1. Philosophy of history

    Verstehen. philosophy of history, the study either of the historical process and its development or of the methods used by historians to understand their material. The term history may be employed in two quite different senses: it may mean (1) the events and actions that together make up the human past, or (2) the accounts given of that past ...

  2. Philosophy of History

    The philosopher of science Carl Hempel stimulated analytic philosophers' interest in historical knowledge in his essay, "The Function of General Laws in History" (1942). Hempel's general theory of scientific explanation held that all scientific explanations require subsumption under general laws.

  3. 1.1 What Is Philosophy?

    Among the ancient Greeks, it is common to identify seven sages. The best-known account is provided by Diogenes Laërtius, whose text Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a canonical resource on early Greek philosophy. The first and most important sage is Thales of Miletus.Thales traveled to Egypt to study with the Egyptian priests, where he became one of the first Greeks to learn ...

  4. History, Philosophy of

    Philosophy of History. ... Essay on the Customs and the Spirit of the Nations (1756), wherein the phrase 'philosophy of history' is supposed to have been coined, was the first attempt since Herodotus to write a comprehensive history of world culture in a non-Christian and non-teleological framework. Social and cultural history replaced ...

  5. Philosophy of history

    Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and its discipline. The term was coined by the French philosopher Voltaire.. In contemporary philosophy a distinction has developed between the speculative philosophy of history and the critical philosophy of history, now referred to as analytic. The split between these approaches may be approximately compared, by analogy and on the ...

  6. Introduction to the Philosophy of History: Study Guide

    As the title suggests, Introduction to the Philosophy of History comprises Hegel's introduction to a series of lectures on the philosophy of history. As an introduction, it lays out only the general outline of Hegel's method of philosophic history. Any details tend to be about theoretical entities and concepts, and there are very few direct ...

  7. Philosophy

    Definition. The word Philosophy comes from the Greek philo (love) and sophia (wisdom) and so is literally defined as "the love of wisdom". More broadly understood, it is the study of the most basic and profound matters of human existence. Philosophical schools frequently develop in response to some perceived failure of religion to provide ...

  8. Philosophy and its history (Chapter 1)

    Summary. There is an ideal, a goal that surfaces from time to time in philosophy. The inspiration is to sweep away the past and have an understanding of things which is entirely contemporary. The attractive idea underlying this is that of liberation from the dead weight of past errors and illusions. Thought casts off its chains.

  9. Philosophy in History

    The sixteen essays in this volume confront the current debate about the relationship between philosophy and its history. On the one hand intellectual historians commonly accuse philosophers of writing bad - anachronistic - history of philosophy, and on the other, philosophers have accused intellectual historians of writing bad - antiquarian - history of philosophy.

  10. John Locke

    John Locke (b. 1632, d. 1704) was a British philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher. Locke's monumental An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689) is one of the first great defenses of modern empiricism and concerns itself with determining the limits of human understanding in respect to a wide spectrum of topics. It thus tells us in some detail what one can legitimately claim ...

  11. Plato (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

    1. Plato's central doctrines. Many people associate Plato with a few central doctrines that are advocated in his writings: The world that appears to our senses is in some way defective and filled with error, but there is a more real and perfect realm, populated by entities (called "forms" or "ideas") that are eternal, changeless, and in some sense paradigmatic for the structure and ...

  12. Greek Philosophy

    Ancient Greek Philosophy is a system of thought, first developed in the 6th century BCE, which was informed by a focus on the First Cause of observable phenomena. Prior to the development of this system by Thales of Miletus (l. c. 585 BCE), the world was understood by the ancient Greeks as having been created by the gods.. Without denying the existence of the gods, Thales suggested that the ...

  13. Philosophy

    Philosophy (φιλοσοφία, 'love of wisdom', in Ancient Greek) is a systematic study of general and fundamental questions concerning topics like existence, reason, knowledge, value, mind, and language.It is a rational and critical inquiry that reflects on its own methods and assumptions. Historically, many of the individual sciences, such as physics and psychology, formed part of philosophy.

  14. The 25 Most Influential Philosophers of All Time-A Philosophy Study

    John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) John Stuart Mill , usually cited as J. S. Mill, was an English philosopher, political economist, and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory, and political economy.

  15. A Summary and Analysis of Immanuel Kant's 'What is Enlightenment?'

    By Dr Oliver Tearle (Loughborough University) 'What is Enlightenment?', full title 'Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?', is a 1784 essay by the philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). As the longer title suggests, Kant's essay is a response to a question (posed by a clergyman, Reverend Johann Friedrich Zöllner) concerning the nature of philosophical enlightenment.

  16. PDF A Brief Guide to Writing the Philosophy Paper

    arguments or theories in philosophy papers, you must always practice philosophy. This means that you should explain the argument in your own words and according to your own understanding of the steps involved in it. You will need to be very clear on the precise logical structure of an author's argument (N.B. this may not be

  17. 1.1: What is Philosophy?

    The word philosophy derives from ancient Greek, in which the philosopher is a lover or pursuer ( philia) of wisdom ( sophia ). But the earliest Greek philosophers were not known as philosophers; they were simply known as sages. The sage tradition provides an early glimpse of philosophical thought in action.

  18. Everyman His Own Philosopher of History: Notions of Historical Process

    Analytical philosophy of history, on the other hand, is "philosophy applied to the special conceptual problems which arise out of the practice of history as well as out of substantive philosophy of history." Danto writes, "I feel … that substantive philosophy of history is a misconceived activity, and rests upon a basic mistake.

  19. History of philosophy

    The history of philosophy is the systematic study of the development of philosophical thought. It focuses on philosophy as rational inquiry based on argumentation, but some theorists also include myths, religious traditions, and proverbial lore. Western philosophy originated with an inquiry into the fundamental nature of the cosmos in Ancient ...

  20. History of African Philosophy

    History of African Philosophy. This article traces the history of systematic African philosophy from the early 1920s to date. ... The content of Lewis Gordon's essay "African Philosophy's search for Identity: Existential consideration of a recent effort", and the works of Outlaw and Sogolo suggest a craving for a new line of development ...

  21. On Defining African Philosophy: History, Challenges and Perspectives

    Truth: a dialogue Origins of the essays Index. View. Show abstract. ... The topic selected for this paper is the problem on the meaning of history. And, as the philosophy of history is developed ...

  22. The Meaning of Life

    3. Naturalism. Recall that naturalism is the view that a physical life is central to life's meaning, that even if there is no spiritual realm, a substantially meaningful life is possible. Like supernaturalism, contemporary naturalism admits of two distinguishable variants, moderate and extreme (Metz 2019).

  23. Brian Copenhaver, professor of philosophy and history, receives UC

    Copenhaver, a UCLA distinguished professor emeritus of philosophy and history, was one of two honorees, along with UC Davis professor Suad Joseph. The award is presented annually by the University of California to one or more recipients from across the UC system; it recognizes outstanding scholarly work or educational service by emeriti faculty ...

  24. The Original 'Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone' Cover Art Could

    The cover art for 'Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone' is expected to break records at Sotheby's in June. The iconic artwork was created by an aspiring illustrator and bookshop employee in ...

  25. Frederick Walter Lorenz (PhD 2022) Joins Eastern ...

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