thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

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thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

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Dr. Nandish S Manoli (Professor & Unit Chief)


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thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

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Dr Haritha :

Pregnancy outcome in subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH between 2.5-4 MIU/ml) with and without thyroid peroxidase antibodies..₹1,13,500. 2020- 2021.

Dr Sasirekha R :

   Major Publications (2021-2022)--Indexed Journals 

  • Sreerama D, Surana M, Moolchandani K, Chaturvedula L, Keepanasseril A, Keepanasseril A, Pillai AA, Nair NS. Percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy during pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2021; 100(4):666-675.
  • Gowri D, Vandana G, Palanivel C, Subhalakshmi B. Experiences and Felt Needs of Women during Childbirth in a Tertiary Care Centre: a Hospital‑Based Cross‑Sectional Descriptive Study. J Obstet and Gynecol India. 2021;6; XX.
  • Sireesha MU, Chitra T, Subbaiah M, Nandeesha H. Effect of laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy on ovarian reserve in benign ovarian cysts. J Hum Reprod Sci 2021; 14:56-60.
  • Bhabani Pegu, Chitra Thyagaraju, Deepthi Nayak,, Murali Subbaiah. Placenta accreta spectrum-a catastrophic situation in obstetrics. Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2021;64(3):239-247.
  • Subbaiah M, Chaturvedula L, Kubera NS, Raj A. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after uterine compression suture placement for postpartum hemorrhage. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2021; 00:1–6.
  • Subbaiah M, Selvest N, Maurya DK. Comparison of bipolar ball endometrial ablation and transcervical resection of the endometrium in the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: A randomized clinical trial. Gynecol Minim Invasive Ther 2021; 10:143-7.
  • Krishnamurthy A, Durairaj J, Subbaiah M. Evaluation of a symptom-based score in combination with CA125 to predict ovarian malignancy in women with adnexal mass. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2022; 34(1):7.
  • Harika B, Subbaiah M, Maurya DK. Diagnostic Accuracy of Hysteroscopic Scoring System in Predicting Endometrial Malignancy and Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia. J Midlife Health. 2021 Jul-Sep; 12(3):206-210.
  • Parveen S, Rengaraj S, Chaturvedula L. Factors associated with the outcome of TOLAC after one previous caesarean section: a retrospective cohort study. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2022 Apr 3; 42(3):430-6.
  • Natarajan T, Rengaraj S, Chaturvedula L, Wyawahare M. Predictors of adverse maternal outcome in jaundiced pregnant women identified as having pregnancy-specific liver disease (P-sLD). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2022 Jan 20:1-7

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thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Volume 74, Issue 1

Taking it forward………….

  • Madhuri Patel

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

President’s Address

  • Jaydeep Tank

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Pruritus in Pregnancy

  • Laxmi A. Shrikhande
  • Priya P. Kadu

Impact of Climate Change, Environmental Toxins and Pollution on the AOFOG region: What can OBGYNs do?

  • Krishnendu Gupta

Prediction of Placenta Previa from Serial Reading of Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Late in the First Half of Pregnancy

  • Shatha Sami Hussein
  • Manal Madany A. Qader
  • Wisam Akram

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Structured Workshop for Repair of High-Grade Perineal Lacerations Among Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents, The Need for Repetition and Retraining

  • Zinat Ghanbari
  • Arefeh Eshghinejad
  • Maryam Deldar Pasikhani

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

To Determine the Quality of Life in Indian Women After Peripartum Hysterectomy Using a Hindi Version of the SF-36 Questionnaire

  • Monisha Ravi
  • Mukesh Kumar Singh
  • Priyanka Naik

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Maternal Mortality and COVID-19 Pandemic: Looking Beyond SARS CoV-2 Infection

  • Ratna Biswas
  • Keerti Chandra

Robotic Surgery in Gynaecology: A Retrospective Evaluation of an Experience at a Single Centre

  • Mayadevi Kurup
  • Suguna Bidarahalli
  • Surya Jayaram

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Efficacy of Ethanol Sclerotherapy Versus Laparoscopic Excision in the Treatment of Ovarian Endometrioma

  • Samaneh Mohtashami
  • Masoome Jabarpour
  • Ayda Najafian

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Efficacy of Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System in the Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A Retrospective Analysis of a 100 Women

  • Atul Ganatra
  • Keya Ganatra

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Cesarean Scar Pregnancy: Results of Treatment Using a Double-Balloon Cervical Ripening Catheter

  • Azadeh Tarafdari
  • Alireza Hadizadeh
  • Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh Vahdani

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Prevalence of Menstrual Disorder in Women and Its Correlation to Body Mass Index and Physical Activity

  • Divya Dwivedi
  • Neeti Singh

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Adrenal Crisis in a Patient with Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome 2 (APS 2) During Pregnancy

  • Divya Mecheril Balachandran
  • Jayalakshmi Durairaj
  • Yavana Suriya Venkatesh

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Chronic Vulval Ulcer as Crohn’s Disease

  • M. Niveatha
  • Veena Jeyaraj

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

A Foreign Body (Broken Karman’s Cannula Tip No. 8) in Uterus: Nightmare for an Obstetrician

  • Namita Jain
  • Seema Sharma
  • Alka Kriplani

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Ebstein in Pregnancy: Can Combined Spinal–Epidural Anaesthesia be a Choice?

  • B. D. Vaishnavi
  • Priyanka Sethi
  • Pradeep Bhatia

Book Review for Prof. Hiralal Konar’s DC Dutta’s Clinics in Gynecology

  • C. N. Purandare
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

Completed Research Projects

Project Title :

Evaluation of postpartum IUCD (PPIUCD) versus interval IUCD (380 A ) Insertion

Funding Agency :

University Grant Commission

Funding Amount :

Principal Investigator :

DR. Sonil Srivastava

Co- Principal Investigator :

Prof. Imam Bano Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh.

Related Publication :

Membrane Sweeping and its Effect on Duration of Pregnancy in Low Risk Cases.

Dr. Sonu Kumar Batham

1. Professor Imam Bano and Dr Shaheen, Associate Professor Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology

Foetal Thigh Circumference in Estimation of Birth Weight by Ultrasonography.

Dr. Naveed Wais

Prof. I. Bano, Prof. N. Akhtar, Deptt.of Obst. & Gynae. Dr. M. Khalid, Deptt. of Radio Diagnosis

Laparohysteroscopy in Infertile Women

Dr. Nafis Fatima

1. Prof. N.A. Sabzposh 2. Prof. Imam Bano, Deptt. of Obst. & Gynaecology.

A Comparative Evaluation of Diagnostic Efficacy of Transvaginal Sonography, Hysteroscopy and Histopathological Examination in Cases of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

Dr. Nada Mushtaque Ahmad

1.Prof. S. Hakim, Obst. & Gynae 2.Dr. M.Khalid, Radio Diagnosis 3. Prof. Rana Sherwani, Pathology

Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Infertile Women and Evaluation of Response of Treatment for Hypothyroidism on Infertility.

Dr. Mohana Priya D

Prof. N. Akhtar, Obst. & Gynae. Prof. Jamal Ahmad, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Diabetes & Endocrinology

Timing of Prophylactic Maternal Antibiotic Administration in Term Caesarean Section

Dr. Priyanka Singh

Dr. Zehra Mohsin, Obst. & Gynae, Prof. Haris M.Khan, Microbiology, Prof. S.Manazir Ali, Peadiatrics

Postpartum Seizure Prophylaxis with Short Course Magnesium Sulfate Therapy in Severe Preeclampsia.

Dr. Grade Pramod Rajaram

1. Dr. Shaheen, Associate Professor 2. Prof. Imam Bano, Deptt. of Obst. & Gynaecology.

Intravaginal Misoprostol versus transcervial foley catheter for Cervical Ripening and labour induction.

Dr. Mehkat Ansari

1. Dr. Nasreen Noor, Asstt. Professor, Obst. & Gynae. 2. Prof. S.Manazir Ali, Deptt. of Pediatrics.

University Grants Commission

Dr. Niharika Goel

1. Dr. Zehra Mohsin, Department of Obst. & Gynaecology, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U. Aligarh . 2. Pr

Dr. Kumary Ragini

1. Prof. Seema Hakim Department of obsteric & Gynaecology,J.N.M.C.AMU,Aligarh. 2. Dr. Nishat Afroz D

Dr. Megha Solanki

1. DR. SHAHEEN, Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2. PROF. S .MANAZIR A

Dr. Meenal Singh

1. Prof. Seema Hakim, Department of Obst. & Gynae. 2. Prof. Afzal Anees, Department of Surgery. 3. P

University Grants Commision

Dr. Sonil Srivastava

Prof. Imam Bano, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U. Aligarh.

Dr. Anjali Sharma

1. Prof. Imam Bano , Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, J .N.Medical College. 2. Dr. Shaheen ,

Dr. Naaz Ahmed

1. Prof. Noor Afshan Sabzposh, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U.

1. Prof. Noor Afshan Sabzposh, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, J .N. Medical College, A.M.U

1. Prof. Seema Hakim, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, J.N.Medical College, A.M.U. Aligarh. 2

Dr. Ambika Sharma.

1. Dr. Nasreen Noor, Assistant Professor, Department of Obst. & Gynae. 2. Prof. S. Manazir Ali, Depa

Dr. Bhramita Roy

1. PROF. NISHAT AKHTAR, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2. PROF. NOOR AFSHAN SABZPOSH, Dep

Dr. Nidhi Garg.

1. Dr. Shaheen, Associate Professor, Department of Obs. & Gynae. 2. Dr. Anjum Parvez, Associate Prof

Dr. Amina Kuraishy

1. Prof. Noor Afshan Sabzposh, Department of Obst. & Gynae. 2. Dr. Afzal Anees, Associate Professor,

Dr. Akanksha Jain

1. Dr. Nasreen Noor, Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2. Prof. Syed Mana

Dr. Tradeep Saluja

1. PROF. TAMKIN KHAN , Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2. Prof. Shaista Manan Vasenwala, Dep

Dr. Khushboo Bansal

1. DR. ZEHRA MOHSIN, Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2. PROF. IBNE AHMA

Dr.Aleena Haider

1. PROF.IMAM BANO, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2. PROF. NOOR AFSHAN SABZPOSH, Department


1. PROF. NOOR AFSHAN SABZPOSH , Deptt of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2. PROF. IMAM BANO, Deptt of Obstet

Dr. Urvashi Agarwal

Prof. Seema Hakim Dept of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2. Dr. Shaheen Associate Professor Dept of Ob

Dr. Garima Pathak

1. Prof. Seema Hakim Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2. Dr. Meher Rizvi Assistant Professo

Dr. Iffat Zaman

Dr. Shazia Parveen

Dr. Aarthy Sumaldha SP.

Prof. Seema Hakim Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU,Aligarh

Dr. Sajeda Nishat

1. Prof. Seema Hakim Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Prof. Shahe

Dr. Ghazali Farooqui

1. Prof. Noor Afshan Sabzposh Department of Obstetrics and gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Pr

Dr. Sana Siddique

1. Prof. Imam Bano Department of Obstetrics and gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Prof. Sayeedu

Dr. Nandini Jain

1. Prof. Tamkin Khan Department of Obstetrics and gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Dr. Fatima

Dr. Anchal Agarwal

1. Prof. Nishat Akhtar Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Dr. Sheel

Dr. Naghma Shahrukh

1. Prof. Zehra Mohsin Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Dr. Fatima

Dr. Asma Nagori

1. Prof. Shaheen Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Dr. Meher Rizvi

Dr. Renu Bhagat

1. Dr. Nasreen Noor Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Prof. Syed M

Dr. Rekha T

1. Prof. Seema Hakim Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Prof. Shagu

University Grant Comminition

Dr. Meera Soni

Prof. Noor Afshan Sabzposh Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology J.N.Medical college A.M.U. aligarh

Dr. Prerna Jain

Prof. Imam Bano

Dr. Pratima Bhagat

Prof. Seema Hakim

Dr. Deepika H.K

Dr. Nazali Tarannum

Prof. Nishat Akhtar

Dr. Ekta Verma

Prof. Zehra Mohsin

Dr. Shikha Singh Thakur

Prof. Shaheen

Dr. Darakshan Javid

Dr. Nasreen Noor

Dr. Saman Furqan

Prof. Tamkin Khan

Dr. Shahina Parveen

Dr.Nazia Ishrat

Dr. Aarzoo Hoda

Dr.Nasreen Noor

Antenatal Rescue Cortecosteriod and Perinatal Outcome.

Dr.Parul Singh

Prof.Nishat Akhtar

Dr. Sameera Khanam

Prof.Zehra Mohsin

Diastolic Function by Echocardiography as a Prognostic Marker for Patients with Preeclampsia

Dr. Sushmita Varshney

Dr. Bhoomika Singh

Prof.Tamkin Khan


Dr.Iffat Zaman

Dr.Shazia Parveen


Departmental Links

Departmental committees, department.important_links.

Integrating gender perspectives in gynecology and obstetrics: Engaging medical colleges in Maharashtra, India


  • 1 Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes, Mumbai, India.
  • 2 Department of Medical Education and Research, Maharashtra, India.
  • 3 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aurangabad, India.
  • 4 Miraj Medical College, Maharashtra, India.
  • 5 Ambajogai Medical College, Maharashtra, India.
  • PMID: 31044431
  • DOI: 10.1002/ijgo.12834

Failure to acknowledge the impact of sex and gender differences affects the quality of health care provision, and is an impediment to reducing health inequities. Systematic efforts were initiated in Maharashtra, India for reducing these disparities by developing gender-integrated curricula in undergraduate (UG) medical education between 2015 and 2018. A review of UG obstetrics and gynecology curricula indicated a lack of gender lens and focus on the reproductive rights of women. Based on these gaps, a gender-integrated curriculum was developed, implemented, and tested with medical students. Significant positive attitudes were seen among male and female students for themes such as access to safe abortion; understanding reproductive health concerns and their complex relationship with gender roles; violence against women as a health issue; and sexuality and health. These results strengthened the resolve to advocate for such a curriculum to be integrated across all medical colleges in the state.

Keywords: Gender; Medical education; Reproductive health; Rights.

© 2019 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

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Acetaminophen use in pregnancy not associated with adverse neurodevelopment in offspring (April 2024)

Although older studies raised concerns about a possible adverse association between in utero exposure to acetaminophen and neurodevelopment, more recent studies with a lower risk of bias have not reported an association. In a population-based study in which acetaminophen use was prospectively recorded, siblings with any in utero exposure had no increased risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, or intellectual disability at age 10 years compared with their unexposed siblings [ 1 ]. Although an association cannot be definitively excluded, these data are reassuring when a short course of acetaminophen is desirable to manage pain or fever during pregnancy. (See "Prenatal care: Patient education, health promotion, and safety of commonly used drugs", section on 'Acetaminophen' .)

Congenital anomaly risk with methadone or buprenorphine exposure (April 2024)

Data regarding the teratogenic risk of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) are limited. In a population-based study comparing over 9500 pregnancies exposed to buprenorphine in the first trimester with nearly 3900 methadone-exposed pregnancies, buprenorphine use was associated with a lower overall risk of congenital anomalies (5 versus 6 percent) [ 2 ]. Although the analysis adjusted for multiple potential confounding factors, unmeasured confounders may explain some of the observed associations. We base the choice of buprenorphine versus methadone for MOUD on other factors ( table 1 ). (See "Opioid use disorder: Pharmacotherapy with methadone and buprenorphine during pregnancy", section on 'Risk of structural anomalies' .)

Maternal sepsis risk with membrane rupture before 23 weeks of gestation (April 2024)

Chorioamnionitis can be a cause or a consequence of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), especially before 24 weeks of gestation. Development of maternal sepsis is a major concern in these pregnancies. In a prospective study of 364 patients with PPROM between 16 weeks 0 days and 22 weeks 6 days, maternal sepsis developed in 10 percent of patients with singleton pregnancies who chose to undergo pregnancy termination soon after diagnosis of PPROM and in 13 percent of those who initially chose to continue the pregnancy [ 3 ]. Two patients died. These findings underscore the importance of close maternal monitoring, early diagnosis of chorioamnionitis, timely fetal extraction, and appropriate antibiotic treatment in patients with PPROM. (See "Prelabor rupture of membranes before and at the limit of viability", section on 'Maternal sepsis and death' .)

Perinatal depression and mortality (March 2024)

Perinatal depression is associated with an increased risk of death. An analysis of a national register from Sweden compared outcomes among individuals with and without a diagnosis of depression during pregnancy or postpartum, matched by age and year of delivery [ 4 ]. After controlling for potential confounding factors, all-cause mortality was greater in those with perinatal depression over 18 years of follow-up; the increased risk was largely driven by suicide. These results confirm previous data on the risks of perinatal depression and support our practice of screening for depression during pregnancy and postpartum. Services to ensure follow-up for diagnosis and treatment should accompany screening efforts. (See "Unipolar major depression during pregnancy: Epidemiology, clinical features, assessment, and diagnosis", section on 'All cause' .)

Noninsulin antidiabetic medications and pregnancy (February 2024)

Noninsulin antidiabetic medications such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are commonly used in nonpregnant individuals but avoided in pregnancy because of lack of safety data in humans and harms observed in animal studies. However, in a multinational population-based cohort study including nearly 2000 individuals with preconception/first trimester exposure to these medications, the frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased compared with insulin [ 5 ]. A limitation of the study is that it did not adjust for potential differences in A1C, diabetes severity, or diabetes duration, which could obscure true effects on risk for congenital anomalies. We continue to avoid use of GLP-1 agonists, SGLT-2 inhibitors, and DPP-4 inhibitors in females planning to conceive and in pregnancy. (See "Pregestational (preexisting) diabetes: Preconception counseling, evaluation, and management", section on 'Patients on preconception noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents' .)

Updates to the United States perinatal HIV clinical guidelines (February 2024)

The United States Department of Health and Human Services has released updates to the perinatal HIV clinical guidelines [ 6 ]. Ritonavir-boosted darunavir is now a preferred agent only for treatment-naïve pregnant individuals who have used cabotegravir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis, because of the concern for integrase inhibitor-resistant mutations; for other pregnant individuals, it is now an alternative rather than preferred agent. Additionally, bictegravir, which was previously not recommended for initial therapy in pregnant individuals, is now an alternative agent based on new pharmacokinetic data that support its use during pregnancy. Our approach to treating HIV during pregnancy is consistent with these updated guidelines. (See "Antiretroviral selection and management in pregnant individuals with HIV in resource-rich settings", section on 'Selecting the third drug' .)

Combined use of metformin and insulin for treating diabetes in pregnancy (February 2024)

In patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin is the mainstay for managing hyperglycemia in pregnancy. The addition of metformin improves maternal glucose control and reduces the chances of a large for gestational age newborn, but a prior randomized trial reported an increased risk for birth of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant. A recent randomized trial comparing use of insulin alone with insulin plus metformin in nearly 800 adult pregnant patients with either preexisting type 2 diabetes or diabetes diagnosed in early pregnancy confirmed the previously reported benefits but found that both treatment groups had low and similar rates of SGA [ 7 ]. The discordancy in SGA risk needs to be explored further, as metformin cotreatment would be undesirable if this risk is real. (See "Pregestational (preexisting) diabetes mellitus: Antenatal glycemic control", section on 'Metformin' .)

Fetoplacental GDF15 linked to nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (February 2024)

Almost all pregnant people experience nausea with or without vomiting in early pregnancy; however, the pathogenesis of the disorder has been unclear. Previous studies have shown that GDF15 is expressed in a wide variety of cells, with the highest expression in placental trophoblast, and that its protein (GDF15) appears to regulate appetite. A recent study confirmed the fetoplacental unit as a major source of GDF15 and also found that higher GDF15 levels correlated with more severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy [ 8 ]. In the future, drugs targeting the production or action of GDF15 are a potential novel pathway for treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, if safety and efficacy are established. (See "Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: Clinical findings and evaluation", section on 'Pathogenesis' .)

Use of cerebroplacental ratio at term does not reduce perinatal mortality (February 2024)

Cerebral blood flow may increase in chronically hypoxemic fetuses to compensate for the decrease in available oxygen and can be assessed by the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR; middle cerebral artery pulsatility index divided by the umbilical artery pulsatility index). However, increasing evidence indicates that use of the CPR does not reduce perinatal mortality in low-risk pregnancies. In a randomized trial comparing fetal growth assessment plus revealed versus concealed CPR in over 11,000 low-risk pregnancies at term, knowledge of CPR combined with a recommendation for delivery if the CPR was <5th percentile did not reduce perinatal mortality compared with usual care (concealed group) [ 9 ]. We do not perform umbilical artery Doppler surveillance, including the CPR, in low-risk pregnancies. (See "Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical artery for fetal surveillance in singleton pregnancies", section on 'Low-risk and unselected pregnancies' .)

Low- versus high-dose calcium supplements and risk of preeclampsia (January 2024)

In populations with low baseline dietary calcium intake, the World Health Organization recommends 1500 to 2000 mg/day calcium supplementation for pregnant individuals to reduce their risk of developing preeclampsia. However, a recent randomized trial that evaluated low (500 mg) versus high (1500 mg) calcium supplementation in over 20,000 nulliparous pregnant people residing in two countries with low dietary calcium intake found low and similar rates of preeclampsia in both groups [ 10 ]. These findings suggest that a 500 mg supplement is sufficient for preeclampsia prophylaxis in these populations. For pregnant adults in the United States, we prescribe 1000 mg/day calcium supplementation, which is the recommended daily allowance to support maternal calcium demands without bone resorption. (See "Preeclampsia: Prevention", section on 'Calcium supplementation when baseline dietary calcium intake is low' .)

Respectful maternity care (January 2024)

Respectful maternity care is variably defined but broadly involves both absence of disrespectful conduct and promotion of respectful conduct toward pregnant individuals. A systematic review found that validated tools to measure respectful maternity care were available, but the optimal tool was unclear and high quality studies were lacking on the effectiveness of respectful maternity care for improving any maternal or infant health outcome [ 11 ]. Respectful maternal care is a basic human right, but how to best implement and monitor it and assess outcomes requires further study. (See "Prenatal care: Initial assessment", section on 'Effectiveness' .)

Outcome of a multifaceted intervention in patients with a prior cesarean birth (January 2024)

Patients with a pregnancy after a previous cesarean birth must choose between a trial of labor (TOLAC) and a planned repeat cesarean. The optimal care of such patients is unclear. In a multicenter, cluster-randomized trial including over 20,000 patients with one prior cesarean birth, a multifaceted intervention (patient decision support, use of a calculator to assess chances of a vaginal birth after cesarean [VBAC], sonographic measurement of myometrial thickness, clinician training in best intrapartum practices during TOLAC) reduced perinatal and major maternal morbidity composite outcomes compared with usual care [ 12 ]. VBAC and uterine rupture rates were similar for both groups. Further study is needed to identify the most useful component(s) of the intervention for reducing morbidity. (See "Choosing the route of delivery after cesarean birth", section on 'Person-centered decision-making model' .)

Serial amnioinfusions for bilateral renal agenesis (January 2024)

Bilateral renal agenesis (BRA) is incompatible with extrauterine life because prolonged oligohydramnios results in pulmonary hypoplasia, leading to postnatal respiratory failure. A prospective study (RAFT) assessed use of serial amnioinfusions to treat 18 cases of BRA diagnosed at <26 weeks of gestation [ 13 ]. Of the 17 live births, 14 survived ≥14 days and had placement of dialysis access, but only 6 survived to hospital discharge. Of the 4 children alive at 9 to 24 months of age, 3 had experienced a stroke and none had undergone transplant. These findings show that serial amnioinfusions for BRA mitigates pulmonary hypoplasia and increases short-term survival and access to dialysis; however, long-term outcome remains poor with no survival to transplantation. Serial amnioinfusions remain investigational and should be offered only as institutional review board-approved research. (See "Renal agenesis: Prenatal diagnosis", section on 'Investigative role of therapeutic amnioinfusion' .)

Prenatal genetic testing for monogenic diabetes due to glucokinase deficiency (December 2023)

In pregnant individuals with monogenic diabetes due to glucokinase (GCK) deficiency, management depends on the fetal genotype. If the fetus inherits the maternal GCK variant, maternal hyperglycemia will not cause fetal hyperinsulinemia and excessive growth, and maternal hyperglycemia does not require treatment. However, if the fetus does not inherit the pathogenic variant, maternal insulin therapy is indicated to prevent excessive fetal growth. Fetal ultrasound has been used to predict fetal genotype but has limited diagnostic utility. In a cohort of 38 pregnant individuals with GCK deficiency, fetal genetic testing using cell-free DNA in maternal blood had higher sensitivity (100 versus 53 percent) and specificity (96 versus 61 percent) for prenatal diagnosis of GCK deficiency compared with ultrasound measurement of fetal abdominal circumference [ 14 ]. When available, noninvasive prenatal genotyping should be used to guide management of GCK deficiency during pregnancy. (See "Classification of diabetes mellitus and genetic diabetic syndromes", section on 'Glucokinase' .)

Early metformin treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (November 2023)

Usual initial gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) care (ie, medical nutritional therapy, exercise) may result in a few weeks of hyperglycemia before a need for pharmacotherapy is established. In a randomized trial evaluating whether initiating metformin at the time of GDM diagnosis regardless of glycemic control improves clinical outcomes compared with usual care, the metformin group had a lower rate of insulin initiation and favorable trends in mean fasting glucose, gestational weight gain, and excessive fetal growth, but more births <2500 grams [ 15 ]. Rates of preeclampsia, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and neonatal hypoglycemia were similar for both groups. Given these mixed results, we recommend not initiating metformin at the time of GDM diagnosis except in a research setting. (See "Gestational diabetes mellitus: Glucose management and maternal prognosis", section on 'Does early metformin initiation improve glycemic control and reduce need for insulin?' .)

Automated insulin delivery in pregnant patients with type 1 diabetes (October 2023)

Hybrid closed-loop insulin therapy is associated with improved glucose control in nonpregnant adults and in children, but little information is available in pregnant people. In the first randomized trial in this population, hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery beginning at 11 weeks gestation improved glycemic control compared with standard insulin therapy in 124 patients with type 1 diabetes, without increasing their risk of severe hypoglycemia [ 16 ]. The system allowed customization of glycemic targets appropriate to pregnancy, in contrast to other commercially available systems in the United States. Additional study is needed to confirm these findings, evaluate the effects on obstetric and neonatal outcomes, and identify optimal candidates. (See "Pregestational (preexisting) diabetes mellitus: Antenatal glycemic control", section on 'Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump)' .)


Updates on congenital fibrinogen disorders (April 2024)

Congenital fibrinogen disorders are rare and remain underdiagnosed. New publications address the clinical manifestations of these disorders and provide obstetric guidance:

● A new report from the Rare Bleeding Disorders database described 123 patients with afibrinogenemia, hypofibrinogenemia, and dysfibrinogenemia and characterized bleeding and thrombotic manifestations [ 17 ]. (See "Disorders of fibrinogen", section on 'Clinical manifestations' .)

● New guidelines from the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) provide target fibrinogen levels and advice for managing postpartum bleeding and thromboprophylaxis in individuals with congenital fibrin disorders [ 18 ]. (See "Disorders of fibrinogen", section on 'Conception and pregnancy' .)

A high index of suspicion for these disorders and multidisciplinary management are required.

Intrauterine postpartum hemorrhage control devices for managing postpartum hemorrhage (February 2024)

Intrauterine balloon tamponade and vacuum-induced uterine compression are the most common devices used for intrauterine postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) control in patients with atony, but it is unclear which device is superior as few comparative studies have been performed. In a retrospective study including nearly 380 patients with PPH, quantitative blood loss after placement, rate of blood transfusion, and discharge hematocrit were similar for both devices [ 19 ]. Based on these and other data, in the setting of ongoing uterine bleeding, rapid use of one of these devices is likely to be more important than the choice of device when both devices are available. (See "Postpartum hemorrhage: Use of an intrauterine hemorrhage-control device", section on 'Choice of method' .)

Labor epidural analgesia and risk of emergency delivery (December 2023)

It is well established that contemporary neuraxial labor analgesia does not increase the overall risk of cesarean or instrument-assisted vaginal delivery. However, a new retrospective database study of over 600,000 deliveries in the Netherlands reported that epidural labor analgesia was associated with an increased risk of emergency delivery (cesarean or instrument-assisted vaginal) compared with alternative analgesia (13 versus 7 percent) [ 20 ]. Because of potential confounders and lack of detail on epidural and obstetric management, we consider these data insufficient to avoid neuraxial analgesia or change the practice of early labor epidural placement to reduce the potential need for general anesthesia in patients at high risk for cesarean delivery. (See "Adverse effects of neuraxial analgesia and anesthesia for obstetrics", section on 'Effects on the progress and outcome of labor' .)

Delayed cord clamping in preterm births (December 2023)

Increasing evidence supports delaying cord clamping in preterm births. In an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized trials of delayed versus immediate cord clamping at births <37 weeks (over 3200 infants), delaying cord clamping for >30 seconds reduced infant death before discharge (6 versus 8 percent) [ 21 ]. In a companion network meta-analysis evaluating the optimal duration of delay, a long delay (≥120 seconds) significantly reduced death before discharge compared with immediate clamping; reductions also occurred with delays of 15 to <120 seconds but were not statistically significant [ 22 ]. For preterm births that do not require resuscitation, we recommend delayed rather than immediate cord clamping. We delay cord clamping for at least 30 to 60 seconds as approximately 75 percent of blood available for placenta-to-fetus transfusion is transfused in the first minute after birth. (See "Labor and delivery: Management of the normal third stage after vaginal birth", section on 'Preterm infants' .)

Vacuum-induced intrauterine tamponade for postpartum hemorrhage (November 2023)

Intrauterine tamponade (with a balloon, packing, or vacuum) may be used to manage patients with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) resulting from uterine atony that is not controlled by uterotonic medications and uterine massage. However, outcome data regarding vacuum-induced tamponade are limited. A study of data from a postmarketing registry of over 500 patients with PPH and isolated atony treated with vacuum-induced tamponade reported that the device controlled bleeding without treatment escalation or bleeding recurrence in 88 percent following cesarean birth and 96 percent following vaginal birth, typically within five minutes [ 23 ]. These data are consistent with previously published outcomes. Given its efficacy and ease of use, vacuum-induced tamponade is an important option for managing PPH in centers where this device is available. (See "Postpartum hemorrhage: Use of an intrauterine hemorrhage-control device", section on 'Vacuum-induced tamponade' .)

Risk of pregnancy-associated venous and arterial thrombosis in sickle cell disease (November 2023)

Sickle cell disease (SCD) and pregnancy both confer an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but the magnitude of the risk is unclear. In a new administrative claims data study involving >6000 people with SCD and >17,000 age- and race-matched controls who were followed for one year postpartum, the risk of VTE was 11.3 percent in the patients with SCD, versus 1.2 percent in controls [ 24 ]. Arterial thromboembolism was also increased (5.2 percent, versus 0.6 percent in controls). This study emphasizes the value of postpartum VTE prophylaxis in people with SCD and the need for vigilance in evaluating suggestive symptoms. (See "Sickle cell disease: Obstetric considerations", section on 'Maternal risks' .)


Infertility and autism spectrum disorder (December 2023)

Patients with infertility often ask about the impact of the disorder and its treatment on risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. In a large population-based cohort study comparing ASD risk among children whose parents had subfertility (an infertility consultation without treatment), infertility treatment, or neither (unassisted conception), children in the subfertility and infertility treatment groups had a small increased risk of ASD compared with unassisted conception but the absolute risk was low (2.5 to 2.7 per 1000 person-years versus 1.9 per 1000 person-years with unassisted conception) [ 25 ]. The increased risk was similar in the subfertile and infertility treatment groups, suggesting that infertility treatment was not a major risk factor. Obstetrical and neonatal factors (eg, preterm birth) appeared to mediate a sizeable proportion of the increased risk for ASD. (See "Assisted reproductive technology: Infant and child outcomes", section on 'Confounders' .)

Macular changes related to pentosan polysulfate sodium (November 2023)

Macular eye disease has been reported in patients who have taken pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), which is used for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. In a prospective cohort study of 26 eyes with PPS maculopathy and >3000 g cumulative PPS exposure, progression of macular changes continued 13 to 30 months after drug cessation [ 26 ]. Median visual acuity decreased slightly; most patients reported progression of symptoms, including difficulty in low-light environments and blurry vision. These results indicate that PPS maculopathy progresses despite drug discontinuation, underscoring the importance of regular screening for maculopathy in patients with current or prior PPS exposure. (See "Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: Management", section on 'Pentosan polysulfate sodium as alternative' .)

Vaginal laser therapy not effective for genitourinary syndrome of menopause (November 2023)

Laser devices, including the fractional microablative CO 2 laser, have been marketed for treatment of patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), but data regarding their safety and efficacy are limited. In a randomized trial including nearly 50 postmenopausal patients with GSM, treatment with CO 2 laser did not improve symptom severity compared with sham therapy [ 27 ]. Change in vaginal histology, which is a common surrogate determinant of treatment success, was similar in both groups at six months postprocedure. In addition, histologic features associated with a hypoestrogenic state correlated poorly with the severity of vaginal symptoms. Although the trial had limitations, these findings are consistent with other data and support our practice of not using laser treatment for patients with GSM. (See "Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (vulvovaginal atrophy): Treatment", section on 'Laser or radiofrequency devices' .)


Risk of unplanned hysterectomy at time of myomectomy (February 2024)

Myomectomy is an option for patients with bothersome fibroid symptoms (eg, bleeding, bulk); however, data are limited regarding the risk of unplanned hysterectomy at the time of myomectomy. In a retrospective study of the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2010 to 2021 including over 13,000 patients undergoing myomectomy, the risk of unplanned hysterectomy was higher in those undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy compared with an open abdominal or hysteroscopic approach (7.1, 3.2, and 1.9 percent respectively) [ 28 ]. While much lower risks have been reported (<0.4 percent), and expert surgeons at high-volume centers may have fewer conversions to hysterectomy, this study highlights the importance of discussing the risk of unplanned hysterectomy during the informed consent process. (See "Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas): Laparoscopic myomectomy and other laparoscopic treatments", section on 'Unplanned hysterectomy' and "Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas): Open abdominal myomectomy procedure", section on 'Unplanned hysterectomy' and "Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas): Hysteroscopic myomectomy", section on 'Unplanned hysterectomy' .)

Risk of subsequent hysterectomy after endometrial ablation (January 2024)

Endometrial ablation is an alternative to hysterectomy in selected premenopausal patients with heavy menstrual bleeding. Most ablations are performed using a non-resectoscopic technique; however, the long-term efficacy of this approach is unclear. In a meta-analysis of 53 studies including over 48,000 patients managed with non-resectoscopic endometrial ablation (NREA), the rates of subsequent hysterectomy were 4 percent at 12 months, 8 to 12 percent at 18 to 60 months, and 21 percent at 120 months [ 29 ]. Hysterectomy rates were similar for the different NREA devices (eg, thermal balloon, microwave, radiofrequency). These findings are useful for counseling patients about the long-term risk for hysterectomy after NREA. (See "Endometrial ablation: Non-resectoscopic techniques", section on 'Efficacy' .)

Pregnancy and childbirth after urinary incontinence surgery (January 2024)

Patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have historically been advised to delay midurethral sling (MUS) surgery until after childbearing because of concerns for worsening SUI symptoms following delivery. In a meta-analysis of patients with MUS surgery who were followed for a mean of nearly 10 years, similar low SUI recurrence and reoperation rates were reported for the 381 patients with and the 860 patients without subsequent childbirth [ 30 ]. Birth route did not affect the findings. Although the total number of recurrences and reoperations was small, this study adds to the body of evidence suggesting that subsequent childbirth does not worsen SUI outcomes for patients who have undergone MUS. (See "Surgical management of stress urinary incontinence in females: Retropubic midurethral slings", section on 'Subsequent pregnancy' .)


Types of hysterectomy in patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer (March 2024)

Patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer (ie, >5 mm depth of stromal invasion and ≤2 cm in greatest dimension) are typically treated with radical hysterectomy; however, less extensive surgery is being evaluated. In a randomized trial including over 640 patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer, radical hysterectomy and simple hysterectomy plus lymph node assessment resulted in similar rates of recurrence at three years (2.2 and 2.5 percent, respectively) [ 31 ]. Although the study has limitations, including a short follow-up period, simple hysterectomy with lymph node assessment may be an acceptable alternative to radical hysterectomy in patients with IB1 cervical cancer. (See "Management of early-stage cervical cancer", section on 'Type of surgery' .)

Increasing incidence of cervical and uterine corpus cancer in the United States (February 2024)

In January 2024, the American Cancer Society published their annual report of cancer statistics in the United States [ 32 ]. Notable trends in regard to gynecologic cancers include a 1.7 percent increase in the annual incidence of cervical cancer from 2012 to 2019 in individuals aged 30 to 44 years, after decades of decline. Cancer of the uterine corpus (all ages) continued to increase by approximately 1 percent annually and was the only cancer in the report in which survival decreased. These and other data emphasize the continued importance of both early detection and prevention (eg, for cervical cancer: human papillomavirus vaccination and screening for precursor lesions; for endometrial cancer: achieving and maintaining a normal body mass index). (See "Invasive cervical cancer: Epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis", section on 'Incidence and mortality' and "Endometrial carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention", section on 'Epidemiology' and "Endometrial carcinoma: Clinical features, diagnosis, prognosis, and screening", section on 'Prognosis' .)

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    thesis topics in obstetrics and gynaecology in india 2019

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    Maternal and perinatal outcomes in advanced maternal age - a cross sectional study at KAHER's Dr Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical research centre. 2023-2026. 2. DR. ADITI ASTHANA. Dr MB BELLAD. Nil. PVPI in detecting FGR - 1 yr case control study. 2023-2026.

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    List of thesis topics Obstetrics & Gynecology Observational design (descriptive): 1. Prevalence of pre-conceptional hemoglobin and iron indices in Primary Health Centres and ... hospitals of warm India. 60. A 3 years interventional study for averting the maternal and fetal survival by using System integration in a cluster of primary, secondary ...

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    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Academics Extension and Research . Dissertation. Year 2014 Batch: ... Year 2019 Batch: 1. ... Pimpri, Pune 411018 Maharashtra, India. +91 20 27805100 / 27805101 / 67116499 . [email protected]. Social Media. Total Visitors : Last Update : Screen Reader Access ...

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    Methodology Study was carried out in the Sheth L.G. Hospital, a tertiary health care centre, enrolling subjects, who had attended outpatient department of obstetrics department with gestational age between 11 to 13 weeks (±6 days), over a period of 1.5 years, from June 2019 to Jan 2020. One hundred and sixty five pregnant females were enrolled ...

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    The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India is a double-blind peer reviewed, bimonthly journal that focuses on the publication of clinical and basic research in all aspects of obstetrics and gynecology. An official publication of the Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecological Societies of India. Covers community obstetrics and family ...

  6. Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeshwara University

    Randomised comparision of oral and vaginal misoprostol / when combined with mifepristone for termination of 2nd trimester pregnancy. Dr. Madhuri. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. International, 2016, IF 0.786, 5 (2), 509-513. Indexed in Copernicus, google scholar.

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    The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India. Publishing model: Hybrid. Submit your manuscript (this opens in a new tab) Back to Overview; Editorial board; Aims and scope; Articles. Search all The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India articles Sort by: Date published (new to old)

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    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2022 Apr 3; 42(3):430-6. Natarajan T, Rengaraj S, Chaturvedula L, Wyawahare M. Predictors of adverse maternal outcome in jaundiced pregnant women identified as having pregnancy-specific liver disease (P-sLD). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2022 Jan 20:1-7 Last Updated :13-Jan-2023

  9. A reflection on current obstetrics and gynaecology research in India

    Research on the topic of obstetric and gynaecology practice in India is seemingly in good health. Recent investigations demonstrate a wide range of topics that include research into contraception attitudes and the importance of antenatal care to rare obstetric cases. Maternal morbidity and mortality, data on Caesarean section prevalence, the ...

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    25-Hydroxyvitamin D Insufficiency in Pregnant Indian Women and the Development of Preterm Prelabour Rupture of Membranes. Mohit Mehndiratta. Bindiya Gupta. Dinesh Puri. Letter to the Editor 06 August 2021 Pages: 649 - 650. Volume 71, issue 6 articles listing for The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India.

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    Category - Hot Topics (Emerging research/issues) in Gynaecology 688 ... (From March 2018 to Dec 2019). Patient satisfaction survey of 20 patients - Questionnaire using rating scale with four categories. ... Methods This study was performed on women diagnosed with abnormal uterine bleeding at the department of obstetrics and gynaecology ...

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    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research is a leading OBGYN journal publishing original research, case ... 2010 - 2019. 2019 - Volume 45; 2018 - Volume 44; 2017 - Volume 43; 2016 - Volume 42; 2015 - Volume 41; 2014 - Volume 40; 2013 - Volume 39; 2012 - Volume 38; 2011 - Volume 37;

  13. IJOGR

    Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research. Print ISSN: 2394-2746 Online ISSN: 2394-2754 CODEN : IJOGCS Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research (IJOGR) open access, peer-reviewed quarterly journal publishing since 2014 and is published under auspices of the Innovative Education and Scientific Research Foundation (IESRF), aim to uplift researchers, scholars, academicians ...

  14. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India

    2019: v.69(1): 1-98 2019 Feb: v.69(2): 99-195 2019 Apr: v.69(Suppl 1): 1-87 2019 Apr: v.69(3): 197-296 2019 Jun: v.69(4): 297-387 2019 Aug: ... Articles from Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India are provided here courtesy of Springer. Follow NCBI. Connect with NLM. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike ...

  15. Hysterectomy and women's health in India: evidence from a nationally

    In India, policymakers, health care providers, and researchers have sought to address reports of widespread use of hysterectomy among young women . India's National Family Health Surveys in 2015-16 and 2019-20 reported that nearly 1 in 10 women have undergone hysterectomy by age 50, ranging up to 1 in 5 in the states of Andhra Pradesh and ...

  16. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India

    Book Review for Prof. Hiralal Konar's DC Dutta's Clinics in Gynecology. C. N. Purandare. Book Review 23 July 2023 Pages: 98 - 98. Volume 74, issue 1 articles listing for The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India.

  17. A Prospective Study to Determine the Predictive Ability of HDP ...

    1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, AIIMS, F-311, ... Agra, U.P India. 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ASCOMS, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir 180011 India. PMID: 36158863 PMCID: PMC9483246 DOI: 10.1007/s13224-022-01704- Abstract Background: HDP-gestosis score is a risk scoring system (score 1-3) for the development of pre ...

  18. Completed Research Projects

    1. Prof. Seema Hakim Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology J.N.M.C.H. AMU Aligarh. 2. Prof. Shahe. Related Publication : Awards : Project Title : Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant.

  19. Integrating gender perspectives in gynecology and obstetrics ...

    2019 Jul;146(1):132-138. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.12834. ... 3 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aurangabad, India. 4 Miraj Medical College, Maharashtra, India. 5 Ambajogai Medical College, Maharashtra, India. PMID: 31044431 DOI: 10.1002/ijgo.12834 Abstract Failure to acknowledge the impact of sex and gender differences affects the quality of ...

  20. Three Minute Thesis Abstracts

    Introduction: In 2019, our team was granted approval for the first uterus transplant trial in Australia using live donors, as a fertility option for women with absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI). Since then, members of the public have been able to express interest to participate in this study, and have been assessed for suitability by ...

  21. What's new in obstetrics and gynecology

    What's new in obstetrics and gynecology. Authors: Vanessa A Barss, MD, FACOG. Alana Chakrabarti, MD. Kristen Eckler, MD, FACOG. Contributor Disclosures. All topics are updated as new evidence becomes available and our peer review process is complete. Literature review current through: Mar 2024. This topic last updated: Apr 17, 2024.