seed at home or commercially.
  • The deep rich forests that it depends on for survival are in decline due to strip logging, invasive plant infestations, and human development.
  • There’s a risk it could become a trendy herb which could devastate existing populations.

Many people feel that ghost pipe is at the very least a plant that’s in a vulnerable position in many places.

cluster of indian pipe flowers in the sun

Can You Eat Ghost Pipe?

Ghost pipe isn’t considered to be a good edible. There are reports of a few people eating some, but there are almost as many reports of people feeling ill or strange after doing so. (We aren’t brave enough to try it, so can’t report on the taste!) There are no found reported deaths or hospitalizations from eating ghost pipe, but it’s not recommended.

Besides the risk-to-your-health factor, the plant is way too special for trailside munching, especially when there are other better choices out there. However, ghost pipe can be made into a tincture and is used in small doses for very specific cases in herbal medicine. (More on that below.)

Is Ghost Pipe Poisonous?

This topic comes up in foraging groups A LOT! Let’s break down what the terms mean and what the sources say about ghost pipe containing poisons.

Glycosides, Grayanotoxin, and Andromedotoxin

Peterson’s Field Guide to Medicinal Plants & Herbs lists some Native American uses for “Indian-Pipe” ( Monotropa uniflora ) then adds: “Safety undetermined; possibly toxic – contains several glycosides”.

What are Glycosides?

Oxford’s English Dictionary describes them as: “a compound formed from a simple sugar and another compound by replacement of a hydroxyl group in the sugar molecule. Many drugs and poisons derived from plants are glycosides.” (Examples of glycosides include steviol glycoside – a harmless natural sweetener made from stevia plant, or the cardiac glycosides in foxglove flowers which can be deadly in some cases.)

What about Grayanotoxins and Andromedotoxins?

Grayanotoxins are neurotoxins found in plants like rhododendron and mountain laurel. Over 25 forms of grayanotoxins have been found in rhododendrons, some more toxic than others, making some plants more toxic than others. Grayanotoxin I is a glycoside toxin; also called andromedotoxin or rhodotoxin.

The information about ghost pipe containing grayanotoxin is based on a single source from 1889. (Yes 1889 , not 1989!)

King’s American Dispensatory (written in 1898) says: “A. J. M. Lasché (Pharm. Rundschau, 1889, p. 208) has found in this plant a crystallizable poisonous principle, which also occurs in several other ericaceous plants; it is named andromedotoxin (C31H51O10).”

Digging further, we found Lasché’s full text in Pharmazeutische Rundschau. Volume 7, 1889. (You can read it too on Archive.org .) His experiments showed that Monotropa uniflora contains andromedotoxin. To date, no modern study can be found as a follow-up, so that single source is all the data we have to go on.

a bumble bee visiting ghost pipe flowers

Should You Forage or Pick Ghost Pipe?

Most of the time, the answer is no – you don’t really need to pick ghost pipe flowers !

If you live in a state where ghost pipe is listed as endangered, threatened, or at risk (see above) – this is an easy decision. Take a photo, touch nothing (unless you’re clearing an invasive such as garlic mustard that’s about to choke out the plants in the area), and carefully move on.

If you’re someone who truly needs this strong medicine and lives in an area where it’s considered secure, keep reading.

Before you gather Ghost Pipe, ask yourself these questions:

Why do you want to gather ghost pipe.

Stop and think why you want to collect it. Do you truly feel that the plant will benefit you? Are you really going to use it, if you make a tincture, or will it just sit on a shelf? Are you scared of any potential toxicity?

Ghost pipe is strong and used in rather extreme circumstances – unrelenting pain or anxiety attacks that can’t be managed by other herbs.

Don’t pick ghost pipe unless you have an actual plan or need for its use !

a solitary pollinated ghost pipe

What does the plant population look like?

Are there only a few plant clusters in the area? Less than 9 or 10? If so, take a photo, move on, and don’t disturb.

If there are multiple separate and large plant clusters (this doesn’t mean ten flowers growing right next to each other; whole groups of flowers should be separated by several feet), check them closely without touching. Sometimes you’ll find that a stem or flower has been freshly knocked over by a passing creature, or perhaps you yourself accidentally trampled one before noticing.

Any freshly broken or trampled pieces can be collected as long as they haven’t turned black.

If the plant clusters are large enough, and you’re in a place where the population is secure, they may be able to support you taking a stem or two from the center of a couple of the largest clusters. (Three or four flowers/stems makes plenty of tincture.)

No one needs to collect a whole jar or even 1/4 of a jar of ghost pipe flowers. Just 3 or 4 flowers with stems will make a powerful tincture.

Collect the fresher flowers that are looking downward. Once the flowers turn up to face the sky, it’s considered too late to collect for tincture. At that point the flower has been pollinated (most often by bumblebees) and has made a seed pod containing thousands of tiny dust like seeds that will be sent out into the wind, hoping for the perfect spot to land and grow.


Ghost pipe is a perennial. If you pull up the roots, it won’t come back next year!

Ghost Pipe Lookalike

Before harvesting, make sure you’re not picking ghost pipe’s look alike: Pinesap ( Monotropa hypopitys ).

Pinesap starts off creamy white color, and can develop shades of red. Below is a photo of pinesap – you can tell the two plants apart because ghost pipe has one flower at the top of each stem, while pinesap has several flowers clustered together at the top of each stem.

pinesap Monotropa hypopitys is a lookalike for ghost pipe

What is Ghost Pipe Tincture Used For?

The tincture is used in small doses for those experiencing high levels of pain or anxiety attacks.

Examples of people who use Ghost Pipe are those who are battling cancer, or have unrelenting high levels of pain in spite of trying other herbs/medications/therapies, or someone who can’t function in life because of continual severe anxiety attacks.

If you have a standard sore back and muscles from working in the garden or exercising too hard – try a mullein root tincture and a pain salve instead.

You don’t need ghost pipe tincture for everyday common pains. It’s not for pregnant or nursing women, or children.

ghost pipe or indian pipe tincture

How Do You Make Ghost Pipe Tincture?

If you truly feel you have a need for the tincture and will put it to good use: Place three or four lightly rinsed ghost pipe flowers/stems (you do not need roots) in a half-pint jar. Cover with 2 to 3 ounces of 100 proof vodka – make sure all the flower parts are covered, adding more if needed. Use a pair of scissors to chop up the flowers/stems while they’re under the vodka. Put a lid on the jar, label, and tuck it away for about 4 weeks. The tincture will turn a beautiful shade of purple. Strain.

Shelf life of this tincture is 2 to 3+ years. It’s normal to lose the purple color over time and is still fine to use at that point. (Each 1 ounce = about 600 drops.)

How Do You Use Ghost Pipe Tincture?

Starting dose is usually 3 drops. Those with light body frames may find that one drop is plenty. Put 1 to 3 drops in a cup then add a little water. Drink.

Don’t use before driving, operating machinery, or going outside your house because it can cause sleepiness. It kicks in for us about 20 minutes after taking. We find it calming and relaxing, but it is a slightly strange feeling, like you’re “zooming” away from your pain.

Use at your own risk of not knowing how you’ll personally react, as the tincture is very powerful medicine and has not been well studied by modern researchers. (One of our small-framed adult family members developed nausea and an earache and headache after taking 1 drop of ghost pipe – so it doesn’t work well for everyone!)

Ghost Pipe plants look upwards after pollination

References & Further Reading

Botanical Gazette . April 1878. Volume 3, Number 4; pp. 37 – 38. A.H. Young reports on a reaction a young woman had when some of the plant juice of monotropa uniflora got on her lips.

Botanical Gazette . June 1878. Volume 3, Number 6; pp. 53 – 54. Richard E. Kunze writes a reply detailing his medicinal uses of monotropa uniflora over 23 years, with no adverse affects and wonders if the young woman from A.H. Young’s report had a reaction to Rhus toxicodendron (poison oak) instead.

Botanical Gazette . September 1878. Volume 3, Number 9; pp. 79 – 79. A.H. Young asserts he still believes the young woman’s reaction was from monotropa uniflora .

California Department of Fish & Wildlife. SPECIAL VASCULAR PLANTS, BRYOPHYTES, AND LICHENS LIST . April, 2022.

California Native Plant Society Rare Plant Inventory. Monotropa uniflora. https://rareplants.cnps.org/Plants/Details/646

Donahue, Sean. Ghost Pipe: A Little Known Nervine . American Herbalist Guild.

Felter, Harvey Wickes and John Uri Lloyd. King’s American Dispensatory , 1898.

Figura, Tomáš, et al. In vitro axenic germination and cultivation of mixotrophic Pyroloideae (Ericaceae) and their post-germination ontogenetic development . Annals of Botany . 2019 Mar; 123(4): 625–639.

Gupton, Oscar Wilmont.  An Analysis of the Taxonomic Criteria as Applies to the Genus Monotropa . The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; ProQuest Dissertations Publishing,  1963. 6401852.

ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System – Report on Monotropa uniflora .

Jansen, Suze A. et al. Grayanotoxin Poisoning: ‘Mad Honey Disease’ and Beyond . Cardiovascular Toxicology . 2012; 12(3): 208–215.

Klooster, Matthew R. and Theresa M. Culley. Comparative analysis of the reproductive ecology of Monotropa and Monotropsis : Two mycoheterotrophic genera in the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae) . American Journal of Botany . First published: 01 July 2009

Leopold, Susan. A History of Parasitic Plants from Ancient Herbals to Modern Scientific Research . United Plant Savers; audio file; accessed June, 2022.

Millspaugh, Charles Frederick. American Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated and Descriptive Guide to Plants Indigenous to and Naturalized in the United States which are Used in Medicine . See pp. 411 – 414.

Native American Ethnobotany Database . Online. Accessed June, 2022.

O’Neil, Alexander R. The Population Genetic Structure of the Mycoheterotroph Monotropa uniflora L. in North America .

Tsukaya, Hirokazu. Flowering time of two saprophytic plants, Monotropa uniflora L. and Monotropastrum humile (D. Don) Hara in Japan . Journal of Plant Research .

USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station; Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for the Chugach National Forest and the Kenai Peninsula . See Table 6-4—List of rare plant taxa tracked by the Alaska National Heritage Program occurring in the assessment area.

Winston, David. David Winston’s Center for Herbal Studies . Facebook post about Monotropa uniflora or Indian Pipe.

Our articles are for information and idea-sharing only. While we aim for 100% accuracy, it is solely up to the reader to provide proper identification. Be sure to seek out local foraging classes and plant walks, and invest in mushroom and foraging guides suitable for the area you live in, since some wild foods are poisonous, or may have adverse effect.

monotropa uniflora flower

Jan is a writer, herbalist, natural soap educator, and bestselling author of The Big Book of Homemade Products, and Simple & Natural Soapmaking. She grows, forages, and rambles around 100 mostly wooded acres at the foot of the Appalachian mountains. Besides writing articles for her family website, Unruly Gardening, she's also the founder of TheNerdyFarmWife.com where you can find her sharing DIY natural skincare and soapmaking recipes, and herbal remedies.

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I discovered ghost pipe on our property in central Wisconcin by chance. There are several hundred plants that seem to be doing quite well. It’s good to know they are there if needed.

That’s awesome Tom! I feel reassured seeing it growing in spots around us as well – it’s good to know they’re there!

I have question does ghost pipe show up as anything on a drug test.

Hi Annette! That’s a great question! I’m not 100% sure of the answer. I know it’s sometimes used to help people come off of a drug trip, and haven’t heard of it causing a red flag result for anyone, so my first instinct is to say it shouldn’t. But, I haven’t seen any case studies to confirm my guess, and no one has studied all of the compounds within, so just can’t say for certain. I wish I could help more!

First time foragers here. My fiance knows someone who may need ghost pipe for pain. We found some on our property and he harvested so many tops probably 20 and just covered them in alcohol undiluted. So we have about 1/4 mason jar of buds and alcohol that have been sitting for about 4 weeks already. How would we go about diluting this for use so it isnt so strong? Can we just add more alcohol and would we need to let it sit longer after?

Hi Jolene! Yes, you could add more alcohol to dilute the tincture. I would go ahead and strain the tincture first if it looks really strong by now. Then you can dilute the strained tincture with regular vodka (80 proof) or any type of alcohol & use it right away. You might not need to dilute it though. How dark is the color? If it’s a really dark purple, it’s likely still fine to use. If it looks almost black however, that could be a bit too strong. If you want to send me a photo – hello @ unrulygardening .com then I’m happy to take a look at it! One idea: when you strain the tincture – count how many flowers are in there if possible. Then measure the amount of vodka/alcohol used. Record the data for next time – that will give you an idea of the ratio you used for this batch and if you find it is too strong, you’ll have an idea next time of how to adjust when making.

I have taken a lot of ghost pipe and a lot of drug tests. It has never come up.

Hi Rick, Thanks for chiming in – it’s much appreciated!

Wondering if ghost pipe tincture could be added to a salve for topical use?

Hi Jennifer! While there is some historical data as far as topical use for things like sores & warts: http://naeb.brit.org/uses/search/?string=monotropa (from the Native American Ethnobotany Database) I don’t believe an oil-based salve would be the best form for ghost pipe. Alcohol tinctures tend to bead out/separate from the oils without an emulsifier, so something like a liniment might be a better form. From my research however, it doesn’t appear to help pain when applied topically. (Though there’s a lot that hasn’t been studied about the plant, so future information may tell us otherwise!)

Where can someone purchase ghost pipe tincture?

Hi Mary! I would suggest checking out Running Waters Homestead – they place a high priority on sustainable harvesting & I’ve had good experience ordering from them in the past: https://runningwatershomestead.com/shop/

Hello! Thank you for writing this! I followed your instructions here to make ghost pipe tincture, but after 4 weeks, the tincture is clear and not purple. I’m now nervous to try it. Do you have any ideas of what could’ve happened?

I used three white ghost pipe stems and flowers, cut up into a few pieces under 4oz of 100 proof vodka, and let sit in a dark cabinet in a sealed glass container for 4 weeks.

Hi Sam! Sorry to hear that happened! It should have at least a little hint of purple to it – did you see any tinge of purple show up at any point in the infusion? Do you happen to have a photo of the plants you collected? There is a lookalike called pinesap (Monotropa hypopitys) – it starts off kind of creamy white, then can get shades of red on it. I just updated this article to show a photo of pinesap so you can compare. https://unrulygardening.com/ghost-pipe-faqs/#ghost-pipe-lookalike You can also email a photo, if you have one, to hello @ unrulygardening .com and I’m happy to take a look and double check your plant! It sounds like you did everything right, which is what makes me wonder about pinesap being used instead. If you 100% did use ghost pipe though, then my other thought would be more flowers to alcohol ratio. I start on the low range of the alcohol; you can always add more in later to dilute if it’s too strong. It could also be some regional differences between size of the ghost pipe plants and what stages they are collected.

Can you use Ouzo or Everclear instead of vodka?

Hi Penelope! Yes, you can use Everclear instead. I’m unfamiliar with using Ouzo though, so not positive on that one. 🙂

Do the flowers and stems need to be fully white or is black ok? I picked some and parts of them turned black(mostly stems) before i was able to get them into some vodka. I did put them into vodka and my tincture is a dark purple. Against light you can see through it. Otherwise you cannot. I have had it in the jar for about a week. Maybe i should add more vodka to make it lighter? Or should I discard it because I cut the black stems into it?

Hi Samantha! If they were white when you picked them & you got them into the vodka within a few hours, then they should still be fine to use. They do turn black fairly quickly, so unless you bring your bottle of vodka out in the forest with you (which isn’t really practical when you’re hiking!) 🙂 it can be hard for them not to start darkening at least some before they get tinctured. It sounds like your tincture is the right color and strength! So unless the flowers sat in a hot car for half a day or something like that, I would personally be likely to use the tincture. However, if you still have a worried feel and you’re not 100% comfortable using it, then I always follow those intuitions.

I just need a bit of opinion/advice. I attempted to make ghost pipe and pinesap tinctures both are an amber color….any guesses as to why and is it safe to use? Please help?!?!? I have been waiting all year to make this I am kind of disappointed

thanks a million for your help 🍄

Hi S, I’m so sorry to hear that! Can you tell me more about what kind of alcohol you used? How much ghost pipe to alcohol ratio? I’ve not made pinesap tincture (or found references to date, as far as using it medicinally), so am unfamiliar with what color that would turn in a tincture, but ghost pipe should definitely have a purple hue.

Howdy, i understand this might not exactly be your wheelhouse but you folks seem very knowledgeable so thought I’d give it a whirl. My local herbalist recommended Ghost Pipe for a lifelong struggle with anxiety specifically connecting to sleep issues, and not a whole lot of success with other herbs and supplements. First night I tried 5 drops and had success. 2nd night since I was weening myself off other things did 7 drops. It seems if I don’t fall asleep quickly then it won’t happen at all and some time had passed. Started to panic. Since I had read on Sean Donahue’s piece he had used up to three 1ml tinctures (I believe 1 ml is dropperful), took 1 dropperful. waited a little while, still up,then took 2 more dropperfuls. Definitely felt like that was too much. Had a period I still wasn’t sleeping but must have finally slept as I awoke at some point and realized I had had a strange dream. Can you give any advice or share experiences about usage and dosage. I’m heartened I had some success but know 3 dropperfuls is definitely too much for me but don’t want to go too low either

Hi Eli! Most of us have the opposite effect here, where we have to ultra low dose everything because we react quickly & hard to many supplements. So we don’t have personal experience with high doses, though I have seen the Sean Donahue piece about using higher amounts too. The main member who uses occasional ghost pipe for similar reasons, also finds this daily supplement most helpful, in case it hasn’t been on your radar already: https://painstresscenter.com/products/ac This combination seems to be a good synergy for their unique body chemistry, so maybe it’s not that you need more ghost pipe, but a matter of pinpointing exactly what you took/ate/watched/experienced/etc the same night that the 5 drops worked well & finding that perfect mashup for you. I wish I had more to offer about higher dosing, but agree with you that it’s a promising sign that it worked at one point!

I’ve been making tinctures of ghost pipe for years and find it’s effects wonderful. Used primarily as a sleep aid, it’s worked wonders for me when I get bouts of insomnia. I also have a history of severe migraines and lower back pain. It’s a remedy that works! I live in Vermont surrounded by high elevation old growth forest and it’s beyond plentiful here, so I’m fortunate to have easy access to it. 4-6 drops is my magic number. Should also be noted it’s a recognized remedy for not only physical pain, but emotionao and mental pain stemming from trauma, depression, anxiety, etc. as well. I’ve never had an unpleasant experience with it, and some years I may only use it a handful of times – it truly is a sacred plant and should be respected. I hope modern botanists, ethnobotanists, medical researchers, organic chemists, etc. can more fully research this in the years to come – it deserves the attention, but I also worry about this becoming mainstream and trendy and over-harvested, much like Chaga has become lately. Just my thoughts….

This is an informative introductory article that I’ve shared with many people: Ghost Pipe- A Little Known Nervine – American Herbalists Guild https://www.americanherbalistsguild.com/sites/default/files/donahue_sean_-_ghost_pipe-_a_little_known_nervine.pdf

Hi Neil, Thank you for sharing your helpful information and experiences with ghost pipe!

I have a special relationship with this plant, it came into my life 3 years in a row by unexpected means, all in the same weekend of the year. I found it incredibly strong, and I am someone who takes hero doses of most herbs to see results. Less is more, in my own experience. A drop is all that is needed, and I found it a powerful trauma releaser. It was quite scary actually, completely unexpected. If something is sitting in you, it will get it out. The first year, I stumbled on it hiking, and recognized it after having had it described to me from a colleague. I ran to town, got some vodka, and headed back to find it. My fingers were black by the time I was home. I think is is a very special plant, like them all, but something very powerful about this one. Drop dosing for trauma release, and with caution. The following year was different. I received a text from my daughter who was travelling (who never texts me!) with a photo of Ghostpipe. She then picked it and tinctured it. This time was different, I went in with eyes wide open and asked the plant if I should take it. The result was still unexpectedly strong! Basically just really strong emotions, but I just went on tbe ride this time. Kinda like the worst PMS bad mood day ever.

Very interesting “plant”

Hi Jenny, Thank you so much for sharing your experiences with ghost pipe! It really is a fascinating plant!

Jan, a friend and I went looking for chanterells and stumbled into hundreds of Ghost-pipes. We didn’t know about using alcohol for a tincture till we got back to where we had cell service. We had picked about 30 and bought 100% Vodka on the way home. We used a mason jar, cut the Ghostpipes and filled the mason jar. 2 day the contents are black. From what I’ve read here I will need to dilute a bit after 4 weeks. So I’m wondering if by waiting an hour to get the GP’s in the alcohol what could go wrong?

Hi Dave, What a great find! I think the flowers should be fine in that one hour window. I wouldn’t use completely black or disintegrated flowers that had been cut for hours, but if they were just aging a tiny bit and still mostly white, I personally wouldn’t have a problem using them.

Can you store the flowers by freezing or drying them? We get them each year but some years, like this one, we get way more

Hi Derek! I recently watched an excellent webinar with Dr Eric Burkhart of Penn State & his grad student, who is studying ghost pipe, and he mentioned that traditionally, the plant was used in the dried form, but over time it became popular to use it as an alcohol extract instead. I’ll need to re-watch the webinar when the replay link is published, to be certain of exact wording, but I believe he suggested drying at 95 degrees F with circulating air. Testing out dried flowers is high on my priority list! We’re having a lower flower year so far (because of a very dry spring impacting early bloomers), but one of my best ghost pipe spots should produce flowers later in the year, so hopefully I’ll have several flowers to dry and experiment with. I’m not sure about freezing though.

Thank you for the information. I sent an email with a photo, but I have another question here. I found one cluster of 18 plants with a group of 12 dried plants. Is this common or rare? I am a bit late finding them as I found them today August 16th. I am in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan so maybe our season is a bit different than southern states?

Hi Dennis! I got your email and replied earlier today; hope you got that message! That sounds like a good grouping of plants; I would classify that as common & personally harvest from an area like that.

Hello I have a 32 oz mason jar completely full of ghost pipe that I covered with ever clear after reading your article about only needing a few pipes should I dilute my tincture with water?

Hi Sheila! I would test the tincture (one drop) and see if you can gauge the strength before diluting. A larger amount of fresh plant matter may mean a larger amount of water content, so it may all balance out.

About the leftover flowers and stems of the ghost pipe that you made the tincture out of… what to do with them? Can they be dried, frozen, eaten, made into a spread? What do you do with your leftovers?

Hi Colleen! I just discard the leftovers outside, because most of the beneficial compounds should now be in the tincture.

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What Is Indian Pipe Plant – Learn About The Indian Pipe Fungus

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White Indian Pipe Plant

What is Indian pipe? This fascinating plant ( Monotropa uniflora ) is definitely one of nature’s weird wonders. Because it has no chlorophyll and doesn’t depend on photosynthesis , this ghostly white plant is able to grow in the darkest of forests. Many people refer to this strange plant as Indian pipe fungus, but it is not a fungus at all – it just looks like one. It is actually a flowering plant, and believe it or not, it is a member of the blueberry family. Keep reading for more Indian pipe info.

Indian Pipe Information

Each Indian pipe plant consists of one 3- to 9-inch (7.5 to 23 cm.) stem. Although you may notice small scales, no leaves are required because the plant does not photosynthesize. A white or pinkish-white, bell-shaped flower, which appears sometime between late spring and fall, is pollinated by small bumblebees . Once the bloom is pollinated, the “bell” creates a seed capsule that eventually releases tiny seeds into the wind. For obvious reasons, Indian pipe is also known as "ghost plant" – or sometimes "corpse plant". Although there is not an Indian pipe fungus, Indian pipe is a parasitic plant that survives by borrowing nutrients from certain fungi, trees and decaying plant matter. This complicated, mutually beneficial process allows the plant to survive.

Where does Indian Pipe Grow?

Indian pipe is found in dark, shady woods with rich, moist soil and plenty of decaying leaves and other plant matter. It is commonly found near dead stumps. Indian pipe is often found in near beech trees too, which also prefer damp, cool soil. The plant grows in most temperate regions of the United States, and is also found in northern parts of South America.

Indian Pipe Plant Uses

Indian pipe has an important role to play in the ecosystem, so please don’t pick it. (It will quickly turn black, so there’s really no point.) The plant may have once held medicinal qualities. Native Americans used the sap to treat eye infections and other ailments. Reportedly, Indian pipe plant is edible and tastes something like asparagus . Yet, eating the plant is not recommended, as it may be mildly toxic. Although the plant is interesting, it is best enjoyed in its natural environment. Bring a camera to capture this ghostly, glowing plant!

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Ghost Pipe - Monotropa Uniflora

Ghost Pipe – Monotropa Uniflora: Edible & Medicinal Uses of That’s Not a Mushroom of Wild Plants

Table of contents, edible uses of ghost pipe, medicinal uses of ghost pipe, alternative uses of ghost plant, growing monotropa uniflora.

Ghost pipes are an herb most will mistake for a mushroom. This pale wildflower has forgone photosynthesis and can often be found in the darkest woods. It’s one of the many edible and medicinal plants that should probably be left alone due to being rarer and in this case, especially hard to propagate.

There are many names for it, including corpse plant and fairy smoke. In Haliburton Flora it’s called Indian pipe, in reference to its being shaped like a ceremonial pipe. I am not sure what the species status is around Haliburton, Ontario now. Decades ago it was fairly common here. It seems to depend on the year. We have the rarer yellow and pink tinted pinesap ( Monotropa hypopitys ) here too.

Despite the Latin name hinting at being in the family monotropaceae , the whole lot of monotropaceae are now a subfamily of the ericaceae family. Also known as the heath family. That makes it a close relative of blueberries , cranberries, etc. All the monotropa  subfamily are parasitic plants, most getting their energy through fungal hosts. The fungal hosts, apparently russula  and  lactarius  species in this case, get their sugar/energy from trees. The trees, of course, from the sun in ways you learned about in grade school. A photosynthetic tree, a web of mycorrhizal fungus, to a parasitic plant. There are thousands of plant species that are like this. And there is a vast web of life under the soil that we are only beginning to understand.

Ghost Pipe - Monotropa Uniflora

If you search “is ghost pipe edible?” you’ll find site after site that are a copy/paste of one another claiming it’s sort of edible and tastes like asparagus. Literally there is an exact duplicate sentence used on every site I saw. There’s also the exact opposite, fear mongering content that makes nibbling one stalk sound deadly.

Technically, this bland tasting and fragile plant could be eaten raw, roasted, or boiled in small amounts. It is mildly toxic due to several glycosides (e.g. andromedotoxin ). I’m not clear on how much is too much. It can be especially dangerous if you have any cardiovascular issues. It’s definitely not for a beginner forager and brings to mind other “iffy” “edibles” like Jack-in-the-Pulpit or wintergreen .

And as for the fragileness, they may decompose when touched. They melt away if rubbed. In many places this plant is also too rare for harvesting to be considered ethical.

Ghost pipe is primarily said to support these body systems:

  • Integumentary

Medicinal tags include Analgesic, Antispasmodic, Nervine and Sedative. See  Medicinal tag key  for more information.

Common usage includes as an antispasmodic for nervous conditions with spasms and convulsions, lending it the nicknames “convulsion-root” and “fit plant”. Uses have not been limited to that, but the plant isn’t used much anymore due to its at risk species status in many areas.

For those who have large amounts on their property, I found an herbalist from the American Herbalists Guild describing their practice with ghost plant/Indian pipe and how they maintain the patch.

It may surprise you that bumblebees will visit the flowers!

Ghost Pipe - Monotropa Uniflora

While this plant isn’t a fungus, it needs specific types of fungi to grow. So you can’t plop a seed in the ground anywhere and expect results. They are also ephemeral and want to come up after an extended dry period followed by rain. In those conditions they will come up and be full grown within a couple days! I have a huge patch, but it didn’t even show up in 2020. Was it the lack of that dry-to-rain? Was it the tree that fell? An old spruce tree twisted itself to death in a windstorm and I wonder if that was the main tree for the fungi and the ghost pipe?

It wasn’t until summer 2021 that my ghost pipe patch began to re-emerge. Only a few pipes came up, but we seem to be recovering from whatever happened.

While you could try to collect the seeds and a little soil from the same area, plant it in the dark woods perhaps near some beech, oak or pine, and hope for the best, it’s unlikely to work. Since propagation is hard, I treat my patch as sacred like the pipes they are shaped as. And even that might have not been enough. :`(

Similar plants may have their seeds dispersed by crickets . Perhaps something similar is happening in our woods. As it stands, the wind is given the credit for seed dispersal.

If you have any cardiovascular issues, it’s probably best to skip taste testing this wild plant out of an abundance of caution.

And the Usual Cautions: 1) Most medicinal herbs, if edible, are meant to be eaten in moderation, even sparingly. Some require extra preparation. 2) People can be allergic or sensitive to nearly any plant; try new herbs one at a time at your own risk. 3) For medicinal use, I must recommend receiving a diagnosis and working with a reputed health care provider. I generally do not post specific treatments and dosages because I think that is best between you and your health care provider, and ideally monitored. 4) Anyone pregnant, nursing, or taking prescription drugs should talk to a health care professional before adding new food items to their diet. 5) Many plants have look-a-likes, and sometimes they are poisonous.

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Wisdom of the Plant Devas

Herbal medicine for a new earth, ghost pipe: a hauntingly rare plant for physical and emotional pain.


Monotropa uniflora

When a friend approached me about excruciating pain in his spine as a result of nerve damage from a degenerative joint disease, the hauntingly translucent, ephemeral, and ghostly white image of Ghost Pipe, danced before me. He desperately wanted to avoid opiates. I have rarely needed to use this plant that grows in the dense, dark under-story of the forest where I live, but in the past few years I have noticed it growing in greater abundance. It is a rare plant and not commonly encountered, so I took these sightings as a sign that a need for its medicine may be at hand. Could this plant help my friend as he searched for other answers? I wondered.

Resembling a spine and brain stem, Ghost Pipe is a nervous system ally aiding in the modulation of sensory input. The plant has been used as a nervine in Western Herbal Medicine since the late nineteenth century, and a tincture of the whole plant has been used for people in intense physical pain, but it doesn’t make the pain go away. Pain serves a purpose. It alerts us to what needs our attention. With the aid of Ghost Pipe we don’t deaden the pain, but rather distance it so we can work with the pain without being overwhelmed by it. Ghost Pipe puts the person beside their pain, so they can see it and deal with it. It is not your normal analgesic. In the words of Herbalist, David Winston, “…you know it hurts, but simply don’t care.” It reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli and raises the pain threshold. It can help a person feel more grounded and present rather than overtaken by overwhelming pain.

Ghost Pipe also works with emotional pain in a similar manner. Whether the initial shock of emotional pain, people physically paralyzed by emotional pain, or acute anxiety or panic attacks marked by sensory overload, it has the same action as setting the pain beside you (think nervous system modulator). It dulls the perception of pain and may be useful for psychotic episodes or triggering of emotional memories. Herbalist, Ryan Drum, who works with this plant in the Pacific Northwest, believes it has a great future as a psychiatric nervine in acute cases.

In my book, Wisdom of the Plant Devas: Herbal Medicine for a New Earth , I propose that if a plant’s medicine is needed, it will show up, and that our medicine is as close as we are right now. Since it showed up for me in relation to my friend, who was trying not to succumb to the opioids his doctors were recommending, I suggested he look into Ghost Pipe as a possible ally. Where I currently live in Western North Carolina, we are experiencing an opioid epidemic that is devastating families and communities. Could Ghost Pipe be showing up here at this time for a reason? North Carolina has been especially hard hit and opioid overdose deaths have increased more than 22% in a single year (2017) over the prior year, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Nationally, opioid-involved overdose deaths have more than quadrupled since 1999, according to the Citizen Times. Could Ghost Pipe provide an alternative to opiates in certain cases, helping us to engage and deal with our pain? Could research on this plant lead to the development of other pain relieving drugs that are less damaging than what is currently available? I believe we are in need of a new mindset where pain is not the enemy, and we can find hope in our relationship with the natural world.

Ghost Pipe, also known as Indian Pipe, or corpse plant, and whose botanical name is Monotropa uniflora , is an herbaceous perennial devoid of plant blood. Lacking chlorophyll it does not generate energy from sunlight. Ultimately, Ghost Pipe gets its energy from the photosynthesis of trees, parasitically sapping nutrients and carbohydrates from the tree roots through the intermediate source of myccorhizal fungus. These fungi colonize the tree roots in a symbiotic, albeit parasitic relationship, and play an important role in soil chemistry, helping to make nutrients available to the tree.  

Indian Pipe_1734

Ghost Pipe Cluster, photo ©2019 Thea Summer Deer

M. uniflora is indeed a ghostly plant, a parasite feeding on a parasite. This three-way relationship between a photosynthetic tree, a mycorrhizal fungus and a parasitic plant is a ménage á trois, but it is not clear who is getting what from the ghostly one. America’s eminent poet, Emily Dickinson, called it “the preferred flower of life,” and she never ceased to wonder at its mystery. The Cherokee and First Nations People also honored this plant for its medicine and its mystery. If you happen to come upon it, take in its unique beauty with reverence. This is a magical gift from the natural world. There’s a lot going on underground that we are only just beginning to understand about this plant.

Ghost Pipe appears from early summer to early autumn after a rainfall and when the weather is warm, bearing a single bell-shaped flower. Spending most of its life underground it grows in the dark because it is not dependent on light for photosynthesis. It may look like a fungus, but it really is a flowering plant. Eventually poking its way up through decaying leaves, Ghost Pipe rises on a slender stalk, and then nods its flower head, thus resembling a pipe with its stem stuck in the ground. Slowly the plant will straighten into an upright position with the flower pointing skyward. It is only about five inches tall and commonly found in small clusters. A fascinating plant, it only grows in select temperate regions with large gaps in-between and can be found in Russia, North America, Asia and northern South America.

The genus name Monotropa, means “one turn,” and refers to the curve at the top of its stem. The species name uniflora , means “one flowered.” It is in the Ericaceae family, which also includes blueberries, rhododendron, azaleas, and arctostaphylos (manzanitas, uva ursi, bearberries), and they all like the same acidic soil. Propagation and cultivation are next to impossible because of the delicate processes it adheres to.

I know from experience that harvesting this plant can be a delicate undertaking and recommend a whole plant tincture in 100 proof vodka. Even a gentle touch can bruise, so it is best to tincture it in the field, harvesting only a few plants from each colony. The resulting tincture is a pleasingly deep violet color.

Indian Pipe_1728

Ghost Pipe in various stages, photo ©2019 Thea Summer Deer

Please use caution and respect when harvesting as this is considered a rare plant. Very little of it should ever be needed, so harvest sustainably and ethically, and only when large colonies are found. Harvest when the plant’s flowers are curved over and facing the ground. It is too late to harvest if the flowers are upright. After this they will quickly turn black and begin to dissolve. Bring prepared menstruum, jars, and a bowl of water with you so you can tincture immediately after lightly brushing off and washing the roots.

One of M. uniflora’s main constituents is salicylic acid, which is also in aspirin. The Cherokee considered it a pain remedy of the highest order. You will know that this plant is for you if you are willing to journey into your pain, bear witness to your pain, and be an active participant in your healing process. There is information that can be received when we are not completely numb to our pain. To relieve specific types of physical pain it may be paired with anti-inflammatory and anodyne herbs such as willow ( Salix spp. ), or anti-spasmodics such as wild yam ( Dioscorea villosa ) and Black Haw ( Viburnum prunifolium ). Combine with holy basil to disperse intense emotions that may be coming up.

Herbal Actions: sedative, nervine, antispasmodic, anodyne, diaphoretic

Useful for:

  • Overwhelming physical pain (combined with anodyne herbs)
  • Migraine like headaches associated with traumatic brain injury
  • Anxiety and panic attacks associated with emotional or sensory overload
  • Triggering of emotional memories

May also be useful for: Childhood seizures, febrile seizures, and epileptic seizures.

To make a fresh plant tincture:

  • Pack plant tightly into a pint canning jar filling to top.
  • Add 100 proof vodka, filling jar to the top
  • Shake daily for 2 weeks.
  • You can leave herb in alcohol until all tincture is consumed, or strain and decant.

Frequent small doses seem to work best to disrupt pain cycle. Not recommended for long term use past one month of daily use.

Dosing: (Note: 1ml = 20 drops)

For physical pain: Start with 3 drops and jump to 1ml if no response, up to 40 drops (2ml) every half hour. If severe use 1ml at 5 minute intervals. Once pain level improves, increase the amount of time between doses and reduce dosage amount.

For psychological pain: Up to 2, 1ml doses to manage initially. 2-3, 1ml dose at 5 minute intervals for severe panic and agitation. 1-3ml doses for psychotic episodes. Will work within 15-30 minutes with the person usually falling asleep and waking up more calm and coherent. May be contraindicated for anyone taking stimulants prescribed for ADHD.


Ghost Pipe: A Little Known Nervine by Sean Donahue

Medicinal Plants of the Southern Appalachians by Patricia Kyritsi Howell

USDA Forest Service: Monotropa uniflora – Ghost Plant, Indian Pipe

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55 thoughts on “ ghost pipe: a hauntingly rare plant for physical and emotional pain ”.

Wonderful article. Beautiful message thank you. I believe exactly what you are saying is true. The plant allies want to help us and they show up when we need them. What if we showed the earth the same intelligent respect?

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Would you possibly have any of this tincture to sell? Some ghost pipe found me the other day while I was looking for mushrooms and I actually have been in extreme pain. Emotionally and physically. I’m confident in my ability to confront myself and my pain and really appreciate the information bit am asking for a step further. Please contact me back

Hello Megan, I do not sell tinctures. You will need to search online for what is currently available. If you find a brand or product that you like, please feel free to share it with us here.

Hi Thea; I live in Halifax Nova Scotia. Last year I started collecting Indian Pipe, for the first time. This year I cannot fine any new growth. I see the black stems of last years but none this year. Is this normal?

Thanks for this post, Thea. Informative, easy reading. Met some ghost pipe in Canada once but have never used it. I’ll be in the mountains next Wednesday, will keep my eyes 👀 open. Green blessings, EagleSong 🌿

Earth Matters

Thank you EagleSong. It may be a little too late in the season for it in the PNW, but we are having quite the Indian Summer here in the Appalachians. May it be blessed!

Thanks Thea! I subscribed to your newsletter because Ghost Pipe popped up in my front yard in Black Mountain! I was very surprised, and now I’m very honored. Many thanks!

Interesting how she showed up for you! Thank you for subscribing.

Thank you, Thea! I too, believe pain serves a purpose. I’ve come to realize my physical pain came to me to address my emotional pain. The pain relievers I’ve chosen are not relieving the physical pain and I’ll continue to seek out the loving remedy. My place of region(Colorado), ghost pipe has not crossed my path. Appreciate the information!!!

Love & Gratitude, Jodi

Thank you for checking in on this Jodi. I will hold that you will find the right and perfect solution as you unwind the sources of your pain.

Hoping you are still reading these comments…just wondering if you harvest the entire plant. I am also in the Appalachians and just came across several good sized patches of these on our mountain. I am interested in making a tincture for personal use. Thanks so much, Traci

I recommend harvesting a few stalks from different plants as to not stress the plant. Bring scissors and pint jar with vodka. Cut as low as you can without disturbing the roots

Hello Thea. Hoping you are still checking these comments…I have run across a good sized patch of ghost pipe and wanting to make a personal tincture. I’m wondering if you harvest the entire plant? I too live in the Appalachians. Thanks so much. I really enjoyed all the wonderful info. Traci

Hi Traci, yes you harvest the whole plant, brushing it off if needed with a soft brush, and immediately putting it in the menstruum because of its delicacy.

A photo today on fb of this plant on Vancouver Island. I hadn’t heard it before, Ghost Pipe. I’m drawn to it and hope to be able to harvest some. Thank you for the insight.

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My stomach doesn’t tolerate 100 proof vodka. Any other ways to process ghost pipe for ingestion?

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Such a beautiful plant.

Just moved to WA my house is in a small forest… Hiking around today I found several patches around my house, did a little research and came across your site. Im a long time depression sufferer steming from finding my dad dead after he committed suicide when I was 9… Can’t help but to see it as a sign after reading the info on your site. Going to be making a tincture today. Thanks!!!!

I was instructed to cut low in the stem to not harm the roots. I have a few jars of the beautiful purple tincture.

How long does it keep, does it need kept in refrigerator?

Herbal tinctures and extracts when done properly can last for years. They do not need to be kept in the refrigerator.

My ghost pipes are blooming at my house again right now!

That is so exciting! They love this warm wet air.

I have found several plants this morning and would like to make the tincture. How many plants per pint jar? Directions say “pack plant tightly in pint jar…it doesn’t say PLANTS but says PACK TIGHTLY. Just a bit confusing for a beginner.

That’s a good question! Plant refers to plant material and one plant species Monotropa uniflora. It would be impossible to know how many plants since they can vary in size. Even if you can’t fill jar to the top with plant material, fill it with as many plants as you are able to ethically harvest and add enough menstruum to cover. This is called the folk method and does not give standardized dosing.

I harvested a couple yesterday and put them in the fridge (I didnt have vidka on-hand). Would they still be good to make a tincture today?

They bruise pretty easily so I would imagine it would be fine if not too bruised or discolored.

I used everclear instead of 100 proof Vodka. Is the dosing the same? Should I dilute it? Thank you ~ Monica

Everclear is too hot (high proof alcohol) for delicate Monotropa. It may be too late to dilute it. You’ll have to test it and see.

Interestingly, I found some fresh ones yesterday, packed them in Graingers Organic 80 proof overnight and the liquid was still clear this morning. So I drained and packed in Everclear (I still had some left in the bottle from last batch) and within an hour the liquid is a beautiful dark purple. So 100 proof (as you said) is probably perfect.

Is monotropa better than wild lettuce for pain?

The herbal actions are different. I do not have direct experience with wild lettuce, but would love to hear from someone who has.

These grow abundantly in some woods nearby. I’ve never harvested or used them, but I feel like just being in their presence has helped me heal some really deep stuff I was going through when I first happened upon them. I’ve gone to those woods probably a hundred times and every single time I feel so uplifted afterward, it’s a feeling unique to that place. These are my *favorite* forest spirits, and today, I was introduced to one of their multi-flowered crimson sisters for the first time in those same woods. I’ve always wanted to encounter those ones but they’re so rare! What a blessing!

Beautiful! Thanks for sharing your encounter.

Thanks for your site. I have just discovered the Indian Pipe this summer from a new friend. Was able to find several plants on my walks. Not knowing the proper way to harvest, I did pick a bunch and returned home before putting them in vodka. It has been several weeks now and we have filtered and re-bottled. My wife has tried a few drops for neck pain and has been helped. With all the “covid” confusion we may find the tincture helpful emotionally. May even pick several of the plants that have dried out now and try a tea. Will do better next year. Ed in Nova Scotia.

I just found a new growth of ghost pipe.in western mass today. Some.are white and some are red in color. Ok.to use for a tincture ? I was.surprised.to find a new growth this late in the season!

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May I try the Indian ghost pipe for my fibromyalgia pain? I currently am lessening my vicoprofen to 2 a day to wean myself off of it than I need to supplement of some kind for the pain

I do not think that this plant would be good for that type of pain. Fibromyalgia is chronic pain, Monotropa is more for accute pain.

Try Amanita Muscaria (fly agargic) mushroom (red with white dots on cap) for chronic pain. Reportedly, a few drops topically on sciatica kills the pain for WEEKS. If it is dried first (decarboxillated) to remove poison, tincture can be ingested for pain.

Good luck 😉

Looking for a reputable place and product for sale. Pointing me in the right direction would be appreciated. Thanks, RJ

What source that you cite explains to pack a whole pint jar with plant material to the top? That sounds like it would make a very potent tincture. Also approximately how many pipes would you need? I’d imagine quite a bit!

Please see references. Tincture preparation is for one pint.

So interesting , can you buy n England ?

Does it show up in a drug test.

I have no idea, but I would seriously doubt it. It’s not illegal.

Hello I had a dream I was walking in a forest. And I seen this plant. I asked what it was and someone said ghost pipe. I looked it up and It lead me to this article. I am Native American so I do believe if you dream and remember it. It’s usually a message. I had no idea what this plant (fungi) was used for and lo & behold. One of its medicinal uses is for Migraine headaches associated with traumatic brain injury which I suffer from. So if anyone could point me in the right direction to acquire a tincture. Please contact me

Here is one source: https://beneficialbotanicals.com/store/Ghost-Pipe-Tincture-p531947300

The ones in my front yard are just coming up now.

Haven’t used it yet. But made a tincture just in case. Been on Opids for over 25 years prescribed by the VA and now a Pain Clinic. Not sure what might happen in the future. So figured I’d keep some handy. I’ve had Service Connected Chronic pain for almost 46 years now from a collapsed Parachute accident in 1977. Supply Sgt. even had my Dress Greens ready to bury me in. I can tell anyone that there’s no way your going to stop all the pain unless they knock you out. You have to learn to live with it. Your lucky if you can just take the edge off. Had Emergency surgery in 2020 because intestines were dying from scar tissue. The anistegelogist said I was the first every to try to get him to hurry and knock me out. I told him I was in pain and knew that was the only way I would get relief.

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A Forager’s Guide to Ghost Pipe (Monotropa uniflora)

Ghost Pipe

Monotropa uniflora plant profile

Common names include:

  • Indian pipe
  • Corpse plant
  • Death plant
  • Ghost flower
  • Bird’s nest

What Is Ghost Pipe (Monotropa uniflora)?

Ghost pipe, scientifically known as Monotropa uniflora, is a unique and fascinating flowering plant found in North American forests.

Ghost pipe is known for its distinctive, ghostly white appearance . The entire plant lacks chlorophyll, giving it a translucent or waxy white color. It does not undergo photosynthesis.

What Are You Foraging For Right Now?

We're thrilled to hear your ideas. what would you like to submit today feel free to share your thoughts and experiences with us..

Instead, it relies on a mycorrhizal association with fungi for nutrients obtained from nearby trees.

Ghost pipe holds cultural significance in some Indigenous traditions, where it’s with specific rituals or beliefs. Some Indigenous beliefs connect ghost pipe to forest spirits or entities residing in wooded areas.

Ghost pipe

Why Is it Called Ghost Pipe?

The combination of its translucent, waxy appearance, nodding flower structure, and preference for shaded forest locations contribute to the plant’s name, ghost pipe. Is Ghost Pipe a Fungus?

Ghost pipe is not a fungus.

While ghost pipe may resemble a fungus, it is essential to recognize its identity as a non-photosynthetic flowering plant.

Where Is Ghost Pipe Found?

Ghost pipe is a native plant to temperate regions of North America, South America, and Asia, with very large gaps in between. This delicate and ethereal plant is quite rare to find.

Ghost pipe is frequently found in both deciduous and coniferous forests , especially near beech, oak, psruce and pine species. It thrives in the cool, shaded environments provided by the canopy of trees.

The plant tends to grow in rich, moist soils and in damp conditions. It prefers shaded locations within the forest.

How to Identify Ghost Pipe?

The ghost pipe plant is rather unique and can be easily identified by its translucent stem and translucent white or pinkish color . Also, it looks a bit like a tobacco pipe.

Ghost Pppe typically stands between 6 to 10 inches tall. The plant produces a single, nodding, flower-like structure with a solitary flower at the top. Ghost pipe lacks true leaves and stems. Instead, it has a central stalk that supports the flower.

Ghost Pipe is a perennial plant, but it may not always be visible above ground. It typically emerges in late spring to early summer and can persist into the fall.

It has translucent scale-like leaves arranged along the stem that measure less than an inch in length. As the leaves do not participate in photosynthesis, they are vestigial.

The Indian pipe bears a single white flower with 4 to 6 segments. There is only one flower on each stem of a plant.

Once pollinated by an insect, the flower appears like a shepherd’s hook but gradually straightens out. It is at this point that the stem becomes upright.

It usually blooms from late July through August, although it may appear as early as late June in some years.

Ghost pipes

How Rare Is a Ghost Pipe?

Even though ghost pipe grows wild throughout the United States (except in the Southwest), sightings are rare.

It emerges in late spring to early summer. Outside of this period, it can be challenging to spot.

This plant is perennial and will reappear in the same location each year. 

Is Ghost Pipe Edible or Medicinal?

Ghost pipe is not considered a healthy edible, so you are probably better off avoiding eating it. 

A few people have reported eating some, but nearly as many have reported feeling ill or strange after doing so.

There are several myths and questionable claims associated with this plant. The Indian pipe plant, for example, is often referred to as a hallucinogen by many people. There is no definitive answer to this question.

Is Ghost Pipe Poisonous in Any Way?

Ghost pipe contains compounds that may be harmful, and caution is advised regarding its consumption.

While the plant is not known to be highly toxic, it is considered potentially toxic and is not typically consumed as food.

Ghost Pipe Uses in Native American Culture

  • Native Americans used ghost pipe tincture medicinally for its ability to treat both physical and emotional pain. 
  • In Cherokee culture, the root was used to prevent convulsions.
  • In Mohegan culture, it was used for pain relief.
  • In Cree culture, the flower was chewed to treat toothaches.

Other wild plants often used by Native Americans include:

  • Goat’s beard

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Ana has always been interested in all things nature and flora. With her expertise in home gardening and interest in foraging, she has been spending her weekends and free time looking for edible native plants, flowers, and fungi. One of her many hobbies includes testing new savory and sweet recipes, juices or teas made from freshly picked plants, wild fruits, or mushrooms.

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Monotropa uniflora (Indian Pipe)

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Detailed Information

[photo of flower]

Leaves and stem:

[photo of leaves]

This species can be found throughout the forested eastern half of Minnesota and I've observed them frequently throughout my woodland wanderings. Like its closely related species, Hypopitys monotropa (Pinesap), it produces no chlorophyll, and like fungi, is not dependent upon light and can thrive in the shadiest of places. Since it cannot produce its own food it is sustained by the green plants around it. This relationship is not direct as its roots cannot directly tap into the food resources of other plant roots. The transfer is facilitated by mycorrhizal fungi that connect into both host and recipient roots and carbohydrates are passed along. This fungi dependent relationship is called mycotropism.

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indian ghost pipe seeds

Photos by K. Chayka taken in Cass County. Photos by Peter M. Dziuk taken at Savanna Portage State Park.

Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it?

I saw some of these growing on the South Shore Campground and near the canoe storage at Camp Unistar on Star Island in Cass Lake

I thought it was a mushroom and included it my 'Northwoods Schrooms' YouTube. I took some nice closeups. What a curious plant it is!

Our group saw two or three clusters of these around the 4th of July 2010, two days after heavy amounts of rain. Like Lynn, we thought they were mushrooms as first. Good thing we didn't touch them. I hear they are very delicate.

We saw 3 freshly up clusters on the Dakota Trail. 6 different mushroom species were nearby. Aug. 16, 2011.

My two sons and I were building a fort out in the woods when this plant caught my eye. I've never come across this and I grew up in these woods. Thank you for the information on this plant.

wow i always though that they where a fungus of some type

Saw a clump of these near a campsite on Cherokee Lake in the BWCA.

i am flabbergasted i love this plant it looks so cool

Found this hiking through the woods on private property 3 yrs ago. Wish I had a landmark to find it again. But had my camera!

Just found a number of these just outside of town.

I saw a group of three or four of these yesterday while clearing brush along the roadside.

We found many of these amazing flowers scattered in clumps in the Uppgaard WMA in Ideal Corners near Crosslake. I also expected them to be in the mushroom family.

On 9/5/2014, I found and photographed Indian Pipe during a hike through the Faribault Nature Center. The recent wet weather has produced a boom in different species of mushrooms. I also saw dozens of different species of mushrooms during a recent hike through Father Hennepin State Park but no Indian Pipe. The plants in the Faribault Nature Center were growing under oak trees in the leaf litter. It is definitely an interesting plant!

We have several clumps of these growing on our property, under a stand of white pine and oak.

I don't know if conditions were prime last year, but found in several locations in nearby wooded area.

This are up now in Elm Creek park reserve. Some good patches of these. I was thinking these were fungi!

This years growth was not as good as last year. They are in the pine straw in the shadiest part of my lot. There were both pink and white last year, only white this year.

Today was the first time I've seen them in our yard at the cabin! It's been a wet spring/summer.

First time I've ever seen this plant, other than in books!! Very, very interesting ! Lots of shade, lots of decaying trees.

Saw this morning along the Cascade River Trail near Grand Marais. First time I ever saw one! Heavy rain earlier in the day.

A friend pointed out the Ghost Plant to me, on a walk toward a hiking trail of Superior National Forest not far east of the lake. The lake is in the vicinity of Wolf Ridge near Finland, MN

We saw several clusters this morning, August 15, 2016.

found by lake next to a rotting log not to far from a white pine

Two Step Falls trail in Tettegouche State park

Found this plant in the "fruiting" stage last week at Chubb Lake where we were visiting friends who own property on this lake. I have a picture to verify. Judie

Found many clusters (> 40 in several locations) under oaks and maples on our farm near Sogn Valley in Goodhue County.

The campground host and I saw Indian Pipe along the trail, just off the trail actually. I have taken photos and posted to the Minnesota State Parks website. I observed them 9/03/16.

I had this in my backyard in 2014. I didn't know what it was at the time and ended up mowing over it. I've looked for it on our property every summer since and haven't found it.

Thinking this was some type of mushroom I took some photos of this and sent them to MN Conservation Volunteer. They informed me it is a wild flower and not a mushroom. They are really cool!

Belle Prairie Park is situated within the Anoka County Sandplain. The park is managed by Morrison County in partnership with Great River Greening in an effort to restore oak savanna. As a lifelong resident of the area, today was the first time I've seen Indian Pipe growing at this location.

Our woods are north facing, dense, and full of springs. I was searching for new specimens of fungi and I ran across a single Indian pipe plant. There probably are more.

I found them on a side trail near the Trezona.

We have quite a few Indian Pipe plants in our backyard. The first time I noticed them was about four years ago. They have not came up every year. When they dry up they turn black. The dried up ones from last year are still standing.

I have a lot of this in my yard right now, never saw it before and suddenly it's coming up in patches all over the place. Spectacular. We have sandy soil, well shaded, heavily vegetated with jack pine, red pine, and hazelnut. Also plenty of puff ball mushrooms this year, other fungi I've never seen before.

I came across a tight cluster of about 12 by the side of the path that I have walked for 50 years, never seen these before. I have good pictures.

Very interesting looking plant,kind of alien looking. Caught our attention!

Top of a section of ravine behind Minnesota State University, Mankato. Not too far from a mowed area into a mix of hardwood and cedar.

We saw two of these near the boardwalk on our way back from a hike and not far from the visitors canter. They were in the thick of the forest undergrowth yet very visible!

Noticed this little beauty on the ski trails in Cascade River State Park in late September. They were growing in a very wet forested area.

I've seen this for years, but didn't realize until last year, they are completely upright near end stage. They it was a different plant. Some pink and some white.

I found them while out in the woods on our property. A treasure to find for sure.

First time ever seeing this plant - other than pictures - found plants in several locations aling the "River Walk" at the Minnesota History Forest Center. There are many large red and red pines in the area.

I saw a patch of these this morning near the path by the lake, below the Lodge. I've heard of these since I was a kid, but I'd never seen any until today.

I saw these during our hike up Eagle Mountain and also along the Middle Falls Trail at Grand Portage State Park.

Saw these on the superior hiking trail, thought they were fungus, with strange white stems and olive and smokey yellow colors it was quite striking. I have never seen these before, but they seem quite common.

Spotted these beauties last week and this week at Oxbow Park in southern MN--a surprising find here! In very moist deciduous forest and not under pines. Only one very small section of the trail that they are appearing on, but there were more this week (Aug. 29th) than last!

First time I've seen them and had to post a picture on the KAXE-KBXE Season Watch Facebook page to have someone identify for me. What a unique plant!

On trail between south overlook and campgrounds in hardwood forest

Interesting plant! I came upon it in the woods near my campsite September 2019 at Cascade River State Park.

July 20. 2020. Having something of a drought in the months before July, then recently some thunderstorms and several inches of rain on several occasions, two small clusters of these appeared in their usual spots underneath a small birch tree in a front yard two houses down the avenue from my house. Some years they don't make an appearance, some years they do. They're in the lawn about 15 ft. off the road. In past years, I've also seen several clumps of them around the corner and 270 feet up the street from my house, at the edge of the woods.

Just emerging along the road on our property in Tofte.

My husband noticed a little patch in our woods yesterday. We've never seen Indian Pipe before and were excited to have something so interesting growing in our yard. We will watch for them again, especially after a few days of rain.

I saw quite a few bunches of these at Afton State Park August 1st, 2020. Seemed to be very happy growing in thick beds of Oak leaves

We found these delicate beauties in our yard under heavily shaded white pine, they sprung up after some very dry weather followed by a drenching rain. A lovely and interesting plant which I had never seen before.

We see them every year in an old wood forest on the south west side of lake mtka near a marsh. They just started coming up about a week ago and there tend to be a dozen or two clusters depending on the year. A welcome sight each August.

In August 2020 I saw a clump of monotropa uniflora in Beltrami Co. near Swenson Lake (about 10 miles east of Bemidji), and took a good photo of them.

I found one of these a few years ago growing at the base of a sugar maple on the edge of a lake. Super interesting little plant! I thought it was some sort of fungus at first. I also saw some last year at Afton State Park.

Seen at different times always catches the eye, odd & different.

I found these on my property. I live on the western edge of General CC Andrew's forest. So beautiful.

I guess we are to call this `ghost plant `. We find it blooming now along most trails at. NEILSON SPEARHEAD CENTER.

Spotted some nice clusters of these in the picnic area of Sakatah State Park on September 3rd, 2022, under hazelnuts. Quite the treat to see them outside of my college textbook for the first time!

I have seen this plant down our road here in Princeton, Mn. First time I have seen one. Very unique.

I came across a group of maybe 2 dozen clumps of multiple plants today. They were growing under several white pine trees that were planted 23 years ago on a north-facing slope. Heavy shade from the trees and some undergrowth. Very evocative of silence and mystery.

I found a patch of these near the walking path not far from the Lake Camelot kids park right off co rd 47. So cool!

This amazing flower caught my eye along the scenic overlook path...what a N intriguing find!

Are there any gardens that have them for sell in Anoka? This plant would be nice to have for my bugout bag

Dylan, this is very difficult to propagate, if not impossible, requiring very specific soil and fungal conditions to germinate and grow. You won't find it commercially available for that reason. Transplanted plants inevitably die so don't bother taking any from the wild.

Spotted something white on the floor of deciduous woods in Red Wing on August 30, 2023. Discovered small colony of Ghost Pipe. Had previously only seen one plant in 2021 in different area of our property. Drought conditions both summers.

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For info on subjects other than plant identification (gardening, invasive species control, edible plants, etc.), please check the links and invasive species pages for additional resources.

Note: Comments or information about plants outside of Minnesota and neighboring states may not be posted because I�d like to keep the focus of this web site centered on Minnesota. Thanks for your understanding.

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  • Medicinal Plants

Ghost Pipe - Monotropa uniflora

Monotropa uniflora

Ghost pipes have several medicinal benefits. They have sedative antispasmodic, and diaphoretic effect. Ghost pipe is more inclined towards managing neuronal disorders like psychosis, acute anxiety, nervousness, irritability, restlessness, and convulsion episodes.

  • Plant Family: Ericaceae
  • Plant type: Perennial
  • Other names: Indian Pipe, Ghost Plant
  • Medicinal: Yes
  • Culinary: No
  • Ceremonial: Yes
  • Parts Used: Above ground parts
  • Side Effects: None
  • Herbal Actions:
  • Antispasmodic
  • Diaphoretic
  • Muscle Pain
  • Sleep Aide/Insomnia

About Ghost Pipe

Articles about ghost pipe.

Ghost pipe is a delicate and exquisite herbaceous perennial from the Ericaceae family that emerges from the forest grounds. Ghost pipe is also known as Indian pipe and is marked by extremely reduced leaves and beautiful yet scanty flowers with translucent petals.

The ghost pipe is entirely white in appearance and gets its food from the roots and mycorrhizal fungi. Its stems take a sharp turn towards the ground and have a single, inodorous flower. Ghost pipes have several medicinal benefits. They have sedative antispasmodic, and diaphoretic effect. Ghost pipe is more inclined towards managing neuronal disorders like psychosis, acute anxiety, nervousness, irritability, restlessness, and convulsion episodes. Ghost pipe juice when paired with rose water can skillfully treat ulcers, gonorrhea, inflammation of the bladder, and ophthalmic inflammation.

This nutrient-dense herb has salicylic acid as one of its main constituent which aids in inducing analgesia. Salicylic acid acts just like Aspirin to relieve the obstinate pain of different origins like migraine, emotional pain, and overwhelming physical pain. Ghost pipe also helps in repressing the traumatic memories that may trigger anxiety and panic attacks due to sensory overload.

Even the old legends talk highly of ghost pipes where a Cherokee legend discusses this versatile plant as a great tool for warding off selfishness and disputes.

Ghost pipe is a flowering plant that grows on its own in the wild, under dark environment as it does not need light to carry out photosynthesis. It emerges from early summers to early fall when the weather is still warm and humid with recent rainfalls.

It cannot be cultivated indoors or by any means of human interference. Gardeners are looking for ways to have it cultivated but its mechanism of reproduction is unknown.

Ghost pipe is a perennial plant that grows in wet regions, under the shade of tall trees, and vicinity of mycorrhizal fungi. The acidic and moist soil helps in its emergence, probably from the seeds.

The seeds soon send out shoots that turn into stems. From June till September, ghost pipe blooms and gets pollinated by bees. After fertilization, the flower attains the shape of an upturned seed capsule and the stem dries to depict the appearance of a twig-like stalk.

The seeds get dispersed throughout the forest floor where they adapt the parasitic and saprotrophic lifestyle to survive and grow and propagate its generations.

The flowers are harvested when they are still upturned as the upright flowers are prone to falling dry and turning black. Recent literature advises to use just the roots of ghost pipe which can be harvested any time during the year.

The roots of ghost pipe can be harvested by pulling up the plant and using sharp anvil pruners to cut it.

The ghost pipe roots and flowers are used fresh. They cannot be stored even after being dried as the drying process can turn the petals black. The freshly harvested aerial and underground plant materials are tinctured or decocted readily for usage.

Due to its eerie appearance and ample spiritual data related to it, ghost pipe has earned this strange name. But on the contrary, ghost pipe has a lot of medicinal perks that can be employed for seeking benefits.

  • Tincture - Infuse freshly harvested chopped Ghost Pipe in grain alcohol for 4 to 6 weeks. Strain the liquid and place it in a dark and dry place.
  • Natural Herbal Remedies for Anxiety & Nervous Conditions

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The Magic Of Ghost Pipe

The Magic Of Ghost Pipe

Written by: norianna diesel.

indian ghost pipe seeds

Monotropa uniflora , also known as ghost pipe or Indian pipe, is a perennial from the Ericaceae family that makes its presence known by a white translucent fruiting body. This is not your typical plant, as it does not photosynthesize, rather, it obtains nutrients from a mycorrhizal fungi, with research showing that the primary relationship is with the  Russula  fungi.  In typical mycorrhizal relationships that you see between various fungi species and trees, there is always some sort of nutrient exchange. Monotropa uniflora however, doesn't give anything back to the Russula fungi, rather it simply takes the nutrients it needs, thereby classifying it as a symbiote. 

Ghost pipe is native to temperate regions of Asia, North America, and northern South America, but showing up sporadically with large gaps between regions of growth. You will find ghost pipe growing in shaded woods with rich, moist soil. Often this ghostly flower shows itself as a waxy translucent white, but sometimes it will have black flecks, or even a pale pink coloration, with a rare variety showing a dark red color.

There are so many things that really make this plant stand apart, one of them being that when you handle the flower, it can easily dissolve, much like ice will when held. There is one curved downward pointing bell-shaped flower for each stem that is nonodorous. Though unique, these flowers are still pollinated by bees, and once pollinated, the flower points upwards and forms an oval seed capsule. Once the seed capsule has fully matured, the seeds then are dispersed through the wind, and the plant dries up, turns black, and shrivels down.


It is not hard to imagine that the native peoples who lived amongst ghost pipe would create mythology and legends surrounding this super unique plant. The energy coming off of this flower beckons one to take a seat, and enter into the mythical realm of plant spirits. I have heard that ghost pipe is an elusive plant, showing itself only when it wants to be seen, much like American ginseng only makes itself known when ready. 

One beautiful legend surrounding ghost pipe is that from the Cherokee peoples. The legend is copied and shared below:

Before selfishness came into the world, which was a long time ago, the Cherokee happily shared the same hunting and fishing lands with their neighbors. However, everything changed when selfishness arrived. The men began to quarrel with their neighbors.

The Cherokee began fighting with a tribe from the east and would not share the hunting area. The chiefs of the two tribes met in council to settle the quarrel. They smoked the tobacco pipe but continued to argue for seven days and seven nights.

The Great Spirit watched the people and was displeased by their behavior. They should have smoked the pipe after they made peace. The pipe is sacred and must be treated with respect. He looked down upon the old chiefs, with their heads bowed, and decided to send reminders to the people.

The Great Spirit transformed the chiefs into white-gray flowers that we now call “Indian Pipe.” The plant grows only four to ten inches tall and the small flowers droop towards the ground, like bowed heads. Indian Pipe grows wherever friends and relatives have quarreled.

Next the Great Spirit placed a ring of smoke over the mountains. The smoke rests on the mountains to this day and will last until the people of the world learn to live together in peace. That is how the Great Smoky Mountains came to be.

— Lloyd Arneach (Eastern Band of Cherokee)

American Indian Magazine

Winter 2010. “The Storyteller’s Art: Sharing Timeless Wisdom in Modern Times” by Anya Montiel

Pages 34-39

indian ghost pipe seeds

This elusive and beautiful flower has been studied and scientifically pondered upon at least as far back as 1821, when William Hooker, (the founder of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew) and his son Joseph, hypothesized that ghost pipe could be either a parasite on tree roots, or like fungi, absorbing nutrients from decomposed organic matter. In the early 1840s, Thomas Rylands discovered that the roots of ghost pipe were not actually connected to trees, but rather to the mycorrhizal fungi. Then, in the 1960s, Eric Björkman and Steve Trudell were able to prove that ghost pipe had a parasitic action towards the fungi and tree symbiotic relationship. 

Emily Dickinson, the great American poet, was incredibly fond of ghost pipe flower, and her book Poems , published posthumously in 1890, had an illustration of ghost pipe on its cover! 

indian ghost pipe seeds

Historical Medicinal Uses:

Most herbalists typically use the root of the ghost pipe plant, although once the root is harvested, it disrupts its ability to flower again, and in certain endangered areas should be avoided.

Historically, herbalists have used the ghost pipe roots for its sedative, antispasmodic, and diaphoretic effects. Ghost pipe has been popular to use to manage neuronal disorders like psychosis, acute anxiety, nervousness, irritability, restlessness, and convulsion episodes. It has also historically been used for afflictions such as: epilepsy, chorea, febrile disease, emotional and mental pain, and nerve pain. 

Rose water combined with ghost pipe juice has been used for ulcers, gonorrhea, inflammation of the bladder, and even ophthalmic inflammation.

One unique effect of ghost pipe is its ability to neutralize the effects of an overly strong or bad p silocybin  trip. It may also help in repressing certain traumatic memories that could then trigger anxiety and panic attacks. 

The Cherokee Indians used ghost pipe as an anti-convulsive, giving the ground up roots to people during an epileptic fit or convulsion. They also crushed it up and rubbed it on bunions or warts, and the juice was used to wash sore eyes.

The Cree Indians used ghost pipe as a toothache remedy by chewing the flowers.

The Mohegan Indians used ghost pipe to reduce the effects of fevers and pain.

The Thompson Indians in British Colombia used a poultice of ghost pipe for sores that would not heal.

The Potawatomi Indians used an infusion of ghost pipe root as a gynecological aid.

indian ghost pipe seeds

Other notes:

We have possibly one of the world's only freeze-dried ghost pipe flower spagyric tincture right here in our online Apothecary. We have a special relationship with a wild-harvester in Virginia who sustainably harvested the ghost pipe flowers, kept them on ice, and overnighted the flowers to us. Once these flowers arrived in our laboratory, we put them in our freeze-dryer to ensure the freshest preservation of this beautiful flower. Later, the freeze-dried material was turned into a spagyric tincture, stretching the medicinal virtues of the plant in the furthest way possible. This spagyric tincture is one that gets recommended the most when we do live events and are running a booth. Many people come to our booth with complaints of anxiety or nervousness, and we let them know that ghost pipe has historically been used to help both of these complaints. 

The first time both Phoenix Aurelius and I saw ghost pipe flowering in its natural environment was when I had taken him to Asheville, NC in 2021. On our way home, we stopped by Grandfather Mountain, and while walking in the woods near a little parking lot, we spotted this mysterious translucent flower. At that time, I wasn't even aware of what it was that I was seeing, but later came to find out that we had indeed stumbled across some ghost pipe! I look forward to spending more time in the Appalachian forests, and being able to take my time sitting and connecting in with this special flower. Her presence really calls forth a certain patience and stillness, and it is no surprise to learn that she is a master at calming anxiety or nervousness. 

Ghost Pipe, Freeze-Dried, Spagyric Tincture

Ghost Pipe, Freeze-Dried, Spagyric Tincture

Ghost Pipe -  Monotropa uniflora . Mayernik Kitchen. Accessed December 2, 2022. https://www.mayernikkitchen.com/medicinal-plants/ghost-pipe#:~:text=Ghost%20pipes%20have%20several%20medicinal

Provings - School of Homeopathy - Indian Pipe ( Monotropa uniflora ). Homeopathyschool.com. Published 2011. https://www.homeopathyschool.com/the-school/provings/indian-pipe/

Ghost Pipe: A Hauntingly Rare Plant for Physical and Emotional Pain. Wisdom of the Plant Devas. Published October 4, 2019. Accessed December 2, 2022. https://wisdomoftheplantdevas.com/2019/10/04/ghost-pipe-a-hauntingly-rare-plant-for-physical-and-emotional-pain/

Gardening U. All About Ghost Pipe ( Monotropa uniflora ). Unruly Gardening. Published June 16, 2022. Accessed December 2, 2022. https://unrulygardening.com/ghost-pipe-faqs/#is-ghost-pipe-endangered

Nelson R. Indian Pipes (Ghost Pipes ) : The Forest’s Pain Reliever That Are Risky But Effective. Stone Age Man. Published July 20, 2022. Accessed December 2, 2022. https://stoneageman.com/indian-pipes-are-the-best-pain-reliever-in-the-forest/

Yang S, Pfister DH.  Monotropa uniflora  plants of eastern Massachusetts form mycorrhizae with a diversity of russulacean fungi.  Mycologia . 2006;98(4):535-540. doi:10.1080/15572536.2006.11832656

‌Wikipedia Contributors.  Monotropa uniflora . Wikipedia. Published November 17, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotropa_uniflora

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ENVIDESO  30 Indian Pipe Seed Plu Inoculated Packet -Monotropa uniflora

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ENVIDESO  30 Indian Pipe Seed Plu Inoculated Packet -Monotropa uniflora

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indian ghost pipe seeds

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  1. Indian Pipe Monotropa Uniflora Seeds Ghost Plant Native

    indian ghost pipe seeds

  2. 30 Ghost Plant Indian Pipe Monotropa uniflora Seeds Native

    indian ghost pipe seeds

  3. Ghost Pipe: A Hauntingly Rare Plant for Physical and Emotional Pain

    indian ghost pipe seeds

  4. Take 5: “Ghostly” Indian Pipe

    indian ghost pipe seeds

  5. Watching the ghost pipe grow

    indian ghost pipe seeds

  6. Monotropa Uniflora indian Ghost Pipe

    indian ghost pipe seeds


  1. All About Ghost Pipe (Monotropa uniflora)

    Monotropa uniflora - also known as ghost pipe or Indian pipe Around June 8 every year, we start finding Ghost Pipe (also called Indian Pipe), mainly around our creek area. This year so far, we've had a nice amount of rain and have counted many dozens of clusters of this unique flower rising from the leaves. During dry years, we'll see less.

  2. Ghost Pipe Seeds

    Ghost Pipe Seeds (1 - 21 of 21 results) Price ($) Shipping All Sellers Sort by: Relevancy $3.50 Monotropa uniflora (Ghost Plant, Indian Pipe), 30 seeds, perennial 4.9 (21) · LakesideSeedsEt $8.55 40 Monotropa Uniflora Seeds Ghost Plant Wildflower 4.7 (2.8k) · MagnoliazTree $18.69 $21.99 (15% off) FREE shipping

  3. Monotropa uniflora

    Indian pipe is a perennial wildflower with a wide geographic distribution throughout the United States, from Maine to California and from Florida to Alaska. It is absent from the southwest, intermountain west and the central Rocky mountains. However, Indian Pipe is not a commonly encountered wildflower. Monotropa uniflora flower.

  4. Indian Pipe Seeds

    Indian Pipe Seeds (1 - 50 of 50 results) Price ($) Shipping All Sellers Sort by: Relevancy 40 Monotropa Uniflora Seeds Ghost Plant Wildflower (2.8k) $8.55 Monotropa uniflora (Ghost Plant, Indian Pipe), 30 seeds, perennial (21) $3.50 Ghost Pipe Extract - Indian Pipe - 2 oz glass bottle - Free Shipping (174) $29.00 FREE shipping

  5. Monotropa uniflora

    The seeds of M. uniflora are small, ranging between 0.6-0.8 mm ( 3⁄128 - 1⁄32 in) in length. [8] Once the plant has been pollinated, the seeds are pushed through the petals in a tiny slit and dispersed via wind methods. Unlike most plants, it is white and does not contain chlorophyll. [9]

  6. Learn About The Indian Pipe Fungus

    last updated May 10, 2021 What is Indian pipe? This fascinating plant ( Monotropa uniflora) is definitely one of nature's weird wonders. Because it has no chlorophyll and doesn't depend on photosynthesis, this ghostly white plant is able to grow in the darkest of forests.

  7. Ghost Pipe

    Growing Monotropa Uniflora Ghost pipes are an herb most will mistake for a mushroom. This pale wildflower has forgone photosynthesis and can often be found in the darkest woods. It's one of the many edible and medicinal plants that should probably be left alone due to being rarer and in this case, especially hard to propagate.

  8. Ghost Pipe: A Hauntingly Rare Plant for Physical and Emotional Pain

    Ghost Pipe, also known as Indian Pipe, or corpse plant, and whose botanical name is Monotropa uniflora, is an herbaceous perennial devoid of plant blood. Lacking chlorophyll it does not generate energy from sunlight.

  9. How to Grow Indian Pipe: Tips and Techniques

    3 minutes If you've ever come across the striking white appearance of the Indian Pipe plant while foraging, you might be wondering if it's possible to grow this unusual specimen in your own garden. While growing Indian Pipe plants can be a challenging and delicate process, it is possible with the right techniques and attention to detail.

  10. A Forager's Guide to Ghost Pipe (Monotropa uniflora)

    Monotropa uniflora plant profile Common names include: Indian pipe Corpse plant Ghost pipe Ice plant Death plant Ghost flower Bird's nest What Is Ghost Pipe (Monotropa uniflora)? Ghost pipe, scientifically known as Monotropa uniflora, is a unique and fascinating flowering plant found in North American forests.

  11. 50 Indian Pipe Monotropa Uniflora Seeds Ghost Plant Wildflower

    This is for 50 Monotropa uniflora Indian Pipe Forest Flower Seeds along with a packet of beneficial soil fungus for growing this plant. A shade loving plant, Indian Pipe requires a host tree to support its life cycle. ... 9yellowmoons Monotropa uniflora Ghost Indian Pipe Corpse Plant Rare Medicinal Nervine 100 + Seeds

  12. Indian Pipe Or Ghost Flower Either Way It's Creepy

    June 24, 2010. Indian Pipes (also called-Ghost Flower, Corpse Plant, Death Plant, and Fairy Smoke) grow deep in the forest. They are often found near old stumps or rotting logs. If you've ever seen them growing in the woods-it's easy to see where they got their common names. The white almost translucent look of the spindly nodding plant is ...

  13. Monotropa uniflora (Indian Pipe)

    Single flowers ½ to 1 inch long nod bell-like from the end of each stem. The 4 to 6 (usually 5) translucent white petals are barely discernible from the reduced sepals and faint, scale like leaves that fall over the flower head. All parts of this frail, ghostly plant blacken quickly from bruises and the dry air.

  14. Unveiling the Mysterious Beauty of Indian Pipe: Nature's Own Ghost

    The mysterious beauty of Indian Pipe is indeed captivating. Its ghostly appearance, unique growth habits, and medicinal uses make it a truly remarkable plant. Whether you encounter it in the wild or attempt to grow your own ghost plant, Indian Pipe offers a glimpse into the interconnectedness of nature and the vast wonders of the natural world ...

  15. Monotropa (Ghost Plant, Indian-pipe, Pinesap)

    Phonetic Spelling. Ghost Plant is a genus of three species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants that are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and are generally rare. This unusual plant is a saprophyte and has no chlorophyll. It obtains its nutrients by tapping into the resources of trees, indirectly through mycorrhizal fungi.

  16. Monotropa Uniflora Seeds Ghost Plant Native Wildflower

    $7.75 Monotropa Uniflora Seeds Ghost Plant Native Wildflower MagnoliazTree Ships from Pennsylvania Arrives soon! Get it by Add to cart 2,824 reviews Reviews for this item 117 Reviews for this shop 2,824 Sort by: Suggested Recommends this item Haven't planted them yet, but the packaging was super cute Purchased item:

  17. Monotropa uniflora ghost plant Indian Pipe 20 spores

    Product Description. Spores from Monotropa uniflora ghost plant or Indian Pipe really a flowering plant in the blueberry family. It can actually grow in dark environments because it is not dependent on light for photosynthesis. Grows 6 to 8 inches tall. Its a plant with a solitary nodding flower that pushes through the soil with its crooked ...

  18. Ghost Pipe

    Ghost pipe is also known as Indian pipe and is marked by extremely reduced leaves and beautiful yet scanty flowers with translucent petals. ... The acidic and moist soil helps in its emergence, probably from the seeds. The seeds soon send out shoots that turn into stems. From June till September, ghost pipe blooms and gets pollinated by bees ...

  19. The Magic Of Ghost Pipe

    Monotropa uniflora, also known as ghost pipe or Indian pipe, is a perennial from the Ericaceae family that makes its presence known by a white translucent fruiting body.

  20. Indian Ghost Pipe Seeds

    Indian Ghost Pipe Seeds (1 - 4 of 4 results) Price ($) Shipping All Sellers Indian Pony, Pipe Bead, Gem Stone, Navajo Cedar Bead Necklace - Multiple Color - Gift Him Her - Health Spirit Energy - Boho Native Made (534) $24.00 Dried Ghost pipe, Indian Pipe, Monotropa uniflora (247) $16.20 $18.00 (10% off)

  21. Ghost Pipes: Identification, Edibility and Health Benefits

    Ghost pipes are so interesting and they have quite the history for medicinal uses. I mentioned in the video about adding a couple of poems about the ghost pi...

  22. 30 SEEDS!! Ghost pipe, Indian Pipe, Monotropa uniflora ...

    Ghost pipe, Indian Pipe, Monotropa uniflora, Preferred flower of life!! SEEDS ONLY!! Sold Request a custom product See item details Similar items on Etsy ( Results include Ads ) Whole Dried Ghost Pipe (Monotropa Uniflora), Ethically Wild-Foraged, Indian Pipe HellgateBotanicals $42.99 Only 3 available and it's in 4 people's carts

  23. Amazon.com : ENVIDESO 30 Indian Pipe Seed Plu Inoculated Packet

    30 indian pipe seed plu inoculated packet -monotropa uniflora ; Shippment is of international ; High germination rate seeds ; ... You're can't grow ghost pipe out of its natural environmental conditions which are nearly impossible to replicate except for one laboratory experiment. This company is lying and harvesting an endangered species to ...