Unemployment Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on unemployment.

Unemployment is a very serious issue not only in India but in the whole world. There are hundreds and thousands of people out there who do not have employment . Besides, the problems of unemployment are very severe in India because of the growing population and demand for jobs. Moreover, if we neglect this problem then it will be going to become the reason for the doom of the nation.

Unemployment Essay

What is Unemployment?

Unemployment refers to a situation in which a skilled and talented people wanted to do a job. But cannot find a proper job due to several reasons.

Types of Unemployment

Now we know what is unemployment but unemployment does not only mean that the person does not have a job. Likewise, unemployment also includes people working in areas out of their expertise.

The various types of unemployment include disguised unemployment, seasonal unemployment, open unemployment, technological unemployment, structural unemployment. Besides, some other unemployment is cyclic unemployment, educated unemployment, underemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment, and casual unemployment.

Above all, seasonal unemployment, under unemployment, and disguised unemployment are the most common unemployment that is found in India.

Reasons for Unemployment

In a country like India, there is much reason for a large section of the population for being unemployed. Some of these factors are population growth, slow economic growth , seasonal occupation, slow growth of the economic sector, and fall in the cottage industry.

Moreover, these are the major reason for unemployment in India. Also, the situation has become so drastic that highly educated people are ready to do the job of a sweeper. Besides, the government is not doing his work seriously.

Apart from all these, a large portion of the population is engaged in the agricultural sector and the sector only provides employment in harvest or plantation time.

In addition, the biggest reason of unemployment in India is its vast population which demands a large number of jobs every year which the government and authorities are unable to provide.

Consequences of Unemployment

If things will go on like the current scenario then unemployment will become a major issue. Apart from this, the following things happen in an economy which is an increase in poverty, an increase in crime rate, exploitation of labor, political instability, mental health, and loss of skills. As a result, all this will eventually lead to the demise of the nation.

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Initiative by Government

The government has taken the problem very seriously and have taken measures to slowly reduce unemployment. Some of these schemes includes IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme), DPAP (Drought Prone Area Programme), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Employment Assurance Scheme, NRY (Nehru Rozgar Yojana), Training for self-Employment, PMIUPEP (Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program), employment exchange, Employment Guarantee Scheme, development of organized sector, small and cottage industries, employment in forging countries, and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana and few more.

Besides, these schemes the government also make some rules flexible, so that employment can be created in the private sector also.

To conclude, we can say that the problem of unemployment in India has reached a critical stage. But, now the government and local authorities have taken the problem seriously and working on it to reduce unemployment. Also, to completely solve the issue of unemployment we have to tackle the main issue of unemployment that is the vast population of India.

FAQs about Unemployment

Q.1 Why there is a problem of unemployment in India? A.1 Due to overpopulation and lack of proper skills there is a problem of unemployment in India.

Q.2 Define Disguised unemployment? A.2 Disguised unemployment refers to a form of employment in which more than the required numbers of people work in industry or factory. And removing some employee will not affect productivity.

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Essay on Unemployment for Students in English | 500 Words Essay

December 20, 2020 by Sandeep

Essay on Unemployment: It is a serious social issue in India and a big global concern too. There are thousands of people who are not employed owing to the rising population and a steady decline in jobs, leading to unemployment. Automation of jobs, illiteracy, stiff competition, unavailability of resources, unqualified, political factors, etc. has given way to unemployment. Unemployment causes financial distress in families, hampers mental health and causes depression, anxiety, stress and other physical ailments.

Essay on Unemployment 500 Words in English

Below we have provided Unemployment Essay in English, suitable for class 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 school students.

There is saying that “Give a man a fish, and he will be hungry again tomorrow; teach him to catch a fish, and he will be richer for all his life.” The importance of jobs in life is very significant to afford a good quality of life. Due to the increasing population and high competition, people are not able to grab jobs. This has led to recession and burden on the economy.

What is Unemployment: It is defined as a situation in which a person who is willing to do a job fails to find a job that earns him/her a living. It does not include people who are not looking for jobs.

Types of Unemployment

The unemployment rates are increasing, showing the slowdown in the economy. Unemployment can be classified mainly in two categories one in urban areas and others in rural areas. The major part of India’s population lives in rural areas.  There are different types of unemployment – open, disguised, and seasonal. In Urban areas, the infrastructure is well developed, and there are a lot of advancements in technology. The main types of unemployment here are Industrial, educated, and technological development.

  • Open – It is a case in which there is no work to do. People are willing to work, but there is no work available.
  • Disguised – It is a situation in which some individuals are noticeably employed but are literally unemployed. It is in the agricultural sector where there are way more people working than required.
  • Seasonal – It means the needs of the workers are only in particular seasons. It points to a time period where there is less requirement than normal season.
  • Industrial – The illiterate people who can work in manufacturing industries are eager to do work but not getting any work in urban areas. It is called Industrial unemployment
  • Educated – When the person is educated but not able to find a job according to his academic qualifications. Then, it is called educated unemployment.
  • Technological – Technological unemployment happens because of the advancement in technology. It has a significant impact on the organization, as productivity increases and efficiency enhances.

The most common types of unemployment in India is seasonal and disguised unemployment.

Reasons for Unemployment

  • There are multiple reasons causing a great jump in the rate of unemployment. The biggest reason is the increasing rate of population. There is consistent growth in the population of India. The greater the population, the more the demands of the job seekers, but the advancement in technology causes a decrease in the labour force required.
  • Another reason is the lack of education and skills among the youth. Job seekers are more, and well-skilled people are very less for the country. It is also called structural unemployment, where the skills needed for the job do not match the skills of the worker.
  • The advancement in technology in this modern era is also taking away the jobs that can be handled by machines and systems. It has replaced unskilled labour, and the results are more effective and accurate. The production is faster, and the cost is minimised.
  • Lack of capital threatens companies to pay for its operations. It makes it difficult to prepare for emergencies and sometimes difficult to pay its employees.

Consequences of Unemployment

There are severe consequences of unemployment, causing the economy to suffer. Mainly the people who are affected by it have to go through it. It causes an increase in suicide cases, stress levels boost up, crime rates surge, etc.  Unemployed people get demotivated and degrade their skills, which is bad for the economy. There are big impacts which include the loss of productive labour force in the country, which can help in growing GDP. It deteriorates the growth of businesses as well.

As many unemployed people cannot afford basic commodities, it causes fewer sales in businesses.  Social causes of long term employment are very substantial. It affects the health of individuals and their families. There is less consumption of nutritious diet, including fruits and vegetables. It can stop their physical and mental development. Again, not creating a valuable asset for the economy in the long run.

Initiative by Government

The government has taken several steps to solve this significant issue. Some initiatives were launched to curb this problem of unemployment. These initiatives include IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme), training for self-employment, NRY (Nehru Rozgar Yojana), Drought Prone area program, PMGSY (Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana), Employment Guarantee Scheme and more.

The Employment Guarantee Scheme ensures a minimum of 100 working days with wages to do unskilled work. Training for self-employment aims at reducing employment among the youth. Moreover, the government is spending on irrigation, farms, and roads, etc. The government can take some more steps to reduce unemployment like population control, more Small- medium enterprises, good education system and improvement in agriculture.

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Essay on Unemployment: 100 to 300 Words

essay on unemployment class 6

  • Updated on  
  • Mar 30, 2024

Essay on Unemployment

Writing an essay on unemployment provides an opportunity to explore a critical issue affecting societies worldwide. Unemployment, a multifaceted problem, has far-reaching consequences that touch upon various aspects of individuals, families, and nations. In this essay, we will delve into the complexities of unemployment, examine its causes and consequences, discuss government initiatives, and shed light on potential solutions.

Table of Contents

  • 1 What is Unemployment?
  • 2 Essay on Unemployment in 100 words
  • 3 Essay on Unemployment in 200 words
  • 4 Essay on Unemployment in 300 words
  • 5 Tips to Ace in Writing An Essay

Must Read: The Beginner’s Guide to Writing an Essay

What is Unemployment?

Lack of jobs leads to unemployment. It is a very serious economic and social concern that is happening all around the globe leading to many social ills. This issue is a major one and hence many governments are trying to address it. When people of a nation are employed, that leads to the economic and social well-being of that nation. To address it, the education system needs to be modeled differently so as to increase the employability of people. In democracies, political parties use unemployment as a core issue in their election manifestos.

Essay on Unemployment in 100 words

Unemployment refers to the condition when individuals, capable and willing to work, are unable to secure gainful employment. It is a pervasive issue across the globe, with varying degrees of impact on societies. Unemployment results in financial instability, and emotional distress, and hampers individual growth. Governments and organizations must collaborate to create opportunities for employment through skill development and policy implementation.

Essay on Unemployment in 200 words

Unemployment, a pressing concern globally, stems from multiple factors that hinder the workforce’s engagement in productive activities. It affects both developed and developing nations, contributing to economic imbalances and social disparities. The consequences of unemployment include reduced income levels, increased poverty rates, and strained government resources. Moreover, the psychological toll it takes on individuals and families can be severe, leading to stress, depression, and strained relationships.

Essay on Unemployment in 300 words

The intricate web of unemployment is spun from a mix of causes, ranging from economic fluctuations to structural shifts in industries. Cyclical unemployment, driven by economic downturns, and structural unemployment, resulting from a mismatch between skills and job openings, are widespread forms. Additionally, technological advancements lead to technological unemployment as machines replace human labour.

Unemployment has cascading effects on societies. Diminished purchasing power affects market demand, thereby impacting economic growth. As unemployment rates rise, so does the burden on social welfare programs and the healthcare system. The phenomenon also fuels social unrest and political instability, making it a challenge governments cannot ignore.

Governments worldwide have initiated strategies to tackle unemployment. Skill development programs, vocational training, and entrepreneurship initiatives are designed to equip individuals with market-relevant skills. Furthermore, promoting labour-intensive industries and investing in sectors with growth potential can generate employment opportunities.

In conclusion, unemployment is a complex issue that necessitates a multi-pronged approach. Governments, industries, and individuals must collaborate to alleviate its impact. Effective policy implementation, education reforms, and the cultivation of entrepreneurial spirit can pave the way towards reducing unemployment rates and fostering a more stable and prosperous society.

Tips to Ace in Writing An Essay

Before we dive into the specifics of unemployment, let’s briefly discuss some tips to enhance your essay-writing skills:

  • Understand the Prompt: Ensure a clear understanding of the essay prompt to address all its components effectively.
  • Research Thoroughly: Gather relevant information from credible sources to build a comprehensive and informed essay.
  • Organize Your Thoughts: Create an outline to structure your essay logically, allowing your ideas to flow coherently.
  • Introduction and Conclusion: Craft a compelling introduction to engage your readers, and a succinct conclusion to summarize your key points.
  • Use Clear Language: Express your ideas using clear and concise language, avoiding jargon or overly complex vocabulary.
  • Provide Examples: Illustrate your points with real-life examples to enhance understanding and credibility.
  • Edit and Proofread: Revise your essay for grammar, punctuation, and coherence to ensure a polished final draft.

Also Read: Unemployment v/s Underemployment – What’s Worse?

Related Reads:-     

Unemployment refers to the state in which individuals who are willing and able to work are without gainful employment opportunities. It is a condition where individuals seek jobs but are unable to secure them, leading to financial instability and societal challenges.

Unemployment, as discussed in the essay, is a multifaceted issue encompassing the lack of employment opportunities for willing and capable individuals. It explores various forms of unemployment, its causes, far-reaching consequences on economies and societies, and the role of governments in implementing solutions to mitigate its impact.

Unemployment is the term used to describe the situation where individuals of working age are actively seeking employment but are unable to find suitable job opportunities. It signifies a gap between the available workforce and available jobs, often leading to economic and social challenges within a society.

Unemployment emerges as a prominent thread, influencing economic, social, and psychological realms. As we’ve explored in this essay, comprehending the causes and consequences of unemployment is pivotal in devising solutions. Governments, institutions, and individuals must strive collectively to unravel this issue’s complexities and weave a fabric of employment opportunities, stability, and progress. We hope that this essay blog on Unemployment helps. For more amazing daily reads related to essay writing , stay tuned with Leverage Edu .

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Essay on Unemployment for Children and Students

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Table of Contents

One of the major hindrances in the growth of any country is unemployment. Unemployment is a serious issue in India. Lack of education, lack of employment opportunities and performance issues are some of the factors that lead to unemployment. The government of India must take effective steps to eliminate this problem. One of the main problems faced by the developing countries is unemployment. It is not only one of the major obstacles in the country’s economic growth but also has several other negative repercussions on the individual as well as the society as a whole.

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Long and Short Essay on Unemployment in English

We have provided below short and long essay on unemployment in English for your knowledge and information. These essays have been written in simple and impressive language to convey the message with minimum effort.

After going through these Essays on Unemployment you will know about the factors leading to unemployment in India; what are the possible solutions for the eradication of unemployment; different types of unemployment; initiatives taken by the government to reduce unemployment; unemployment statistics in India etc.

These Unemployment essay will be useful in your school/college events of essay writing, speech giving or debate.

Unemployment Essay 1 (200 words)

People who are willing to work and are earnestly looking for job but are unable to find one are said to be unemployed. It does not include people who are voluntarily unemployed as well as those who are unable to seek job due to certain physical or mental health problem.

There are various factors that lead to the problem of unemployment in the country. These include:

  • Slow Industrial Growth
  • Rapid Increase in Population
  • Focus on Theoretical Education
  • Fall in Cottage Industries
  • Lack of alternative employment opportunities for the agricultural workers
  • Technological Advancement

Unemployment does not impact only the individuals but also the growth of the country. It has a negative impact on social and economic growth of the country. Here are some of the consequences of unemployment:

  • Increase in crime rate
  • Poor standard of living
  • Loss of skill
  • Political instability
  • Mental health issues
  • Slow economic growth

Surprisingly, despite the negative repercussions it has on the society, unemployment is one of the most overlooked issues in India. The government has taken certain steps to control the problem; however, these have not been effective enough. The government should not just initiate programs to control this problem but also keep a check on their effectiveness and revise them if need be.

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Unemployment Essay 2 (300 words)

Introduction

Unemployment is a curse to the society. It does not only impact the individuals but also the society as a whole. There are a number of factors that lead to unemployment. Here is a look at these factors in detail and also the possible solutions to control this problem.

Factors Leading to Unemployment in India

  • Growth in Population

The rapid growth in the population of the country is one of the leading causes of unemployment.

  • Slow Economic Growth

Slow economic growth of the country results in lesser employment opportunities for people, thereby leading to unemployment.

  • Seasonal Occupation

Large part of the country’s population is engaged in the agricultural sector. With this being a seasonal occupation, it provides work opportunity only for a certain part of the year.

  • Slow Growth of Industrial Sector

The growth of industrial sector in the country is slow. Thus, the employment opportunities in this sector are limited.

  • Fall in Cottage Industry

The production in cottage industry has fallen drastically and this has left several artisans unemployed.

Possible Solutions to Eradicate Unemployment

  • Population Control

It is high time the government of India should take stern steps to control the population of the country.

  • Education System

The education system in India focuses majorly on the theoretical aspects rather than skill development. The system must be improved to generate skilled manpower.

  • Industrialization

The government must take steps to boost the industrial sector to create greater opportunities for people.

  • Overseas Companies

The government must encourage foreign companies to open their units in the country to generate more employment opportunities.

  • Employment Opportunities

Employment opportunities must be created in rural areas for seasonally unemployed people.

The problem of unemployment in the country has persisted since long. While the government has launched several programmes for employment generation, desirable progress has not been achieved. The policy-makers and the citizens should make collective efforts in creating more jobs as well as acquiring the right skill-set for employability.

Unemployment Essay 3 (400 words)

Unemployment in India can be divided into many categories including disguised unemployment, open unemployment, educated unemployment, cyclic unemployment, seasonal unemployment, technological unemployment, underemployment, structural unemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment and casual unemployment. Before leaning about these types of unemployment in detail let us understand as to who exactly is said to be unemployed. It is basically a person who is willing to work and is seeking an employment opportunity, however, is unable to find one. Those who choose to remain unemployed voluntarily or are unable to work due to some physical or mental health issue are not counted as unemployed.

Here is a detailed look at the different types of unemployment:

Disguised Unemployment

When more than the required numbers of people are employed at a place, it is said to be disguised unemployment. Removing these people does not impact the productivity.

Seasonal Unemployment

As the term suggests, this is the type of unemployment that is seen during certain seasons of the year. The industries mostly affected by seasonal unemployment include the agricultural industry, resorts and ice factories, to name a few.

Open Unemployment

This is when a vast number of labourers are unable to seek a job that provides them regular income. The problem occurs as the labour force increases at a much greater rate compared to the economy’s growth rate.

Technological Unemployment

The use of technological equipments has also led to unemployment by reducing the requirement of manual labour.

Structural Unemployment

This kind of unemployment occurs because of a major change in the country’s economic structure. This is said to be a result of technological advancement and economic development.

Cyclic Unemployment

A reduction in the overall level of business activities leads to cyclic unemployment. However, the phenomenon is short-run.

Educated Unemployment

Inability to find a suitable job, lack of employable skill and flawed education system are some of the reasons why the educated lot remains unemployed.

Underemployment

In this kind of unemployment people either take up a job on part time basis or take up work for which they are over-qualified.

Frictional Unemployment

This occurs when the demand of labour force and its supply are not synced appropriately.

Chronic Unemployment

This is long-term unemployment that continues in a country due to the rapid increase in population and low level of economic development.

Casual Unemployment

This may occur because of a sudden fall in demand, short-term contracts or shortage of raw material.

Though the government has launched several programmes to control each type of unemployment, however, the results are far from satisfactory. The government needs to devise more effective strategies for employment generation.

Unemployment Essay 4 (500 words)

Unemployment is a serious problem. There are a number of factors including lack of education, lack of employment opportunities, lack of skill, performance issues and increasing population rate that lead to this issue in India. Unemployment has a number of negative repercussions on the individuals as well as the country as a whole. The government has taken several initiatives to control this problem. Some of these are mentioned here in detail.

Government Initiatives to Reduce Unemployment

  • Training for Self Employment

Launched in 1979, the program was named, National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). It is aimed at reducing unemployment among the youth in the rural areas.

  • Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)

In the year 1978-79, the Indian government launched the Integrated Rural Development Programme to ensure full employment opportunities in rural areas. A sum of Rs. 312 crore was spent on this programme and as many as 182 lakh families benefited from it.

  • Employment in Foreign Countries

The government helps people get employment in overseas companies. Special agencies have been established to hire people for work in other countries.

  • Small and Cottage Industries

In an attempt to reduce the issue of unemployment, the government has also developed small and cottage industries. Several people are making their living with this initiative.

  • The Swaran Jayanti Rozgar Yojana

This program is aimed at providing self-employment as well as wage-employment opportunities to the urban population. It includes two plans:

  • Urban Self-Employment Programme
  • Urban Wage Employment Programme
  • Employment Assurance Scheme

The program was launched in as many in 1994 in as 1752 backward blocks in the country. It provided unskilled manual work for 100 days to the poor unemployed people living in rural areas.

  • Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)

The program was started in 13 states and covered as many as 70 drought-prone districts with an aim to remove seasonal unemployment. In its seventh plan, the government spent Rs. 474 crore.

  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana

The program launched in April 1989 aimed at providing employment to a minimum of one member in each poor rural family for a period of fifty to hundred days a year. The employment opportunity is provided in the person’s vicinity and 30% of these opportunities are reserved for women.

  • Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)

There are a total of three schemes under this program. Under the first scheme, the urban poor are given subsidy to establish micro enterprises. Under the second scheme, wage-employment is arranged for labourers in cities having a population of less than 10 lakh. Under the third scheme, urban poor in the cities are given employment opportunities matching their skills.

  • Employment Guarantee Scheme

Unemployed people are provided economic assistance under this scheme. It has been launched in a number of states including Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, etc.

Apart from this, many other similar programs have been launched to reduce unemployment.

Though the government has been taking several measures to control the problem of unemployment in the country a lot still needs to be worked upon in order to curb this problem in true sense.

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Unemployment Essay 5 (600 words)

Unemployment is a grave issue. There are a number of factors that lead to it. Some of these include lack of proper education, lack of good skill set, inability to perform, lack of good employment opportunities and rapidly increasing population. Here is a look at the unemployment statics in the country, the consequences of unemployment and the measures taken by the government to control it.

Unemployment: Statistics in India

The Ministry of Labour and Employment of India keeps the records of unemployment in the country. The measure of unemployment is calculated based on the number of people who had no work for a substantial amount of time during the 365 days preceding the date of collation of data and are still seeking employment.

India saw an average of 7.32 percent unemployment rate from 1983 to 2013 with a highest of 9.40 percent in the year 2009 and a record low of 4.90 percent in 2013. In the year 2015-16, the unemployment rate shot up significantly with 8.7 per cent for women and 4.3 per cent for men.

Consequences of Unemployment

Unemployment leads to serious socio-economic issues. It does not only impact the individuals but the society as a whole. Shared below are some of the major consequences of unemployment:

  • Increase in Poverty

It goes without saying that increase in unemployment rate results in increase in the rate of poverty in the country. Unemployment is largely responsible for hampering the economic growth of the country.

  • Increase in Crime Rate

Unable to find a suitable job, the unemployed lot usually takes the path of crime as this seems to be an easy way of making money. One of the main causes of rapidly increasing cases of theft, robbery and other heinous crimes is unemployment.

  • Exploitation of Labour

Employees usually take advantage of scarcity of jobs in the market by offering low wages. Unable to find a job matching their skill people usually settle for a low-paying job. Employees are also forced to work for more than the set number of hours each day.

  • Political Instability

Lack of employment opportunities results in loss of faith in the government and this often leads to political instability.

  • Mental Health

The dissatisfaction level among unemployed people increases and it can gradually lead to anxiety, depression and other mental health problems.

  • Loss of Skill

Staying out of job for long period of time makes one dull and eventually results in the loss of skill. It also lowers a person’s self confidence to a large extent.

The government of India has taken several initiatives to reduce the problem of unemployment as well as to help the unemployed lot in the country. Some of these include the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Training for Self-Employment, Nehru Rozgar Yojna (NRY), Employment Assurance Scheme, Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program (PMIUPEP) Development of Organized Sector, Employment Exchanges, Employment in Foreign Countries, Small and Cottage Industries, Employment Guarantee Scheme and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana, to name a few.

Besides offering employment opportunities by way of these programs, the government is also sensitizing the importance of education and providing skill training to the unemployed people.

Unemployment is the root cause of various problems in the society. While the government has taken initiatives to reduce this problem, the measures taken are not effective enough. The various factors causing this problem must be studied well to look for effective and integrated solutions for the same. It is time the government should recognize the sensitivity of the matter and take some serious steps to reduce it.

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Essay on Unemployment

We always used to refer youths as the future of the nation, but what about their future? Every human wants to live a luxurious and peaceful life. All his dreams can only come true when they will be able to earn a healthy livelihood. Every student wishes to get a high-paying job after their studies. But what if they don’t get jobs? Today, the youth are facing the problem of unemployment. This not only affects youths and their family but the entire nation as a whole.

Short and Long Unemployment Essay in English

To highlight the growing issue of unemployment and its consequences, today we will discuss Unemployment in detail. Here, we are presenting short and long essays on Unemployment in English for students under word limits of 100 – 150 Words, 200 – 250 words, and 500 – 600 words. This topic is useful for students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 in English. These provided essays on Unemployment will help you to write effective essays, paragraphs, and speeches on this topic.

Unemployment Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)

1) Unemployment is when qualified people are looking for work but unable to find it.

2) Unemployment is primarily due to the scarcity of job opportunities.

3) Unemployment is one of the biggest things that keep a country from growing.

4) When there is unemployment in society, people lose their skills.

5) Unemployment is caused by several things that work in different ways.

6) Changes in technology cause people to lose their jobs, which leads to unemployment.

7) The country’s industrial sector is growing slowly which can result in unemployment.

8) Unemployment is a big problem in places that haven’t developed much yet.

9) A country with a high unemployment rate faces social and economic problems.

10) We need to plan if we want to get rid of unemployment in the country.

Short Essay on Unemployment (200 – 250 Words)

Introduction

The problem of unemployment is growing drastically. However, it is a bad thing for everyone. Unemployment happens when someone who is actively looking for work can’t find a job. However, the unemployed are those people who want to work but can’t find work. In almost every country, unemployment has become a big problem.

Unemployment: The Serious Issue

Unemployment is a problem in a lot of places around the world. When people lose their jobs, they lose self-confidence, get angry, and have bad feelings about everyday things. When unemployment is high, people buy fewer goods and services and pay less in taxes. This means that the government has to manage the nation’s expenses. When there are more people out of work, there are more crimes. Unemployment not only affects the people who are out of work, but also the growth of the country as a whole.

Reasons of Unemployment

Several things can be blamed for unemployment. First of all, the status of the education sector is getting down. Students have more theoretical knowledge but lack practical knowledge. An unhealthy work environment is another reason that can lead to unemployment in the end. As technology gets better, more tasks are done by machines instead of people, making it unnecessary to hire people.

Unemployment is a big problem that must be fixed in any way possible. This is a problem that needs to be fixed by the government. Policymakers and people should work together to make more jobs and learn the right skills to get hired. To find effective and integrated solutions to this problem, it is important to study the different things that are causing it.

Long Essay on Unemployment (500 Words)

Our country has a lot of good schools, colleges, and universities. Thousands of students graduate from there every year. Then also, the number of people without jobs is going up every day. Unemployment arises when people who want to work but don’t find proper jobs. It doesn’t count people who are voluntarily unemployed or who can’t look for work because of illness.

Types of Unemployment

There are different kinds of unemployment, including:

  • Hidden unemployment: When people are working less than their potential or their skills are unutilized but counted as employed falls in this category.
  • Cyclical unemployment: When the overall amount of business activity goes down, this causes cyclical unemployment.
  • Seasonal unemployment: It happens in jobs like construction, farming, and the tourist trade, where the weather or the calendar determines the demand for work.
  • Long-term unemployment: It occurs when someone has been out of work for a year or more.
  • Underemployment: It occurs when a person is overqualified for work or works part-time.
  • Hardcore unemployment: Hardcore unemployment is a term for people who have been out of work for a long time.
  • Structured unemployment : It happens when there are too many unemployed people for the number of open jobs.
  • Frictional unemployment: It happens when there aren’t enough people to fill jobs in the same jobs and the same places.

Causes of Unemployment

The first reason for unemployment is the growing population. This is also because of how our education system works. Our schools and colleges focus more on theoretical knowledge than practical training for jobs. Changes in technology are one of the most important reasons why people lose their jobs. Many employees are unhappy with their jobs. When companies treat people differently based on their caste, religion, race, etc, they make it harder for people to work there.

Effects of Unemployment

Having no job means not having a way to make money. Unemployment is a big problem that slows down both individual and national progress. When people can’t get enough work to meet their needs, crime rates go up. The number of people who are homeless and who are mentally or physically sick is going up. If you don’t have a job for a long time, you get bored and eventually lose your skills.

Unemployment in India

India is a developing country with an economy that isn’t as strong as it could be. Unemployment in India is different from unemployment in developed economies. India’s unemployment problem is not caused by a lack of effective demand. Instead, it is caused by a lack of capital equipment and other resources, along with a high rate of population growth. India has a bigger problem with underemployment than it does with unemployment.

Unemployment is a big problem for all economies. For a developing economy, both the government and individuals need to take steps to increase productivity and raise the standard of living.

I hope the above provided essay on Unemployment will be helpful in understanding the effects and causes of unemployment in a country.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Unemployment

Ans. The unemployment rate can be defined as the percentage of persons who are actively seeking employment but are unable to find it.

Ans. From April to June 2022, the unemployment rate in urban centers of India was 7.6%.

Ans. Rajasthan is the highest unemployed state in India.

Ans. Maharashtra has the highest employment in India as per 2022 records.

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Unemployment Essay

One of the major hindrances in the growth of any country is unemployment. Unemployment is a serious issue in India. Lack of education, lack of employment opportunities and performance issues are some of the factors that lead to unemployment. The government of India must take effective steps to eliminate this problem. One of the main problems faced by the developing countries is unemployment. It is not only one of the major obstacles in the country’s economic growth but also has several other negative repercussions on the individual as well as the society as a whole.

Long and Short Essay on Unemployment in English

We have provided below short and long essay on unemployment in English for your knowledge and information. These essays have been written in simple and impressive language to convey the message with minimum effort.

After going through these Essays on Unemployment you will know about the factors leading to unemployment in India; what are the possible solutions for the eradication of unemployment; different types of unemployment; initiatives taken by the government to reduce unemployment; unemployment statistics in India etc.

These Unemployment essay will be useful in your school/college events of essay writing, speech giving or debate.

Unemployment Essay 1 (200 words)

People who are willing to work and are earnestly looking for job but are unable to find one are said to be unemployed. It does not include people who are voluntarily unemployed as well as those who are unable to seek job due to certain physical or mental health problem.

There are various factors that lead to the problem of unemployment in the country. These include:

  • Slow Industrial Growth
  • Rapid Increase in Population
  • Focus on Theoretical Education
  • Fall in Cottage Industries
  • Lack of alternative employment opportunities for the agricultural workers
  • Technological Advancement

Unemployment does not impact only the individuals but also the growth of the country. It has a negative impact on social and economic growth of the country. Here are some of the consequences of unemployment:

  • Increase in crime rate
  • Poor standard of living
  • Loss of skill
  • Political instability
  • Mental health issues
  • Slow economic growth

Surprisingly, despite the negative repercussions it has on the society, unemployment is one of the most overlooked issues in India. The government has taken certain steps to control the problem; however, these have not been effective enough. The government should not just initiate programs to control this problem but also keep a check on their effectiveness and revise them if need be.

Unemployment Essay 2 (300 words)

Introduction

Unemployment is a curse to the society. It does not only impact the individuals but also the society as a whole. There are a number of factors that lead to unemployment. Here is a look at these factors in detail and also the possible solutions to control this problem.

Factors Leading to Unemployment in India

  • Growth in Population

The rapid growth in the population of the country is one of the leading causes of unemployment.

  • Slow Economic Growth

Slow economic growth of the country results in lesser employment opportunities for people, thereby leading to unemployment.

  • Seasonal Occupation

Large part of the country’s population is engaged in the agricultural sector. With this being a seasonal occupation, it provides work opportunity only for a certain part of the year.

  • Slow Growth of Industrial Sector

The growth of industrial sector in the country is slow. Thus, the employment opportunities in this sector are limited.

  • Fall in Cottage Industry

The production in cottage industry has fallen drastically and this has left several artisans unemployed.

Possible Solutions to Eradicate Unemployment

  • Population Control

It is high time the government of India should take stern steps to control the population of the country.

  • Education System

The education system in India focuses majorly on the theoretical aspects rather than skill development. The system must be improved to generate skilled manpower.

  • Industrialization

The government must take steps to boost the industrial sector to create greater opportunities for people.

  • Overseas Companies

The government must encourage foreign companies to open their units in the country to generate more employment opportunities.

  • Employment Opportunities

Employment opportunities must be created in rural areas for seasonally unemployed people.

The problem of unemployment in the country has persisted since long. While the government has launched several programmes for employment generation, desirable progress has not been achieved. The policy-makers and the citizens should make collective efforts in creating more jobs as well as acquiring the right skill-set for employability.

Unemployment Essay 3 (400 words)

Unemployment in India can be divided into many categories including disguised unemployment, open unemployment, educated unemployment, cyclic unemployment, seasonal unemployment, technological unemployment, underemployment, structural unemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment and casual unemployment. Before leaning about these types of unemployment in detail let us understand as to who exactly is said to be unemployed. It is basically a person who is willing to work and is seeking an employment opportunity, however, is unable to find one. Those who choose to remain unemployed voluntarily or are unable to work due to some physical or mental health issue are not counted as unemployed.

Here is a detailed look at the different types of unemployment:

Disguised Unemployment

When more than the required numbers of people are employed at a place, it is said to be disguised unemployment. Removing these people does not impact the productivity.

Seasonal Unemployment

As the term suggests, this is the type of unemployment that is seen during certain seasons of the year. The industries mostly affected by seasonal unemployment include the agricultural industry, resorts and ice factories, to name a few.

Open Unemployment

This is when a vast number of labourers are unable to seek a job that provides them regular income. The problem occurs as the labour force increases at a much greater rate compared to the economy’s growth rate.

Technological Unemployment

The use of technological equipments has also led to unemployment by reducing the requirement of manual labour.

Structural Unemployment

This kind of unemployment occurs because of a major change in the country’s economic structure. This is said to be a result of technological advancement and economic development.

Cyclic Unemployment

A reduction in the overall level of business activities leads to cyclic unemployment. However, the phenomenon is short-run.

Educated Unemployment

Inability to find a suitable job, lack of employable skill and flawed education system are some of the reasons why the educated lot remains unemployed.

Underemployment

In this kind of unemployment people either take up a job on part time basis or take up work for which they are over-qualified.

Frictional Unemployment

This occurs when the demand of labour force and its supply are not synced appropriately.

Chronic Unemployment

This is long-term unemployment that continues in a country due to the rapid increase in population and low level of economic development.

Casual Unemployment

This may occur because of a sudden fall in demand, short-term contracts or shortage of raw material.

Though the government has launched several programmes to control each type of unemployment, however, the results are far from satisfactory. The government needs to devise more effective strategies for employment generation.

Unemployment Essay 4 (500 words)

Unemployment is a serious problem. There are a number of factors including lack of education, lack of employment opportunities, lack of skill, performance issues and increasing population rate that lead to this issue in India. Unemployment has a number of negative repercussions on the individuals as well as the country as a whole. The government has taken several initiatives to control this problem. Some of these are mentioned here in detail.

Government Initiatives to Reduce Unemployment

  • Training for Self Employment

Launched in 1979, the program was named, National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). It is aimed at reducing unemployment among the youth in the rural areas.

  • Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)

In the year 1978-79, the Indian government launched the Integrated Rural Development Programme to ensure full employment opportunities in rural areas. A sum of Rs. 312 crore was spent on this programme and as many as 182 lakh families benefited from it.

  • Employment in Foreign Countries

The government helps people get employment in overseas companies. Special agencies have been established to hire people for work in other countries.

  • Small and Cottage Industries

In an attempt to reduce the issue of unemployment, the government has also developed small and cottage industries. Several people are making their living with this initiative.

  • The Swaran Jayanti Rozgar Yojana

This program is aimed at providing self-employment as well as wage-employment opportunities to the urban population. It includes two plans:

  • Urban Self-Employment Programme
  • Urban Wage Employment Programme
  • Employment Assurance Scheme

The program was launched in as many in 1994 in as 1752 backward blocks in the country. It provided unskilled manual work for 100 days to the poor unemployed people living in rural areas.

  • Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)

The program was started in 13 states and covered as many as 70 drought-prone districts with an aim to remove seasonal unemployment. In its seventh plan, the government spent Rs. 474 crore.

  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana

The program launched in April 1989 aimed at providing employment to a minimum of one member in each poor rural family for a period of fifty to hundred days a year. The employment opportunity is provided in the person’s vicinity and 30% of these opportunities are reserved for women.

  • Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)

There are a total of three schemes under this program. Under the first scheme, the urban poor are given subsidy to establish micro enterprises. Under the second scheme, wage-employment is arranged for labourers in cities having a population of less than 10 lakh. Under the third scheme, urban poor in the cities are given employment opportunities matching their skills.

  • Employment Guarantee Scheme

Unemployed people are provided economic assistance under this scheme. It has been launched in a number of states including Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, etc.

Apart from this, many other similar programs have been launched to reduce unemployment.

Though the government has been taking several measures to control the problem of unemployment in the country a lot still needs to be worked upon in order to curb this problem in true sense.

Unemployment Essay 5 (600 words)

Unemployment is a grave issue. There are a number of factors that lead to it. Some of these include lack of proper education, lack of good skill set, inability to perform, lack of good employment opportunities and rapidly increasing population. Here is a look at the unemployment statics in the country, the consequences of unemployment and the measures taken by the government to control it.

Unemployment: Statistics in India

The Ministry of Labour and Employment of India keeps the records of unemployment in the country. The measure of unemployment is calculated based on the number of people who had no work for a substantial amount of time during the 365 days preceding the date of collation of data and are still seeking employment.

India saw an average of 7.32 percent unemployment rate from 1983 to 2013 with a highest of 9.40 percent in the year 2009 and a record low of 4.90 percent in 2013. In the year 2015-16, the unemployment rate shot up significantly with 8.7 per cent for women and 4.3 per cent for men.

Consequences of Unemployment

Unemployment leads to serious socio-economic issues. It does not only impact the individuals but the society as a whole. Shared below are some of the major consequences of unemployment:

  • Increase in Poverty

It goes without saying that increase in unemployment rate results in increase in the rate of poverty in the country. Unemployment is largely responsible for hampering the economic growth of the country.

  • Increase in Crime Rate

Unable to find a suitable job, the unemployed lot usually takes the path of crime as this seems to be an easy way of making money. One of the main causes of rapidly increasing cases of theft, robbery and other heinous crimes is unemployment.

  • Exploitation of Labour

Employees usually take advantage of scarcity of jobs in the market by offering low wages. Unable to find a job matching their skill people usually settle for a low-paying job. Employees are also forced to work for more than the set number of hours each day.

  • Political Instability

Lack of employment opportunities results in loss of faith in the government and this often leads to political instability.

  • Mental Health

The dissatisfaction level among unemployed people increases and it can gradually lead to anxiety, depression and other mental health problems.

  • Loss of Skill

Staying out of job for long period of time makes one dull and eventually results in the loss of skill. It also lowers a person’s self confidence to a large extent.

The government of India has taken several initiatives to reduce the problem of unemployment as well as to help the unemployed lot in the country. Some of these include the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Training for Self-Employment, Nehru Rozgar Yojna (NRY), Employment Assurance Scheme, Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program (PMIUPEP) Development of Organized Sector, Employment Exchanges, Employment in Foreign Countries, Small and Cottage Industries, Employment Guarantee Scheme and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana, to name a few.

Besides offering employment opportunities by way of these programs, the government is also sensitizing the importance of education and providing skill training to the unemployed people.

Unemployment is the root cause of various problems in the society. While the government has taken initiatives to reduce this problem, the measures taken are not effective enough. The various factors causing this problem must be studied well to look for effective and integrated solutions for the same. It is time the government should recognize the sensitivity of the matter and take some serious steps to reduce it.

More Information:

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Essay on Unemployment For Students and Children in 1000 Words

Essay on Unemployment For Students and Children in 1000 Words

We have written an essay on unemployment for students and children in 1000 words. It includes meaning, problems in India, reasons, effect, 10 lines, and tips for tackling unemployment.

Lets start this essay on employment.

Table of Contents

Essay on Unemployment (1000 words)

Unemployment has been described as the number of people (as a proportion of the labour force, depending on the nation’s people) who are ready to work at the present wage levels but are currently unemployed. 

Unemployment decreases the economy’s long-term economic potential. Whenever there are more alternative resources available for production but fewer human resources, there is indeed a waste of economic assets and a loss of productivity in products and services, which directly influences government spending.

Higher governmental borrowing needs derive from lower consumption of products and services and lower tax payments. Individuals and households are substantially reducing their expenditure to satisfy financial obligations as a result of unemployment. 

Therefore, factors such as this harmed the entire economy. This also diminishes the production of products and services that the unemployed workforce might have generated.

Even when an economy’s jobless rate is extraordinarily high, it produces far less than its capacity. As a result, everyone in society loses because they buy and value less, and less is made for distribution.

Several economists have conducted scientific studies to address this issue and discover answers. We will cover the causes of unemployment and the problems that the government, as well as individuals, have in addressing this issue.

This paper provides a summary of the societal impacts of unemployment as well as the issues that the situation will face in the future.

Unemployment Problem in India

According to the Council for Measuring Indian Economics, India has had 53 million jobless individuals since about December 2021, with a large number of them being women.

According to the CMIE, 37 million jobless people are proactively seeking work, whereas 17 million are eager to work but are not proactively pursuing it.

The Reasons Behind Unemployment 

The major reasons for being unemployed are as follows:

  • Caste System : In India, the caste system is widely used. In certain locations, certain castes are barred from working. In many circumstances, the task is handed to someone who belongs to a specific community rather than to deserving individuals. As just an outcome, unemployment has risen.
  • Economic Development Is Slow: The Indian economy remains underdeveloped. Thus, economic development is slow. This sluggish growth will not provide adequate job possibilities for the rising population.
  • Increase through Population: Throughout India, the constant growth in the population has been a major issue. It is certainly one of the primary reasons for joblessness. The unemployment rate in the tenth programme remains at 11.1 percent.
  • Agriculture is indeed a seasonal job : Farming in India remains undeveloped. It has a temporary workforce. On the other hand, farming is a seasonal industry that provides employment for several months. As just an outcome, unemployment has risen. 
  • Cottage and small industry decline : Industrialization harms both cottage and small industry production. Many craftspeople lost their jobs when cottage industry production began to decline..
  • Fundamental Reason for Underemployment: Another fundamental reason for underemployment seems to be a lack of available production resources. Leading to a scarcity of energy, coal, and raw supplies, meaning that people are unable to work for the entire year.
  • Defective Management : Another of the leading causes of unemployment is poor planning. Both supplies, as well as demand for employment, are vastly different. Any plan has not devised a long-term strategy for reducing unemployment.

Effects of Unemployment

Unemployment has the following economic consequences in any country:

  • The issue of unemployment leads to the issue of poverty.
  • Since unemployment reduces production as well as people’s purchases of products and services, the government faces an increased borrowing load.
  • Antisocial elements could easily recruit unemployed people. This causes people to lack faith in the country’s political values.
  • People who have been jobless for a longer duration are more likely to engage in unlawful and unethical actions to make money, which increases crime in this country.

Tips for Tackling Unemployment

Changes in educational institutions: The educational system as a whole should be overhauled. Students who are interested in continuing their education should be accepted into colleges as well as universities.

Vocational training should be prioritised. Engineers with the necessary qualifications should establish their own small businesses.

Expansion of Job Exchanges: More job transactions should be established. Jobs must provide people with information about job prospects.

More help for self-employed individuals: In India, the majority of people are self-employed. Individuals work in agriculture, trading, handicrafts, small-scale enterprises, and other fields. These people need money, as well as raw materials and help learning how to do things.

Employment that is both full-time and productive: The primary goal of the nation’s policy is to enhance employment possibilities and labour efficiency. The government should implement a policy that ensures that everyone has a job.

Increased Production: Increasing production in the agricultural and commercial sectors is critical to increasing employment. Smaller and cottage enterprises should be supported to grow.

Large capital creation rate: The nation’s capital formation percentage should be boosted. Capital formation must be supported, especially in activities that create more job prospects. The capital production ratio must be kept as low as possible.

Population regulation: In an attempt to alleviate the issue of unemployment, the overall population increase should be controlled. The family management programme ought to be extensively and efficiently implemented.

10 Lines on Essay on Unemployment

Below are 10 lines on Essay on Unemployment :

  • Unemployment is defined as a scenario where there aren’t enough jobs in a given area, town, or country.
  • Unemployment is becoming a global problem that must be addressed.
  • Due to a variety of factors, skilled and talented individuals are unable to obtain employment.
  • Underemployment is deteriorating owing to India’s growing population.
  • Seasonal unemployment, disguised unemployment, public unemployment, and other kinds of unemployment exist.
  • Poverty , a shortage of competent guidance, and, on occasion, political party influence are indeed the major causes of unemployment.
  • Unemployment can lead to a variety of crimes, including robbery, terrorism, and so on.
  • Indeed, technology has led to a lot of joblessness because machines have taken over jobs that used to be filled by people.
  • Unemployment remains the most significant impediment to societal growth.
  • To create jobs, the government has launched several initiatives, including the Jawahar Rojgar Yojna.

Thus, unemployed people frequently become hooked on narcotics and liquor or commit suicide, resulting in a waste of economic resources for the country. 

Unemployment has an impact on the nation’s economy because the labour that might have been productively employed becomes reliant on the existing working populations, increasing the government’s socio-economic expenditures—for example, a 1% rise in unemployment decreases GDP by 2%.

I hope you liked this informative essay on unemployment.

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essay on unemployment class 6

Essay on Unemployment

Here we have shared the Essay on Unemployment in detail so you can use it in your exam or assignment of 150, 300, 500, or 1000 words.

You can use this Essay on Unemployment in any assignment or project whether you are in school (class 10th or 12th), college, or preparing for answer writing in competitive exams. 

Topics covered in this article.

Essay on Unemployment in 150-250 words

Essay on unemployment in 300-500 words, essay on unemployment in 500-1000 words.

Unemployment is a pressing issue that affects individuals and societies globally. It refers to the state of being without a job or a source of income despite actively seeking employment. Unemployment poses significant challenges, both economic and social, for individuals and communities.

The consequences of unemployment are far-reaching. Financial instability decreased living standards, and a loss of self-esteem and confidence are common outcomes. Individuals may face difficulties in meeting their basic needs, providing for their families, and planning for the future. Moreover, unemployment can lead to social unrest, increased crime rates, and a strain on public resources.

Addressing unemployment requires a multifaceted approach. It involves creating favorable economic conditions, promoting job growth through investment and entrepreneurship, and providing individuals with the necessary skills and training for employment opportunities. Furthermore, social safety nets, such as unemployment benefits and job placement services, play a crucial role in supporting those who are unemployed.

Efforts to reduce unemployment should also focus on addressing structural issues in the labor market, promoting fair employment practices, and encouraging inclusive growth. Additionally, fostering a supportive environment for innovation, research, and development can stimulate job creation and economic prosperity.

In conclusion, unemployment is a complex issue with wide-ranging implications for individuals and societies. It demands comprehensive strategies that encompass economic policies, skill development, and social support systems. By addressing unemployment effectively, we can strive towards a society where individuals have access to fulfilling work opportunities and can contribute to the overall well-being and prosperity of their communities.

Title: Unemployment – The Economic and Social Challenge

Introduction :

Unemployment is a pressing issue that affects individuals, families, and societies worldwide. It refers to the state of being without a job or a viable source of income despite actively seeking employment. High levels of unemployment have significant economic and social consequences, making it a critical challenge to address.

Causes of Unemployment

Unemployment can stem from various factors. Economic downturns and recessions often result in job losses as businesses struggle to sustain their operations. Technological advancements and automation have also led to job displacement, particularly in industries that rely heavily on manual labor. Globalization and outsourcing practices have contributed to the relocation of jobs to countries with lower labor costs, creating unemployment in certain regions.

Impact of Unemployment

Unemployment has far-reaching implications. Financial instability resulting from joblessness can lead to increased poverty rates, limited access to healthcare, and housing insecurity. It also strains social cohesion, as unemployed individuals may experience psychological distress, low self-esteem, and a loss of purpose. Moreover, long-term unemployment can lead to skills deterioration and a loss of work experience, making it increasingly difficult for individuals to re-enter the labor market.

Addressing Unemployment

Addressing unemployment requires a multi-faceted approach:

Economic Policies: Governments should implement policies that promote economic growth, investment, and job creation. This includes fostering a business-friendly environment, reducing bureaucratic barriers, and providing incentives for entrepreneurship and innovation. Additionally, targeted industry development strategies can identify sectors with growth potential and encourage job creation in those areas.

Education and Skills Development: Investing in education and skills development is crucial to equip individuals with the necessary competencies for available job opportunities. Collaboration between educational institutions, employers, and government agencies can help bridge the skills gap and ensure that individuals are prepared for the changing demands of the labor market. Upskilling and reskilling programs can help unemployed individuals acquire new skills and improve their employability.

Job Creation Initiatives: Governments should prioritize job creation initiatives, particularly in sectors with high growth potential. This can be achieved through infrastructure projects, green technology investments, and support for small and medium-sized enterprises. Public-private partnerships can also play a significant role in stimulating job creation and economic development.

Social Safety Nets: Establishing robust social safety nets is crucial to support those facing unemployment. Unemployment benefits, healthcare coverage, and access to retraining programs can help individuals meet their basic needs and regain economic stability while actively seeking employment. Such support systems alleviate the financial burden and provide a safety net during challenging times.

Conclusion :

Unemployment is a complex and persistent socioeconomic challenge that demands comprehensive solutions. By implementing effective economic policies, investing in education and skills development, promoting job creation, and providing social safety nets, societies can mitigate the impacts of unemployment and strive toward a more equitable and prosperous future. It is essential to address this issue with urgency, as reducing unemployment rates not only improves individual well-being but also fosters economic growth and social cohesion.

Title: Unemployment – A Dual Crisis of Economic Stability and Human Dignity

Unemployment is a complex and pervasive issue that affects individuals, families, and societies at large. It refers to the state of being without a job or a viable source of income despite actively seeking employment. High levels of unemployment have severe economic and social consequences, making it a pressing challenge that demands effective solutions and interventions. This essay aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the causes, impacts, and potential remedies for unemployment, recognizing its multifaceted nature and the need for a holistic approach.

I. Understanding Unemployment

Unemployment can be classified into various types based on its causes and duration. Structural unemployment arises from shifts in the economy, such as technological advancements or changes in market demand, rendering certain jobs obsolete. Cyclical unemployment, on the other hand, is caused by economic downturns and fluctuations in business cycles. Frictional unemployment occurs when individuals are between jobs or in transition, while seasonal unemployment is linked to seasonal variations in certain industries.

II. Economic Implications

Unemployment poses significant challenges to the economy at both micro and macro levels. At an individual level, it leads to a loss of income and financial instability, making it difficult for individuals to meet their basic needs, contribute to the economy, and plan for the future. Moreover, the lack of economic opportunities leads to a decrease in consumer spending, which negatively impacts businesses and reduces their profitability. This, in turn, can trigger downsizing, closures, and a negative cycle of job losses, further exacerbating the unemployment crisis.

On a macroeconomic scale, high unemployment rates hinder economic growth and development. The decline in consumer spending decreases demand for goods and services, creating a ripple effect throughout the economy. Governments also face challenges in generating tax revenues, leading to reduced public investment in infrastructure, education, and healthcare. Additionally, increased government spending on unemployment benefits and social support places a strain on public finances, potentially leading to higher budget deficits or cuts in other areas.

III. Social Consequences

Unemployment not only impacts individuals’ economic well-being but also has profound social implications. Financial instability resulting from joblessness can lead to increased poverty levels, housing insecurity, and limited access to healthcare, further exacerbating social inequalities. The psychological toll of unemployment cannot be overlooked, as individuals may experience feelings of anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and a loss of purpose. This can strain relationships, lead to social isolation, and create a sense of hopelessness among the unemployed.

Furthermore, long-term unemployment can result in skills deterioration and a loss of work experience, making it increasingly difficult for individuals to re-enter the labor market. This perpetuates a cycle of unemployment and hinders upward social mobility, reinforcing existing inequalities and social divisions.

IV. Causes of Unemployment

Unemployment is influenced by a combination of economic, structural, and policy-related factors. Economic downturns, such as recessions or financial crises, can lead to widespread job losses as businesses struggle to stay afloat. Technological advancements and automation also contribute to job displacement, particularly in industries that rely heavily on manual labor. Globalization and outsourcing practices can result in the relocation of jobs to countries with lower labor costs, further aggravating unemployment in certain regions.

Inadequate education and skills training also contribute to unemployment. Rapid changes in the labor market demand individuals with up-to-date skills and knowledge. Failure to adapt and provide relevant training can leave individuals ill-equipped to secure employment in sectors with higher demand.

V. Addressing Unemployment

Effectively addressing unemployment requires a comprehensive approach that combines economic policies, education and skills development, job creation initiatives, and social safety nets. Some potential strategies include:

  • Economic Policies
  • Education and Skills Development
  • Job Creation and Support
  • Social Safety Nets

Economic Policies:

Governments should implement policies that foster a conducive business environment, promote investment, and stimulate job creation. This may involve reducing bureaucratic barriers, providing incentives for entrepreneurship and innovation, and investing in infrastructure projects to generate employment opportunities.

Education and Skills Development:

A focus on education and skills training is crucial to equip individuals with the necessary competencies for available job opportunities. Collaboration between educational institutions, employers, and government agencies can help bridge the skills gap and align education with labor market needs. Upskilling and reskilling programs should be promoted to ensure individuals can adapt to evolving job requirements.

Job Creation and Support:

Governments should prioritize job creation initiatives in sectors with growth potential, such as renewable energy, healthcare, technology, and infrastructure development. This can be achieved through investment incentives, public-private partnerships, and targeted industry development strategies. Additionally, providing job placement services, vocational training, and financial assistance to unemployed individuals can enhance their employability and facilitate their transition back into the workforce.

Social Safety Nets:

Establishing robust social safety nets is essential to provide temporary relief and assistance to those facing job loss. Unemployment benefits, healthcare coverage, and support for retraining can help individuals meet their basic needs and regain economic stability while actively seeking employment. Such measures help alleviate the negative impacts of unemployment and support individuals during periods of transition.

Unemployment is a dual crisis of economic stability and human dignity, impacting individuals and societies on multiple levels. The economic and social consequences of unemployment demand comprehensive and coordinated efforts to address its causes and mitigate its impacts. By implementing effective economic policies, investing in education and skills development, promoting job creation, and providing robust social safety nets, societies can strive towards reducing unemployment rates and creating a more inclusive and prosperous future for all.

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Download Essay on Unemployment in PDF from this page. Here we have provided the essay on the problem of unemployment for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 to 12. As everyone in this country should know about the consequences of being unemployed in a country. Also, multiple instances of essay like 100 words, 200 words or 10 lines are provided here to everyone.

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Short and Long Essay on Unemployment

Unemployment is one of the major obstacles in the development of any country. Unemployment is a serious issue in India. Lack of education, lack of employment opportunities and performance problems are some of the factors that lead to unemployment. The Government of India needs to take effective steps to eliminate this problem. One of the main problems facing developing countries is unemployment. It is not only one of the major hindrances in the economic development of the country, but also has many negative effects on the individual and the whole society simultaneously. 

Essay on Unemployment

Essay on Unemployment in 300 words for class 3, 4, 5

Unemployment is a curse for society. This not only has a bad effect on individuals but unemployment also affects the whole society. There are many factors that lead to unemployment. Here these factors were explained in detail and possible solutions have been suggested to control this problem.

Factors that can increase unemployment in India

  • Increase in population

The rapid increase in the country’s population is one of the major causes of unemployment.

  • Manda Economic Development

The slow economic growth of the country results in fewer employment opportunities for people, leading to unemployment.

  • Seasonal business

A large part of the country’s population is involved in agriculture. Being a seasonal business it only provides work opportunities for a certain time of the year.

  • The slow growth of the industrial sector

The growth of the industrial sector in the country is very slow. Thus employment opportunities in this sector are limited.

  • The decline in cottage industry

Production in the cottage industry has fallen drastically and due to this many artisans have become unemployed.

Essay on Unemployment in English (All Class) 1500+ words

Possible solutions to end unemployment

  • Population control

This is the right time when the Indian government takes drastic steps to control the population of the country.

  • Education system

The education system in India focuses on theoretical aspects rather than skill development. The system has to be improved to generate skilled manpower.

  • Industrialization

The government should take steps to promote the industrial sector to create more employment opportunities for people.

  • foreign companies

The government should encourage foreign companies to open their units in the country to create more employment opportunities.

  • Job opportunities

Employment opportunities should be created in rural areas for those who remain unemployed for the rest of the time by working at a certain time.

Essay on Unemployment in English (All Class) 1500+ words

The problem of unemployment in the country has been around for a long time. Although the government has initiated several programs for employment generation, desirable progress has not yet been achieved. Policymakers and citizens should make collective efforts to create more jobs as well as to acquire the right skills for employment. 

Essay on Unemployment 400 words for class 6, 7, 8

Unemployment in India can be divided into several categories including disguised unemployment, open unemployment, educated unemployment, cyclical unemployment, seasonal unemployment, technical unemployment, structural unemployment, long term unemployment, frictionless unemployment and casual unemployment. Before reading about all these types of unemployed in detail, we have to understand what exactly is called unemployment? Basically, unemployed is a person who is ready to work and is looking for an employment opportunity but is unable to find employment. Those who remain unemployed voluntarily or are unable to work due to some physical or mental health problems are not counted as unemployed.

Here’s a detailed look at the different types of unemployment:

Hidden unemployment

When people more than required is hired for a job. This condition is called as the hidden unemployment as removing these people will not affect the work. 

sessional Unemployment

As the name suggests this type of Unemployment is only in a specific season of the year. Usually works related to agriculture, Ice factory, resorts and sports industries are affected by this.

Open Unemployment

This means when labour in large number is not able to get a job which provides them with regular income. This situation arises when physical labour increases more as compared to the economy

Technical Unemployment

This situation arises due to the increasing technical machines and instrument to replace human work.

Structural  Unemployment

This type of unemployment occurs due to a major change in the economic structure of the country. It is the result of technological advancement and economic development.

cyclical unemployment

A decrease in the overall level of business activity leads to cyclical unemployment. However, this incident is only for a short time.

Educated unemployment

Inability to find a suitable job, lack of employable skills and faulty education system are some of the reasons that educated unemployed remain.

Contract unemployment

In this type of unemployment, people either work on a part-time basis or do the kind of work for which they are more qualified.

Preventive unemployment

This occurs when the demand for the labour force and its supply are not properly coordinated.

Long term unemployment

Long term unemployment is one that continues in the country due to rapid growth in population and low level of economic growth.

Sudden unemployment

Such unemployment occurs due to a sudden drop in demand, short term contracts or shortage of raw materials.

Although the government has launched several programs to control all types of unemployment, the results have not yet been satisfactory. The government needs to devise more effective strategies for generating employment. 

Essay on Unemployment in 500 words for class 9, 10

Unemployment is a serious problem. Several factors, including lack of education, lack of employment opportunities, skills shortage, performance issues and growing population contribute to this problem in India. The negative effects of this problem can be seen on the entire society along with the personal effects. The government has taken several steps to control this problem. Some of these are mentioned in detail as follows.

Government initiative to reduce unemployment

  • Self-employment training

The program, started in 1979, was called the National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). It aims to reduce unemployment among youth in rural areas.

  • Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP)

To ensure full employment opportunities in rural areas in the year 1978-79, the Government of India launched the Integrated Rural Development Program. 312 crores were spent on this program and 182 lakh families benefited from it.

  • Employment in foreign countries

The government helps people in getting employment in foreign companies. Special agencies have been set up in other countries to hire people.

  • Small and cottage industries

In an effort to reduce the issue of unemployment, the government has also developed small and cottage industries. Many people are earning their living with this initiative.

  • Golden jubilee employment scheme

The program aims to provide self-employment and wage-employment opportunities to the urban population. It consists of two schemes:

  • Urban self-employment program
  • Urban wage employment program
  • Employment assurance scheme

This program was started in 1994 for 1752 backward classes in the country. Poor unemployed people living in rural areas were provided unskilled manual work for 100 days under this scheme.

  • Drought prone area program (DPAP)

The program was launched in 13 states and covered 70 drought-prone districts with the aim of eliminating seasonal unemployment. The government spent Rs 474 crore in its seventh plan.

  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana

The program, launched in April 1989, was intended to provide at least one member in each poor rural family with the employment of fifty to one hundred days for a year. Employment opportunities are provided in the vicinity of the individual and 30% of these opportunities are reserved for women.

  • Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)

There are a total of three schemes under this program. Under the first scheme, the urban poor is subsidized to set up micro-enterprises. Under the second scheme, wage-employment is arranged for labourers in cities with a population of less than 10 lakh. Under the third scheme, the urban poor in cities is given employment opportunities matching their skills.

  • Employment guarantee scheme

The unemployed people are provided financial assistance under this scheme. It has been started in many states including Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan etc.

Apart from this, several other programs have been launched by the government to reduce unemployment.

Although the government is taking several measures to control the problem of unemployment in the country, a lot still needs to be done to prevent this problem in the true sense.

Essay on Unemployment in 600 words for class 11, 12

Unemployment is a serious issue. There are many factors which are responsible for this. Some of these include lack of proper education, lack of good skills and skills, inability to perform, lack of good employment opportunities and rapidly growing population. A look at unemployment stability, unemployment consequences and measures taken by the government to control it further.

Unemployment related statistics in India

The Ministry of Labor and Employment in India maintains unemployment records in the country. Unemployment figures are calculated based on the number of people who had no work for a substantial period of time during the 365 days prior to the date the figures were matched and are still seeking employment.

From 1983 to 2013, the unemployment rate in India was the highest at 9.40% with an average of 7.32 percent and in 2013 it was a record of 4.90%. In the year 2015-16, the unemployment rate was 8.7% for women and 4.3 percent for men.

Result of unemployment

There are serious socio-economic issues due to unemployment. This affects not only one person but the whole society. Some of the major consequences of unemployment are explained below:

  • Rise in poverty

This statement is absolutely true that the increase in the unemployment rate has increased the poverty rate in the country. Unemployment is mainly responsible for inhibiting the economic development of the country.

  • Crime rate increase

Unemployed unable to find a suitable job usually takes the path of crime as it is an easy way to make money. Unemployment is one of the main causes of the rapidly increasing cases of theft, robbery and other heinous crimes.

  • Exploitation of labour

Employees generally take advantage of the lack of jobs in the market by offering lower wages. People unable to find a job linked to their skills usually settle for a low-paid job. Employees are also forced to work for a specified number of hours each day.

  • political instability

Lack of employment opportunities results in a lack of trust in the government and this situation often leads to political instability.

  • mental health

The level of dissatisfaction increases among unemployed people, which gradually leads to anxiety, depression and other mental health problems.

  • Loss of skill

Staying out of a job for a long period of time leads to dull life and loss of skills. This reduces a person’s confidence to a great extent.

The Government of India has started several programs to reduce the problem of unemployment as well as to help the unemployed in the country. Some of these include Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Drought Prone Areas Program (DPAP), Training for Self-Employment, Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY), Employment Assurance Scheme, Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Alleviation Program (PMIUPEP), employment offices, employment in foreign countries, development of small and cottage industries, employment guarantee scheme and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana etc. Not.

Apart from providing employment opportunities through these programs, the government is also sensing the importance of education and providing skill training to unemployed people.

Unemployment is the root cause of various problems in society. Although the government has taken the initiative to reduce this problem, the measures taken are not effective enough. Due to this problem, various factors need to be studied thoroughly to see effective and integrated solutions. It is time that the government should recognize the sensitivity of the matter and take some serious steps to reduce it.

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Long and Short Speeches on Unemployment

Any individual who is deprived of earning a living and faces difficulty in getting a paid job is known as unemployed and the condition is termed as unemployment. With India being a highly populated country, unemployment has always been a major problem in our country. And this problem has been increasing at a major rate.

Here, we have provided a long speech as well as a short unemployment speech in English for the students of all categories. Students can easily refer to our speech on unemployment for any exam preparation and can also gather information on this topic to prepare their own speech.

There is also a 10 Lines Speech provided by us especially for the students of Class 1 and Class 2.

Long Speech on Unemployment

This long speech on unemployment has been provided as a reference for the students of Class 7 To Class 12 for their exam preparation. 

Warm greetings to everyone! I firstly appreciate everyone who has gathered here to discuss the problem of unemployment. I am thankful enough for providing me with an opportunity to deliver a speech on unemployment.

Unemployment has become a major concern among the people of India today. With the increasing population, the job sectors fail to provide a full-time job to all the people. This, as a result, has increased the rate of unemployment in our country. Thus, unemployment can be defined as the condition where an individual is deprived of a paid job or self-employment and is unable to find a suitable job for employment. 

The fear of unemployment has caused a level of depression and mental stress on the youth today. In spite of getting a degree and having the highest qualifications, they still have to go through the process of unemployment. Many individuals, being the sole bread earner of the family, struggle day and night to earn a living. Unemployment not only refers to being jobless, but it also refers to the state where an individual is being underpaid as per their experience and qualifications. Several individuals are unsatisfied with the jobs they are in and are sticking to their jobs due to unemployment problems. 

Implementation of various government programs to improve the practical skills of the students must be done in every school and college. Although the government of India has introduced several employment schemes to offer jobs to the unemployed, many more steps must be taken to reduce the unemployment rate in our country. People must be made aware of self-employment and proper fundings for these government programs and projects must be implemented by the government.

Lastly, I would like to thank all of you for your patience and for coming here to discuss this issue. 

Short Speech on Unemployment in English

Given below is a short unemployment speech in English for the students of Class 3 to Class 6. 

Greetings everyone! Today I am here to deliver a speech on the topic of unemployment.

With the fast-growing industries and economic system, our country India still lags behind in the field of employment. In spite of having a higher degree and qualification, many people have to suffer through the process of unemployment. The main reason behind this major issue is the growing population and demand for a full-time job. Many citizens of the country are still deprived of paid jobs and are struggling to earn a living. This has also eventually led to mental pressures and depression among the youth. Although there has been an increase in the literacy rate of the people that has also increased the demand for new jobs. 

It is high time that the government should take up initiatives to provide employment to the people. There are several government programs and schemes that have been introduced by the Prime Minister to help the unemployed to get a paid job. New training programs should be introduced in schools and colleges for the better development of the students. People should be made familiar with the self-employment scheme and initiatives must be implemented by the government for funding these programs.

Lastly, I would like to end my speech by saying that unemployment has become a major problem in India today and necessary steps must be taken to reduce the unemployment rate. 

10 Lines Speech on Unemployment

Here is a 2-minute long speech on unemployment for the students of Class 1 and Class 2.

Good morning everyone! Today I am here to deliver a speech on unemployment.

Unemployment is a serious problem faced by many people in our country.

The increasing population and higher demands for jobs give rise to unemployment.

India being a populated country faces a higher unemployment rate due to limited job sectors.

There are several people who do not have a paid job and are surviving unemployment.

Unemployment also counts those individuals who are being underpaid in their jobs and are working outside their area of interest.

Even people having higher degrees and qualifications have to go through the process of unemployment.

This causes a high level of mental pressure and depression to the individuals as they struggle day and night to earn a living.

Due to slow economic growth and small job sectors, this problem has given rise to many unemployed people.

Lastly, I would like to say that unemployment is becoming a major concern of the youth of our country and if not solved in time, it will also bring down the economic rate of our country.

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FAQs on Unemployment Speech

1. How can you include initiatives taken by the government to curb unemployment in your speech?

This problem is taken very seriously by the government, and a number of schemes are being implemented to reduce unemployment. Among these schemes are IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme), DPAP (Drought Prone Area Programme), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Training for self-employment, PMIUPEP (Prime Minister's Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program), employment exchange, Employment Guarantee Scheme, development of organized sector, small and cottage industries, employment in forging countries, and others.

2. What are the reasons for unemployment that I can include in my unemployment speech?

There are numerous reasons for a large section of the population of our country to be facing the problem of unemployment. Some of these reasons are population growth, slow economic growth, seasonal occupations, slow economic growth and a decrease in the cost of living in our country. Additionally, the large population of the country adds to the unemployment problem in India. The country's population demands a huge number of jobs and occupations every year, which the government is unable to supply.

3. What are the types of unemployment?

All of us today are aware of what unemployment is. However, it does not just mean that any person is unemployed. Likewise, unemployment also refers to people working in areas that are outside of their expertise or mastery. Some of the various types of unemployment include disguised unemployment, seasonal unemployment, open unemployment, technological unemployment, and structural unemployment. Other types of unemployment include cyclical unemployment, educated but unemployed, underemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment and casual unemployment. Presently, in India, among the most prevalent types of unemployment are seasonal unemployment, underemployment, and disguised unemployment.

4. What type of unemployment can be found in developed countries?

Mostly in developed countries, cyclical and frictional unemployment exist. The period of cyclical unemployment is the period in which the unemployment rate rises and falls according to cycles of economic ups and downs. It is vital to minimize cyclical unemployment during recessions. In an economy, frictional unemployment arises from voluntary job transitions. Frictional unemployment is a fact of life, even in a growing, stable economy.  The frictional unemployment that occurs when workers leave their current jobs in search of new jobs and when workers enter the workforce for the first time does not include those workers who remain in their current job until they find a new one, since they are never unemployed.

5. How to define different types of unemployment in india?

Open or Structural Unemployment- The phenomenon of open or structural unemployment occurs when a number of people desire to work but are unable to find jobs for themselves. It is a result of a growing population and people migrating to larger cities.

Disguised Unemployment - Under this type of unemployment, people seem employed, yet their productivity is zero and they do not receive any assistance to increase their output.

Seasonal Unemployment - During some seasons in India, farming is not practiced year-round, which results in farmers being jobless for a few months. Seasonal unemployment is also observed in the sugarcane industry, cold drinks industry, and crackers industry.

Home — Essay Samples — Economics — Unemployment — Unemployment: Causes, Effects, and Solutions

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Unemployment: Causes, Effects, and Solutions

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Words: 685 |

Published: Jan 30, 2024

Words: 685 | Pages: 2 | 4 min read

Table of contents

Introduction, causes of unemployment, effects of unemployment, solutions to combat unemployment, a. economic factors.

  • Global recession: During economic downturns, companies may reduce employment to cut costs and remain competitive.
  • Automation and technological advancements: The use of machines and technology may replace human workers in some industries, leading to job losses.
  • Outsourcing of jobs: Companies may choose to outsource jobs to other countries where labor costs are lower, leaving domestic workers unemployed.

B. Societal Factors

  • Lack of education and skills: Individuals without proper education and job training may be ill-equipped to meet the demands of a constantly evolving job market.
  • Discrimination in hiring processes: Certain groups, such as women, minorities, and older workers, may face barriers in securing employment due to discrimination.
  • Dependency on welfare programs: Some individuals may choose to remain on welfare programs due to a lack of incentive to enter the workforce or because they cannot find suitable employment.

A. Economic Effects

  • Reduction in consumer spending: Without a steady income, unemployed individuals may have less money to spend, resulting in a decline in consumer spending.
  • Decline in government revenue: With fewer people working, the government may see a decline in tax revenue, which can impact its ability to provide necessary services and promote economic growth.
  • Increase in social welfare expenses: The government may need to allocate more funds toward social welfare programs, such as unemployment benefits and food assistance, to support those who are unemployed.

B. Social Effects

  • Increase in crime rates: Individuals who are unemployed may resort to criminal activities to make ends meet, leading to a rise in crime rates.
  • Mental health issues: Unemployment can cause stress, anxiety, and depression, which can negatively impact an individual's mental health.
  • Strained relationships and family instability: Unemployment may cause financial strain and tension within families, leading to relationship problems and instability.

A. Economic Solutions

  • Encouraging entrepreneurship and small business development: Providing resources and support for individuals to start their own businesses can lead to job creation and economic growth.
  • Promoting vocational training and skill development programs: Ensuring that individuals have access to education and training programs can increase their job readiness and competitiveness in the job market.
  • Implementing balanced trade policies: Creating policies that promote fair trade and reduce job outsourcing can protect domestic jobs and promote job growth.

B. Social Solutions

  • Addressing educational disparities and providing access to quality education: Providing quality education to disadvantaged communities can improve their job readiness and reduce unemployment rates.
  • Combating discrimination in the workplace: Enforcing anti-discrimination laws and promoting diversity and inclusion in the workplace can reduce barriers to employment for certain groups.
  • Strengthening social safety net programs: Ensuring that social welfare programs are designed to incentivize work and provide support to those in need can promote economic stability and reduce poverty.
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2021, October 8). Employment Situation Summary. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm

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Unemployment In India

The unemployment rate in India, amidst lockdown and restrictions on mobility, is 12.81% as of June 8th 2021 based on the data provided by the CMIE. Earlier, the unemployment rate in India shot up from 6.5 per cent in March 2021 to 8 per cent in April 2021, to 14.7% by May end, while the employment rate fell from 37.6 per cent in March to 36.8 per cent in April,  says the report of CMIE – Centre For Monitoring Indian Economy.

In 2020, the unemployment rate in India fell to 7% in September 2020 from the record high of 29% since the country went into lockdown from March 2020,  However, it later increased to 9.1% in December 2020.

The unemployment rate again declined to 6.5 per cent in January 2021 from 9.1 per cent in December 2020, while the employment rate surged to 37.9 per cent as compared to 36.9 per cent.

The lockdown to contain the coronavirus outbreak has forced many industries to shut down thus increasing unemployment across the country.

The unemployment in India stood at 6.1% in the financial year 2018 mentions the NSSO – National Sample Survey Organisation Report 2019. Candidates can check the detailed information on NSSO on the given link.

The topic of unemployment, the data related to unemployment in India and initiatives by the government to alleviate unemployment are important for aspirants preparing for competitive exams. It holds relevance in the general awareness section of various government exams like SSC exams, Bank exams, RRB exams, etc. 

Candidates can check the following links for General Awareness preparation:

  • SSC General Awareness
  • Bank General Awareness  

For candidates preparing for UPSC, unemployment in India can be asked in GS I or as an essay question. Therefore, this article will discuss detailed information on unemployment in India, types of unemployment, causes and government initiatives to control unemployment in India.

Candidates appearing for UPSC 2023 can go through the following links:

Daily News

What is Unemployment?

Unemployment is a situation when a person actively searches for a job and is unable to find work. Unemployment indicates the health of the economy. 

The unemployment rate is the most frequent measure of unemployment. The unemployment rate is the number of people unemployed divided by the working population or people working under labour force.

Unemployment rate = (Unemployed Workers / Total labour force) × 100

National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) defines employment and unemployment on the following activity statuses of an individual. NSSO, an organization under MoSPI – Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation measures India’s unemployment on three approaches:

  • Daily Status Approach : unemployment status of a person under this approach is measured for each day in a reference week. A person having no gainful work even for one hour in a day is described as unemployed for that day.
  • Weekly Status Approach: This approach highlights the record of those persons who did not have gainful work or were unemployed even for an hour on any day of the week preceding the date of the survey.
  • Usual Status Approach : This gives the estimates of those persons who were unemployed or had no gainful work for a major time during the 365 days.

Types of Unemployment in India

In India, there are seven types of unemployment. The types of unemployment are discussed below:

  • Disguised Unemployment : This is a type of unemployment where people employed are more than actually needed. Disguised unemployment is generally traced in unorganised sectors or the agricultural sectors.
  • Structural Unemployment: This unemployment arises when there is a mismatch between the worker’s skills and availability of jobs in the market. Many people in India do not get job matching to their skills or due to lack of required skills they do not get jobs and because of poor education level, it becomes important to provide them related training. 
  • Seasonal Unemployment: That situation of unemployment when people do not have work during certain seasons of the year such as labourers in India rarely have occupation throughout the year.
  • Vulnerable Unemployment: People are deemed unemployed under this unemployment. People are employed but informally i.e. without proper job contracts and thus records of their work are never maintained. It is one of the main types of unemployment in India.
  • Technological Unemployment : the situation when people lose their jobs due to advancement in technologies. In 2016, the data of the World Bank predicted that the proportion of jobs threatened by automation in India is 69% year-on-year.
  • Cyclical Unemployment : unemployment caused due to the business cycle, where the number of unemployed heads rises during recessions and declines with the growth of the economy. Cyclical unemployment figures in India are negligible. 
  • Frictional Unemployment : this is a situation when people are unemployed for a short span of time while searching for a new job or switching between jobs. Frictional Unemployment also called Search Unemployment, is the time lag between the jobs. Frictional unemployment is considered as voluntary unemployment because the reason for unemployment is not a shortage of jobs, but in fact, the workers themselves quit their jobs in search of better opportunities.

Aspirants preparing for UPSC Civil services exams or any government exams can check the relevant links given below to prepare more comprehensively –

Causes of Unemployment

The major causes of unemployment in India are as mentioned below:

  • Large population.
  • Lack of vocational skills or low educational levels of the working population.
  • Labour-intensive sectors suffering from the slowdown in private investment particularly after demonetisation
  • The low productivity in the agriculture sector plus the lack of alternative opportunities for agricultural workers that makes transition among the three sectors difficult.
  • Legal complexities, Inadequate state support, low infrastructural, financial and market linkages to small businesses making such enterprises unviable with cost and compliance overruns.
  • Inadequate growth of infrastructure and low investments in the manufacturing sector, hence restricting the employment potential of the secondary sector.
  • The huge workforce of the country is associated with the informal sector because of a lack of required education or skills, and this data is not captured in employment statistics.
  • The main cause of structural unemployment is the education provided in schools and colleges are not as per the current requirements of the industries. 
  • Regressive social norms that deter women from taking/continuing employment.

Impact Of Unemployment

The unemployment in any nation have the following effects on the economy:

  • The problem of unemployment gives rise to the problem of poverty.
  • The government suffers extra borrowing burden because unemployment causes a decrease in the production and less consumption of goods and services by the people.
  • Unemployed persons can easily be enticed by antisocial elements. This makes them lose faith in the democratic values of the country.
  • People unemployed for a long time may indulge in illegal and wrong activities for earning money which increases crime in the country.
  • Unemployment affects the economy of the country as the workforce that could have been gainfully employed to generate resources actually gets dependent on the remaining working population, thus escalating socio-economic costs for the state. For instance, a 1 % increase in unemployment reduces the GDP by 2 %.
  • It is often seen that unemployed people end up getting addicted to drugs and alcohol or attempts suicide, leading to losses to the human resources of the country.

Candidates can check more relevant topics for competitive exams:

Government Initiative To Control Unemployment

Several policies have been initiated by the government to reduce the unemployment problem in the economy. The policies to reduce unemployment are highlighted below:

  • In 1979 the government launched TRYSEM – Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment The objective of this scheme was to help unemployed youth of rural areas aged between 18 and 35 years to acquire skills for self-employment. The priority under this scheme was given to women and youth belonging to SC/ST category.
  • The Government launched the IRDP – Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) in the year 1980 to create full employment opportunities in rural areas.
  • A new initiative was tried namely RSETI/RUDSETI in 1982 jointly by Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara Educational Trust, Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank. The aim of RUDSETI, the acronym of Rural Development And Self Employment Training Institute was to mitigate the unemployment problem among the youth. Rural Self Employment Training Institutes/ RSETIs are now managed by Banks with active cooperation from the state and central Government.
  • The Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) was started in April 1989 by merging the two existing wage employment programme i.e. RLEGP – Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme and NREP – National Rural Employment Programme on an 80:20 cost-sharing basis between the state and centre.
  • MNREGA – Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act launched in 2005 providing the right to work to people. An employment scheme of MGNREGA aimed to provide social security by guaranteeing a minimum of 100 days paid work per year to all the families whose adult members opt for unskilled labour-intensive work. For details on MNREGA check the link provided. 
  • PMKVY – Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana was launched in 2015. The objective of PMKVY was to enable the youth of the country to take up industry-relevant skill training in order to acquire a secured better livelihood. For further details on Pradhan Mantri Kushal Vikas Yojana check the given link. 
  • The government launched the Start-Up India Scheme in 2016. The aim of Startup India programmes was to develop an ecosystem that nurtures and promotes entrepreneurship across the nation. Check detailed information on Startup India Scheme in the given link. 
  • Stand Up India Scheme also launched in 2016 aimed to facilitate bank loans to women and SC/ST borrowers between Rs 10 lakh and Rs. 1 crore for setting up a greenfield enterprise. Details on Stand-Up India is given in the linked page.
  • National Skill Development Mission was set up in November 2014 to drive the ‘Skill India’ agenda in a ‘Mission Mode’ in order to converge the existing skill training initiatives and combine scale and quality of skilling efforts, with speed. Check the National Skill Development Mission in detail. 

Like the above-mentioned schemes, there are various other schemes launched by the Government of India in order to address the social and economic welfare of the citizens and the nation.  The links of related schemes launched by the government are given below.

Candidates appearing for any competitive exams must keep up to date with information on PRASAD schemes. Aspirants can check in detail various Government Schemes which will be helpful for UPSC aspirants and for other competitive exams.

Unemployment in India – Important Questions

Q1.  Unemployment that occurs during the normal workings of an economy as people change jobs and move across the country is called _____.

  • structural unemployment.
  • natural unemployment
  • frictional unemployment
  • cyclical unemployment

Answer (3) Frictional unemployment

Q2.  The natural rate of unemployment is generally thought of as the

  • the sum of frictional unemployment and structural unemployment
  • the ratio of the frictional unemployment rate to the cyclical unemployment rate
  • the sum of frictional unemployment and cyclical unemployment
  • the sum of structural unemployment and cyclical unemployment

Answer (1) the sum of frictional unemployment and structural unemployment

Q3. A sales manager of an equipment manufacturing company loses his job because the company relocated the unit to another country is an example of ____ unemployment.

  • Seasonal unemployment
  • Frictional unemployment
  • Cyclical unemployment
  • Structural unemployment

Answer (4) Structural unemployment

Q4. When the rate of unemployment increases because of recession or depression. It is which type of unemployment?

  • Cyclical Unemployment
  • Frictional Unemployment

Answer (3) Cyclical Unemployment

Q5. Discouraged workers are not considered as a part of the labour force, so classifying them as unemployed would

  • have an indeterminate impact on the unemployment rate
  • not change the unemployment rate
  • increase the unemployment rate
  • decrease the unemployment rate

Answer (3) increase the unemployment rate

Candidates can check Previous Year Question Papers with solutions PDF to understand the type of questions asked in examinations related to such topics.

Check the links given below for competitive exam preparation:

Candidates can also check the relevant links:

Government Exam 2023

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Essays About Unemployment: Top 6 Examples and 5 Prompts

Read our guide to see helpful essay examples and prompts to further your understanding and write essays about unemployment.

Unemployment is an unfortunate circumstance many find themselves in; it is a challenge that civilized society faces today. When people are unemployed, they look for jobs but cannot get them. As a result, they are left without a source of income and cannot adequately provide for themselves and their families. This, in turn, can lead to various issues, including depression.

Unemployment is a social, economic, and political issue. It leaves many people in poverty and prevents people from obtaining a source of income. As a result, politicians capture the eyes of voters by promising to lower the unemployment rate to get elected. 

You can get started by reading these essay examples if you are writing essays about unemployment.

6 Examples of Essays About Unemployment

1. unemployment reflection by christopher haynes, 2. what i learned from nearly a year of unemployment by becca slaughter, 3. why aren’t europe and canada in the same boat as u.s. for unemployment by glen hendrix, 4. a global dilemma: how unemployment creates poverty by tess hinteregger, 5. why has covid-19 been especially harmful for working women by nicole bateman and martha ross, 6. youth day and ordeal of nigerian youth by utomi jerome-mario, essay prompts about unemployment, 1. unemployment during the covid-19 pandemic, 2. the connection between unemployment and crime, 3. unemployment: whose fault is it, 4. the causes of unemployment, 5. the effects of unemployment.

“In order to secure work, we must be prepared to change or upgrade our skills and be willing to relocate if necessary. But some people are not interested in retraining to find work in another field, some people do not have the confidence to go out and look for work, and some refuse to accept a job they feel is below their level. Unless people like this change their attitudes, they will not be able to find work.”

Haynes provides two perspectives on unemployment; first, that the government should do more to address it, and second, that if people want work, they must adjust to make a living. He believes that many are unemployed because they are unwilling to change their skillset or relocate to get a job. Therefore, more should be done to reduce unemployment, but it goes both ways; everyone must put in the effort.  

“I remember feeling embarrassed and powerless. I was angry it wasn’t my decision. I was happy I didn’t have to go back there, yet I was stressed about not having anywhere to go. Ultimately, I felt an overwhelming sadness that left me terrified. While I was overflowing with confusing and contradicting emotions, I somehow felt empty.”

In her essay, Slaughter reflects on her unemployed time and how it changed her. Her previous job was long and stressful, but whenever someone would ask her what she did for a living, she was embarrassed and regretful for not being there anymore. In addition to losing her job, she feels like she lost a part of herself at that time. Thankfully, she got a new job, one less taxing than her previous one. 

“You would think paying all that money year after year to a government whose purpose is to “establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity” would entitle that person to a modicum of “blessings” to insure his “tranquility” and “general welfare” in case of some stupid virus pandemic. It would certainly be the “just” thing to do. And that person’s “posterity” might look a bit less bleak. European governments and Canada did just that. And it’s not even explicitly stated in the preamble to their constitution.”

Hendrix criticizes the United States’ response to the unemployment problem caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, saying that Canada and European nations have done a much better job. He discusses how much better their unemployment benefit system is compared to the U.S. and how it is ironic that the United States, whose constitution says all of these things promoting justice and wellbeing, cannot provide that for its citizens during a global pandemic. 

“While unemployment can create poverty, poverty also reduces the chance of being employed. To ensure that those who are affected by unemployment do not fall into the negative cycle, researchers believe that governments should focus on improving quality education and training all young people so they remain in school.”

Hinteregger, in her essay, explains the link between unemployment and poverty, writing that it leads to the loss of income. People will also have to raise their families in poverty, which perpetuates the cycle of poverty. In addition, the poor may resort to violence to make a living. She points out the sheer irony of this issue, as unemployment causes poverty while poverty may also reduce the chance of being employed. 

“COVID-19 is hard on women because the U.S. economy is hard on women, and this virus excels at taking existing tensions and ratcheting them up. Millions of women were already supporting themselves and their families on meager wages before coronavirus-mitigation lockdowns sent unemployment rates skyrocketing and millions of jobs disappeared. And working mothers were already shouldering the majority of family caregiving responsibilities in the face of a childcare system that is wholly inadequate for a society in which most parents work outside the home.”

Bateman and Ross write about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on women. Many women are forced to go through so much to provide for their families; however, the lockdowns led to many of them losing their jobs. The unemployment rate for women rose dramatically, by 12 percent, from February to April of 2020. It has been difficult for them to balance work with taking care of their families, women’s primary role as dictated by society. 

“Youth unemployment is potentially dangerous as it sends a signal to all segments of the Nigerian Society. Here in Nigeria, the rate of youth unemployment is high, even at the period of economic normalcy i.e. the oil boom of the 1970s (6.2 per cent); 1980s (9.8 per cent) and the 1990s (11.5 per cent). Youth unemployment therefore is not a recent phenomenon. But if what happened in the 1980s/90s were a challenge of sorts, what is happening presently, going by the latest report by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), is a challenge.”

Jerome-Mario’s essay focuses on several issues affecting the Nigerian youth, including unemployment. The country has a high unemployment rate; over a fourth of the youth population is unemployed. He stresses the importance of the youth using their voice to make a change and to persuade the government to care for its citizens more. 

How COVID-19 contributed to the nursing shortage?

The pandemic and its lockdown policies have undoubtedly caused many people to lose jobs. Look into the impact of COVID-19 on the unemployment rate, particularly during the early months of the pandemic. Which sectors were most affected? Pull data and statistics to show how the public was affected by the covid-19 pandemic in terms of unemployment.

Many say that unemployment leads to higher crime rates. Do you believe this is true? Research how unemployment is linked to crime; examine the effects of unemployment on mental health; and conclude whether this may contribute to the increased likelihood of committing a crime. 

In Haynes’ essay, he claims that employers/the government, and workers are to blame for unemployment. After reading his essay and both arguments, who do you believe is at fault? Explain your response in detail, and make sure to provide a solid base of evidence.

Unemployment has many contributing causes. Assuming a non-pandemic setting, research what causes unemployment and list them down in your essay. Elaborate on each one and, if you can draw connections, explain them as well. 

As a grave issue, unemployment has many severe effects, notably poverty. For your essay, write about the effects of unemployment on a person, both physical and mental. How are they connected? What secondary effects might they produce? For a compelling and argumentative essay, answer these questions using research material and interview data.

For help with this topic, read our guide explaining what is persuasive writing ?If you are interested in learning more, check out our essay writing tips !

essay on unemployment class 6

Martin is an avid writer specializing in editing and proofreading. He also enjoys literary analysis and writing about food and travel.

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Unemployment Essay

Introduction.

Unemployment can be defined as the condition where citizens of a country are jobless and have in the recent past been involved in searching work without a success. Unemployment rate can be defined as the prevalence of unemployment opportunities in a country. The unemployment index is calculated by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by the number of individuals in the labour force (Arestis & John 15).

I have chosen the unemployment situation because of the increasing and prevalent unemployment rates in various countries.

Recent statistics indicate that, the rate of unemployment is on the increase and there is a lot of information to cover the complex area of unemployment. There are various reasons which cause unemployment in a country. The following are some of the reasons that cause unemployment rate in a country (Arestis & John 20).

  • Advances in new technologies. New technologies to a large extent replace the human labour force which renders most human beings as unemployed.
  • Population increase. The level of unemployment is believed to go up as population in a country increases. Increase in population leads to an increased pressure on the available resources. These limited resources are few and cannot accommodate the increasing demands of the population
  • National policies. Some countries have stringent national policies that favour the increase in the unemployment levels in a country. These national policies will always restrict the participation of certain gender groups in specific employment sectors. For example, some countries restricts the participation of women in many employment sectors especially the building, and construction sector.
  • Political environments also play a major role towards increasing the rate of unemployment. Political environments that increase the rate of unemployment are quite dominant especially in the developing countries. Such environments will enhance political vices such as nepotism and corruption which undermines the possibility of having fair distribution of employment opportunities to citizens.
  • Economic depression. Economic depression is a form of economic recession that is long-term which is characterized by a downturn in the various economic activities in a country.

In analyzing this complex situation of unemployment, it is of vital importance to consider the application of various system analyzing tools such as “tools, methods, methodology and many techniques”. This will make the analysis of the complex situation being analyzed to be understood easily.

In my research I will analyze the complex process of unemployment with the aim of creating a sustainable environment in the employment sector.

The research will encompass the various causes of unemployment rates, the challenges being encountered in the process of reducing unemployment rates. The research will critically analyze the various types of unemployment and, the mechanisms which can be adopted in order to reduce the prevalent rates of unemployment.

Unemployment is a complex problem facing many countries presently. The process of reducing unemployment rates can be a daunting process fraught with disappointments. As a summary of the major findings of the research, the major cause of unemployment is lack of information among citizens, and poor governance policies in a country (Arestis & John 30).

Various citizens are ignorant on how to effectively utilize the available natural and human resources to create employment. They lack a sense of creativity which could possibly create employment opportunities. Also, most citizens are ignorant on how to effectively participate in democratic governance process.

This ignorance eventually creates autocratic governance regimes which fosters nepotism and corruption. These political vices reduce the availability of employment opportunities in a country, leading to unemployment (Arestis & John 15).

One key requirement of a good system practitioner is the ability of the system practitioner to apply the various models, methods and theories of system practitioner into the real life.

My undertaking of this project will assist me to apply the various system practitioner concepts learnt in class to the real life complex scenario of unemployment (Jacques & Stephen, 1994, pg. 21). In analyzing the complexity associated with unemployment, I will consider the various theories of complex management which I will discuss along with the development of this paper.

Applying hard systems method

Before analyzing the complex process of unemployment, it is important to make a distinction between hard and soft systems. Hard systems can be defined as those problems that deal with the “how” questions. For example, the question of how to increase the rate of employment is an example of a hard problem.

A hard problem is always characterized by the fact that there is a distinct solution, and there are a number of defined goals that are well defined which should be accomplished. On the other hand, a soft system is a problem that encompasses both the “how” and “what” questions (Jacques & Stephen, 1994, pg. 27)

The complex process of unemployment could be well analyzed using the hard system method of approach. The hard system method tries to analyze a complex problem through many stages which will be discussed in this paper.

There are various advantages that are associated with the use of the hard system methodology of concept analysis. The following are some of the advantages of using the hard system method (Jacques & Stephen, 1994, pg. 35)

  • It provides a deeper understanding and analysis of the problem of unemployment and answers the question of how to mitigate the unemployment problem.
  • Hard system analysis provides answers to other complex problems related to unemployment like how to use technology to increase the rate of employment.

The following diagram indicates the application of hard system in the analysis of unemployment.

the application of hard system in the analysis of unemployment

The above diagram indicates the various processes that will be undertaken in the analysis of the unemployment problem.

Stage 1. System description

System description will always indicate the current position and status of the problem being analyzed. Currently we are experiencing a high rate of unemployment which is characterized by the increasing population rate. The world population is estimated at 7 billion people.

The available limited employment resources are not sufficient to carter for the demands of the 7 billion individuals. This eventually piles up pressure on the resources that could be used to create employment opportunities, hence leading to an increased level of unemployment (Steger, Maznevski & Wolfgang 39).

The following table illustrates the world population by continent by 2011.

Population by continent

The alarming increase in the level of unemployment creates a need for analyzing the complex concept of unemployment with the aim of unmasking the strategies to be adopted in order to reduce unemployment rates (Arestis & John 55).

The following table indicates the world top ten countries by unemployment rate

The above data directly underpins the fact that unemployment is a complex prevalent issue. If much is not done to contain the issue, then, the issue will become out of control and cause adverse effects to the limited human, and natural resources available (Arestis & John 60).

Stage 2. Identification of constraints and objectives

The main objective of this sturdy is to identify the various causes of unemployment and any relevant measure that can be adopted to mitigate the problem of unemployment. Also, the sturdy is aimed at identifying the reasons as to why there is a huge gap between the unemployment rates in developed countries and the developing countries (Steger, Maznevski & Wolfgang 40).

The major projected constrain is the political environments and government policies and ideologies governing the utilization of resources, and the creation of employment opportunities.

Stage 3. Generation of routes to objectives

  • Governments and relevant stakeholders should ensure that, there is gender equity and equality in the allocation of employment opportunities.
  • Governments should adopt various strategies that will involve the citizens in the creation of employment opportunity for self-sustainability. A self-sustenance economy should be adopted which can be achieved through promotion of innovation and creativity.
  • Removal of political and governance ideologies that promote nepotism, and corruption.
  • Creation of public awareness and increased public participation in the governance process.

Stage 4. Formulating measures for performance

Measures of performance will measure to what extent has the research objectives been met. In order to measure the performance, the unemployment index will be recorded for the next five years after the activities stipulated in the routes to objectives have been undertaken.

The unemployment index obtained will then be compared to unemployment index done before undertaking this research. The comparison will give vital information as to whether there is been an improvement in the unemployment index after the adoption of the routes to objectives (Zimmer & Jake 44).

Stage 5. Modeling

The modeling process will involve those activities that are geared towards determining the outcomes of the research (Zimmer & Jake 51). In order to identify the outcomes, a survey will be carried out after every year for the next five years to find out the rate of unemployment.

This will be calculated by dividing the number of employed individuals by the number of unemployed individuals. The index obtained will then be compared in order to determine whether there is an improvement or a decline in the unemployment rate (Arestis & John 31).

Stage 6. Evaluation

The evaluation stage is the most important stage in the analysis of the complex issue. Evaluation will involve the analysis of the outcomes obtained from the modelling stage. The evaluation will involve the analysis of the disparities that will be recorded in the research.

This will involve the sturdy of what factors are causing the disparity and how to re-align and reconfigure the process routes in order to achieve the research objectives. Evaluation process might also include the prototyping technique where the routes are tested, and retested in order to determine their viability before being fully implemented (Zimmer & Jake 71).

Stage 7. Selecting the best routes to objectives

After the evaluation process, the best route towards achieving the objectives should be selected. The route chosen should ensure that the research objectives have been met to a large extent. In the analysis of unemployment, the best route that was identified was the creation of awareness and involving the individuals in the governance process (Steger, Maznevski & Wolfgang 59).

This route will increase the level of democracy in a country hence creating equal employment opportunities for both women and men. Also, creating public awareness will ensure that citizens are well equipped with knowledge of how to effective utilize resources and create employment opportunities.

Also, public participation in the governance process will ensure that the governance policies adopted foster democracy which is a key ingredient towards reducing the rate of unemployment (Arestis & John 75).

Stage 8. Implementation of the selected routes

The implementation process will involve the process of adopting and enrolling the best selected route. In the case of unemployment, the selected route of creating awareness and increasing public participation in the governance process will be adopted.

Creating awareness will involve conducting of seminars to enlighten the public on how to effectively use the available resources, and how to create employment opportunities through innovation (Steger, Maznevski & Wolfgang 69).

Public participation in the process of policy formulation will be achieved through promotion of civic education among citizens on how to carefully vote and chose leaders with integrity.

Also, the civic education will be aimed at increasing public participation in government related projects, and governance processes starting from the grassroots government structures. Also, the civic education will aim at educating citizens on how they can get access to public funds and amenities.

Stakeholders involved

Stakeholders can be described as those people who are in one way or the other affected by the problem of unemployment. Also, stakeholders in one way or the other affect the entire problem of unemployment. Stakeholders can negatively or positively be affected by the unemployment concept.

On the other hand, stakeholders can positively or negatively influence the prevalence of unemployment concept (Jacques & Stephen, 1994, pg. 75)

The following tables indicates a summary of the how stakeholders are affected/affect the unemployment concept

Ethicality statement

As a system practitioner I fully commit myself to the various ethical guidelines that should be followed whenever undertaking any research work. I will consider the following ethical consideration I my research undertaking:

  • The data collected will be solely used for the purpose of the research, and no client data will be used for any other purposes not stipulated in the research.
  • The clients will be fully informed on the purpose of the research, and the duration the research is going to take.
  • The participation of subjects in the research will be voluntary, and out of consent. Where approval is required, then, the relevant approving bodies will be sought.

Conclusion and recommendations

In conclusion, it is evident from the research that unemployment is a complex issue that can be solved abstractly. With the increasing levels of unemployment, much has to be done in order to mitigate and reduce the rate of unemployment. This calls for public awareness, and participation in the entire process of creating employment. Such a complex issue should not be entrusted in the hands of greedy and selfish leaders.

Project log

The entire project will be spread over a period of six weeks with the first two weeks dealing with the preparation process and the last four weeks dealing with the data collection and analysis. The five weeks have been broken into three phases.

The following table indicates the project log phases.

Week 1 and week 2

During the first two weeks, I was involved in the process of consulting my colleagues and tutor to try and sought out their opinion about the topic. This gave a chance to discuss the various available methodologies that could be used in the sturdy. Also, this gave a chance to identify whether unemployment is a complex process or not.

Also, during the first week, I was able to undertake a literature review in order to determine what other researchers have done about the unemployment concept. The literature review sufficed me with relevant information about the unemployment concept.

Also, the information obtained was useful in avoiding mistakes done by previous researchers. The literature review involved researching the relevant literature materials like the internet, books, journals, and articles. I also obtained a chance of visiting various libraries in order to find out more information about the unemployment concept.

Week 3, 4 and 5

Most of the research work was conducted during the third, fourth and the fifth week. Various data was collected about the unemployment rate of individuals. Also, clients were required to fill in a survey form and a questionnaire in order to determine the causes of unemployment. Also, the subjects were required to give their individual opinions about what could be done in order to reduce the rate of unemployment.

Various data collections methods were employed in the process of data collection which includes the following methods; survey forms, questionnaires, and interviews.

Subjects were required to fill in questionnaires which sought to find out what were the causes of unemployment and what could be done to reduce the unemployment rates. Subjects were also required to fill in a survey form to determine whether the government is doing much to contain the problem of unemployment.

A series of interviews were also conducted with the aim of finding more first-hand information about the problem of unemployment. A total of three interviews were conducted during the entire period of the project. The following are the interviews that were conducted during the time of research.

The sixth week of the research was purely dedicated to data analysis and the sturdy of the findings. The data collected was analyzed and compared to previous data that was collected by other researchers on the same subject. The data analysis stage involved the application of the hard system on the complex process of unemployment. Various stages of the hard system methodology were studied in respect to unemployment.

Also, the compilation of the results obtained was done on the sixth week. This was the last week of the project undertaking, and due consultation was made to ensure that the project is up to date and with the relevant requirements.

I also, spent some time with my project supervisor in order to discuss the application of TMA in the complex process of unemployment. My supervisor advice helped a lot in the development of the project in the sense that, the information I was given largely assisted in the ensuring the realization of the research objectives.

Summary of the project log

In this section of the report, I will cover a brief summary of what I have been able to undertake during my six weeks of undertaking the project.

Undertaking the T306 course has largely helped build more on the concept that I learnt in my previous course, T205-An approach to system thinking. Managing complexity has equipped me with knowledge of how to apply various managing complexity theories, systems, and methodology in analyzing complex situations.

During the first five weeks of my project undertaking, I was extensively involved in the process of data collection and literature review. This introduced me to a number of literature and concept regarding the problem of unemployment. It also introduced me to a wide range of knowledge regarding data collection methods like interviews, questionnaires, and surveys.

The last week of the project was dedicated to data analysis. During this period of data analysis, various data analysis techniques were employed to analyze the data. This introduced me to a wide range of scientific data analysis methods of analyzing data.

Client report

The major client in the above research is the unemployed citizen or individual. They are the ones who are largely affected by the rising unemployment rate. Most of the unemployed individuals or citizens have the common ideology that it is the responsibility of government and private sectors to create employment.

Such an ideology is wrong because the process of creating employment opportunities is neither a government responsibility nor the responsibility of the private sector. It is a collective responsibility that has to be done by the collaboration of the citizens, the private sector, and the government.

There are various forms of employment that currently exists. One can be self employed which means that, they are their own employers. This form of employment fosters renovation and a spirit of entrepreneurship among citizens. This spirit eventually promotes innovation and creativity which eventually creates employment opportunities.

Also, citizens should be made to understand that, democracy plays a major role towards creation of employment opportunities. Democracy ensures accountability and transparency towards the use of resources, hence creating avenues for more employment opportunities. On the other hand, corruption, nepotism, and violence lead to misuse of resources which eventually blocks avenues for creating employment opportunities.

In order to reduce the adverse effects associated with unemployment, citizens should engage in innovation and creative activities. This will enhance the proper utilization of resources and eventually creating employment opportunities. One major desirable aspect of a good economy is the ability to be self sustainable.

A self sustainable economy will ensure that citizens have the services and products they require. One way of ensuring a self sustaining economy is by having citizens engage in innovative and creative activities. Such activities will lead to specialization, and creation of more job, and employment opportunities.

Works Cited

Arestis, Philip & McCombie, John. Unemployment: Past and Present . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.

Jaques, Elliott, and Stephen, Clement. Executive Leadership: A Practical Guide to Managing Complexity . Malden, Mass: Blackwell, 1994. Print.

Steger, Ulrich & Maznevski, Martha & Wolfgang, Amann. Managing Complexity in Global Organizations . Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.

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IvyPanda. (2024, February 27). Unemployment. https://ivypanda.com/essays/unemployment-essay/

"Unemployment." IvyPanda , 27 Feb. 2024, ivypanda.com/essays/unemployment-essay/.

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Bibliography

IvyPanda . "Unemployment." February 27, 2024. https://ivypanda.com/essays/unemployment-essay/.

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Best Essay On Unemployment with Outline for Students

Unemployment in pakistan essay with outline for the students of b.a, bsc, bcom and bcs.

In this post, you will find an Essay on Unemployment with Outline for the students of B.A, BSC, Bcom and BCS. Here are 3 different examples of this essay with different difficulty levels. You can write the same essay under the title, Essay on Unemployment, Essay on Unemployment in Pakistan, Unemployment essay in Pakistan, unemployment in Pakistan essay. The 1st essay is an outstanding essay with 477 words.

Outline of Unemployment Essays

  • Unemployment is the mother of countless evils.
  • In Pakistan, we find increasing unemployment in different fields.
  • Overpopulation is a major cause of unemployment.
  • The slow economic and scientific progress is perhaps the greatest cause of unemployment.
  • The defective system of our education is also responsible for this serious problem.
  • To get rid of this problem, we have to develop our economy on modern lines.
  • Rapid industrialization can remove the dark clouds of unemployment.
  • Our government is trying to solve this problem as early as possible.

Unemployment means not having enough jobs to employ the unemployed. Unemployment is the mother of countless evils. It pollutes the society and wrecks the political fabric of the county. It turns the law-abiding and honest men into criminals and dacoits. It is difficult to expect truth, nobility and honesty from a person who cannot have two square meals a day, and who cannot provide a morsel of food or a dose of medicine to his sick wife or ailing children. A long spell of poverty and unemployment is a great menace to the state.

In Pakistan, we find increasing unemployment in different fields. Thousands of B.A’s and M.A’s are idle as they cannot even get the jobs of clerks. There are many causes of large scale unemployment.

First of all, the population of our country and other developing countries is rising fast. It becomes difficult to meet the needs of all the additional population. If the population goes on increasing at the present speed, all efforts of the government to provide employment and food for the public are bound to fail.

The slow economic and scientific progress is perhaps the greatest cause of unemployment. Because of sluggish industrial growth, there are not many large factories and industrial centres where labourers, skilled workers and fresh graduates can get employed.

The defective system of our education is also responsible for this serious problem. We neglect technical education. Our young men do not like physical labour. There are not enough desk jobs available in the country. As a result, unemployment prevails in society. Moreover, the decline of the cottage and small industries are also a cause of unemployment. The increasing demand of goods is also a cause of unemployment. The demand for locally made products has decreased. This thing has created a lot of problems not only for the government but also for the highly skilled artisans.

To get rid of this problem, we have to develop our economy on modern lines. Our agriculture system is backward. We must develop it with new techniques. Besides, we need to develop our cottage industries. These industries need less capital and more manpower.

Rapid industrialization can remove the dark clouds of unemployment. In rural areas, small-scale industries should be set-up.  The government should set up new factories in as many places as possible. Unemployed and skilled workers will be able to get employment in large number.

Our government is trying to solve this problem as early as possible. But in spite of all much more is needed. The concept of education should be changed. Planned limits. The government must create a powerful stimulus for foreign investors. The menace of unemployment cannot be overcome without effective planning. It is only after a long struggle that we can get rid of this evil.

2. Essay On Unemployment, Causes and Solution with Outline

  • Outline A World-wide problem.
  • In Pakistan, unemployment is at its highest peak.
  • A source of discontent.
  • Causes of large-scale unemployment.
  • A comprehensive plan is required to combat unemployment.

Essay On Unemployment In Pakistan for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation

Unemployment is an economic term which shows an inability to find work for which one is suited by nature or attainments. It is a worldwide problem. Even rich and advanced countries like America, Britain and France suffer from unemployment. Its percentage varies according to the industrial and economic development of a country.

In Pakistan, unemployment is at its highest peak. All professions are over-crowded. A graduate is not welcomed in any office. There is no scope in the professions of medicine, engineering, law and education. Hundreds of qualified youngsters are wandering in search of jobs. Thousands of labourers and workers are jobless in cities and villages.

Unemployment is a social evil. It is a source of discontent, depression and anxiety for the educated as well as the uneducated people. Corruption, crime, unrest, sin and vices of all sorts prevail in a society where people are unemployed. It brings hunger, starvation, and disease. The frustrated youngsters are falling prey to violence, theft, terrorism, drugs-addiction, drug-trafficking and many other heinous crimes.

There are several causes of large-scale unemployment in Pakistan. Some are the following:

  • Our defective education system is responsible for the high rate of unemployment. It only produces young men who hate manual labour. They want to get only some white-collar job. This system does not meet the economic needs of the country.
  • The pace of economic development of the country is very slow. The mills and factories are unable to absorb all the jobless people. Moreover, ill-planned mechanisation and computer technology are also causing unemployment.
  • In our country, a few privileged persons control the whole economy. Most of them are uneducated and unskill. But, the educated young men have neither the capital nor the opportunities to try their luck in business.
  • The rapid growth of population is a major cause of unemployment. The resources of the country are not enough to maintain such a large population. The result is unemployment.

The large-scale unemployment is creating many social, economic, moral political and psychological problems in our society. Therefore, a comprehensive plan is required to combat unemployment. The education system should be reshaped to produce skilled manpower. the government should speed up the pace of economic development. Especially, the fields of energy telecommunication and transportation should be encouraged. The government should introduce self-employment schemes and set up small industries in rural and underdeveloped areas. Moreover, sincere and adequate steps should be taken to overcome the population explosion. The problem of unemployment cannot be eliminated entirely. However, it can be alleviated with devotion, sincerity and wisdom.

3. Easy Essay on Unemployment for Class 10, Class 12, FA, FSC, BA and BSC

A person who does not have work to earn his livelihood is called an unemployed person. Unemployment is a universal problem. Everybody faces it. Even developed countries like Britain and America face it. Unemployment exists at two levels in our country. There are uneducated people who have no source of income in this country. Unemployment also exists among educated people. This is very dangerous in its results.

Thousands of persons holding master’s degrees are out of job. There are numberless doctors, engineers and scientists who have degrees in their hands but they are unemployed. Even people with foreign qualification wander aimlessly in search of jobs. There are many thousands of unemployed labourers farm workers in villages and workers in cities who are daily breadwinners. Sometimes they do not get work for days and weeks together.

The causes of large-scale unemployment are many.

First, our system of education is defective. It does not fulfil our social and economic needs. It aims at producing clerks and peons instead of technicians and skilful workers. It needs scientists, technical hands and skilful workers. Our education produces young graduates who do not like to work with their hands. We must change our education and harness it to the economic needs of the country.

Secondly, our country is not much advanced in the industry. We have a few mills and factories. We cannot absorb jobless people in these factories and mills.

Thirdly, the industry of the country is controlled by a few privileged people. They do not let others share their experience and capital. If they make a little sacrifice, they can raise a network of industries in the country. The educated people have neither the opportunity nor the capital to set up an industry. The industrialists can give an incentive to the educated people to set up new factories and mills.

Fourthly, our population is increasing rapidly It is very difficult to provide jobs to such a large number of people. They go on increasing every year. Our country is underdeveloped and its sources are limited.

Large-scale unemployment has very bad effects on the progress of the country. Unemployed people do not take part in the development of the country. Moreover, the unemployed people in any society suffer from an inferiority complex. They suffer from the agony that they are worthless and good for nothing. Unemployment brings frustration and disappointment among the educated as well as the uneducated people. It brings in its wake hunger, starvation and disease. It produces a feeling of revolt among the unemployed.

Essay on Unemployment was previously in exams – P.U. 2002, P.U. 2007 B.Sc

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essay on unemployment class 6

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March 30, 2022 at 3:00 pm

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Campus Protests Students Walk Out in Protest at Duke Before Seinfeld Speech

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A crowd of people in caps and gowns. In the center, some hold Palestinians flags and a sign that spells "divest."

Here’s the latest on campus protests.

About 40 students in kaffiyehs, graduation robes and mortarboards, some waving Palestinian flags, walked out of the commencement ceremony at Duke University on Sunday morning as Jerry Seinfeld, the famed comedian who has lately taken a public stance in support of Jews in the United States and Israel, received an honorary degree.

The ceremony moved on to Mr. Seinfeld’s keynote speech without interruption, while graduates outside the stadium chanted: “Disclose, divest, we will not stop, we will not rest.”

College administrators have prepared for potential disruptions as pro-Palestinian demonstrations continue to roil campuses. Tensions are running high at some of the schools scheduled to hold commencements on Sunday, including Pomona College, where pro-Palestinian students have announced a protest targeting the ceremony. The school moved the location of its commencement after demonstrators set up an encampment on the stage where the event was supposed to be held.

At Emerson College in Boston, where more than 100 students were arrested three weeks ago, about one in five graduates wore keffiyeh or other pro-Palestine paraphernalia. They used their walks across the stage as moments of individual protest, removing their gowns or displaying signs. One graduate arrived onstage with no robe on, wearing all white covered in red writing about the war in Gaza. The person threw a diploma across the stage and held up hands covered in red paint before exiting.

On Saturday, a few commencement ceremonies were disrupted by protesters, including at the University of California, Berkeley, where hundreds of students rose from their seats and chanted . At Virginia Commonwealth University, about 60 graduates walked out during a speech by Glenn Youngkin, the state’s Republican governor. And at the University of Wisconsin, a handful of graduates stood with their backs to their chancellor as she spoke.

Hoping to minimize disruptions, some schools have announced increased security measures at commencements, such as banning flags and banners. A few have come to agreements with protesters for meetings or bowed to student demands and canceled commencement speeches , while others have called in the police to clear encampments and arrest protesters .

Here are other developments:

Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore said on Sunday that it had reached an agreement with student protesters to end their encampment and not restart it, promising to end some of the proceedings on student conduct involving the encampment and to review calls for divestment from Israel.

Arizona State University has banned a postdoctoral research scholar from campus as it investigates a video that showed him confronting a woman wearing a hijab at a pro-Israel rally near the school’s Tempe campus . The university, where the campus police recently broke up a pro-Palestinian encampment and arrested dozens of people, has also put the chief of its campus police department on leave.

Xavier University of Louisiana in New Orleans this week became the second school to rescind a commencement speaking invitation to Linda Thomas-Greenfield, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations. The University of Vermont said earlier this month that she would not be speaking there, a concession to a demand from student demonstrators.

More than 2,800 people have been arrested at pro-Palestinian protests on U.S. campuses since April 18, according to New York Times tracking data .

— Shaila Dewan and Yan Zhuang

As Jerry Seinfeld receives an honorary degree at Duke, students walk out in protest.

Dozens of students walk out of duke commencement ceremony, as the comedian jerry seinfeld received an honorary degree at duke university’s commencement, dozens of students walked out and chanted, “free palestine.” some also chanted mr. seinfeld’s name during the walkout..

From stage: “Big deal about our commencement speaker?” [crowd boos and cheers] Some in crowd: “Free Palestine!” Some in crowd: “Free Palestine!” Some in crowd: “Jerry! Jerry! Jerry!” From stage: “Thank you.”

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Jerry Seinfeld knows his way around handling awkward moments onstage. Even so, the initial reception he faced at Duke University’s commencement on Sunday reflected a more complicated audience than usual.

As Mr. Seinfeld, who has recently been vocal about his support for Israel, received an honorary degree, dozens of students walked out and chanted, “Free, free Palestine,” while the comedian looked on and smiled tensely.

Many in the crowd jeered the protesters. Minutes later, as the last of the protesters were filing out, he approached the mic. His first words were: “Thank you. Oh my God, what a beautiful day.”

In his commencement speech, Mr. Seinfeld was mostly cautious, opting for a tight comedic script interspersed with life advice instead of a full-on response to the protests against his presence.

Still, in one part of his speech, he defended various types of privilege and appeared to hint at the elephant in the room.

“I grew up a Jewish boy from New York,” he said to applause from the crowd. “That is a privilege if you want to be a comedian.”

Outside Duke’s stadium, graduates walked around campus, chanting: “Disclose, divest, we will not stop, we will not rest.” When they arrived at a green space, they were joined by hundreds of other people — including faculty, relatives and other protesters — who organized a makeshift graduation for them.

As they prepared to throw their caps in the air, Mr. Seinfeld continued his speech inside Wallace Wade Stadium, telling students that while he admired their generation’s commitment to inclusivity and not hurting other people’s feelings, “it is worth the sacrifice of occasional discomfort to have some laughs.”

Mr. Seinfeld, who has two children who have attended Duke, has been uncharacteristically vocal about his support for Jews in Israel while doing press in recent weeks for his latest film, “Unfrosted,” which chronicles the invention of Pop-Tarts .

Typically an apolitical comedian who prefers punchy takes on ordinary observations, Mr. Seinfeld is now engaging in the type of celebrity activism that few associate with him, and that has drawn criticism and praise. Since the attacks of Oct. 7 in Israel, he has signed a letter in support of the country and posted an earnest message on social media about his devotion to it.

His wife, Jessica Seinfeld, a cookbook author, recently promoted on Instagram a counterprotest at the University of California, Los Angeles, that she said she had helped bankroll. (She condemned the violence that occurred at a later counterprotest.)

In December, Mr. Seinfeld traveled to Tel Aviv to meet with the families of hostages, soberly recounting afterward the missile attack that occurred during the trip.

Still, his comments on the issues have been somewhat modest.

“I don’t preach about it,” he told GQ last month. “I have my personal feelings about it that I discuss privately. It’s not part of what I can do comedically, but my feelings are very strong.”

On Sunday, Mr. Seinfeld played to the crowd, telling students: “You’re never going to believe this: Harvard used to be a great place to go to school. Now it’s Duke.”

Not everyone at Duke, however, was laughing at Mr. Seinfeld’s jokes.

The Rev. Dr. Stefan Weathers Sr., an ordained minister in the American Baptist Church who was awarded a Ph.D. in divinity, had written a letter before the ceremony to the university asking that the comedian be replaced, citing Mr. Seinfeld’s ongoing and strong support for Israel.

Shreya Joshi, a graduate and one of the organizers of the protest, said that after Duke selected Mr. Seinfeld as the speaker, she and other seniors, faculty members and pro-Palestinian supporters began organizing the walkout and an alternate graduation.

Ms. Joshi, 21, who studied history at Duke and will be attending law school at the University of Chicago, said that it was painful to have lost out on a high school graduation ceremony in 2020 because of the pandemic, and the seniors still wanted one this year, even if it meant creating one outside of the university’s official channels.

And that pain, she added, paled in comparison to what people in Gaza are experiencing.

“The fact that we were going to sit here and celebrate our own?” Ms. Joshi said. “It felt trivial in the face of all that. Have you seen the tiny violin? That’s how it felt.”

Ms. Joshi said that they had tried to leave the main commencement ceremony in the least disruptive way possible. They chose to leave as the honorary degree was being given to Mr. Seinfeld because “none of us particularly wanted to listen to Seinfeld.”

— Eduardo Medina and Emily Cataneo Reporting from Duke University’s campus in Durham N.C.

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At Emerson College’s commencement, there were expressions of protest from beginning to end.

At Emerson College’s commencement, pro-Palestinian supporters made sure they were seen and heard throughout the ceremony.

The graduation for the Boston school, held at Agganis Arena, took place less than three weeks after police officers stormed an encampment and arrested more than 100 protesters.

As the more than 1,000 students entered in a procession, about one in every five students had a fist raised or some kind of pro-Palestinian paraphernalia accompanying their cap and gown: a keffiyeh, a decorated mortarboard with a Palestinian flag, and, in one case, a Palestinian flag worn as a cape.

Almost immediately after the journalism professor Michael Brown began to speak to start the ceremony, several students began shouting pro-Palestinian slogans, which were met with loud boos from the crowd of families in the stands.

Brown pressed on forcefully. “I’m here for the graduates of 2024,” he proclaimed loudly over the din, drawing cheers from the crowd. “You are the class that didn’t have a high school graduation, so you’re going to have a graduation today!”

That set the tone for the rest of the ceremony. Several speeches that followed were interrupted. And the processions across the stage were filled with individual protests from students. Some removed their robes onstage in protest. Some held up signs.

One woman arrived onstage with no robe on, wearing all white covered in red writing about the war in Gaza . She threw her diploma across the stage and held up her hands, covered in red paint, before exiting. Another draped a flag over the main podium at the center of the stage, which was promptly removed.

The biggest cheers were for the student class president, Joe Nalieth. “Our message cannot be washed away with the chalk,” he said in his speech. “Our voices echo on campuses across the world, especially those campuses which have been reduced to rubble. Let us not forget, we are creatives, innovators and revolutionaries.”

After the ceremony wrapped up just after 1 p.m., around 50 students defected from the recessional to stay on the floor on the arena, trying to shout “Free Palestine!” over the drum corps playing the graduates out.

— Maya Shwayder Reporting from Boston

Student protesters at Johns Hopkins agree to end encampment.

Johns Hopkins University said on Sunday that it reached an agreement with student protesters to end their encampment and not restart it, the university said in a statement . The school said it promised students a “timely review” of their calls for divestment from Israel.

The university also said it was ending proceedings on some student conduct from the encampment as long as protesters do not disrupt more university functions, including the commencement ceremony on May 23. But those proceedings will continue for allegations of misconduct including violence, assault or property damage.

“We are grateful to the many members of our community — faculty, staff, and students — who helped us navigate this moment,” Ron Daniels, the university president, said. “This is a truly difficult time in our world and at our university, with the anguish of the ongoing conflict and human tragedy in Israel and Gaza.”

Students began an encampment on April 29, which the university said violated policies that were designed to safeguard freedom of expression and safety on campus.

The group behind the encampment, the Hopkins Justice Collective, confirmed the agreement.

“In no way are we satisfied with this end to our demonstration,” the group said in a statement, saying that it was only a first step. “Palestinian liberation remains in our sights.”

— Colbi Edmonds

A closer look at the violent attack at U.C.L.A. raises questions about the police response.

Nearly two weeks after a pro-Palestinian encampment at the University of California, Los Angeles, was attacked by counterprotesters, university officials still have not explained why security officers stood by for hours while the attack was underway, nor have the authorities arrested any of those who swarmed in wielding metal rods, water bottles and firecrackers in one of the worst outbreaks of violence in the college protests that have rocked the country.

The extent of the policing failure has become clearer in recent days, as witnesses have come forward to describe a chaotic night of violence on April 30, in which students and bystanders repeatedly called 911 and nonemergency lines, finding little help and calls that were disconnected. A dispatcher told one caller pleading for help that they were ending the call because “I have actual emergencies to handle.”

One man was filmed by a local television station on the phone with emergency dispatchers, alerting them that people were getting hurt. “Security has abandoned this encampment,” he could be heard saying before lowering his phone and looking at it. “They just hung up on me again,” he said incredulously.

Miles away in Sacramento, staff members in Gov. Gavin Newsom’s office contacted the U.C.L.A. chancellor’s office shortly after 11 p.m. to make sure that law enforcement officers were responding to the scene, and were assured that more officers were coming, according to a person familiar with the situation, who described the discussions on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to make them public.

But as the night wore on and there was still no intervention, the person said, the governor’s office moved to circumvent local authority and ordered California Highway Patrol officers to the campus. The state officers began assembling on campus at 1:45 a.m., a few moments before L.A.P.D. riot police arrived, but it took another hour to quell the clashes.

The chancellor’s office, the L.A.P.D. and an outside consultant hired to investigate the tardy response have all declined to discuss it, pending the outcome of an inquiry that could take weeks or months. The campus police chief, John Thomas, also did not comment. He told The Los Angeles Times that he had relied on private security officers who were not authorized to make arrests, but that he had done “everything I could” to keep students safe.

To understand what happened, New York Times journalists conducted interviews with several people who were at the protests that night, including two people who were involved in the counterprotest; reviewed and analyzed video footage ; and spoke with organizations involved in both the pro-Palestinian and pro-Israeli movements on campus.

The review found no public callouts for such a violent attack and no clear signs that one group coordinated the attack, though some people had arrived wearing black clothes and masks and seemingly prepared for violence. There was also no indication that the police had prepared for the kind of severe assault on the encampment that took place.

Instead, it appeared that contract security officers who did not have sufficient authority or numbers to halt the escalating melee had been caught by surprise and left to wait for reinforcements that did not arrive for hours.

“Either the university was hesitant to do anything to get law enforcement involved, or law enforcement was dealing with authorization issues and political considerations from elected officials,” said Ed Davis, a former Boston police commissioner who is familiar with crowd control policing issues. “And then things got out of hand.”

Despite growing concern on campus about the pro-Palestinian encampment, complaints about antisemitic incidents and the potential for violence, in the early days of the protests, university officials made it clear that they would consider calling in outside police only as a last resort.

“We are following University of California systemwide policy guidance, which directs us not to request law enforcement involvement preemptively, and only if absolutely necessary to protect the physical safety of our campus community,” Mary Osako, the vice chancellor for strategic communications, said in a statement on April 26 , shortly after the encampment had been set up.

On the night of April 30, a range of counterprotesters had gathered, a group that grew in size as expectations mounted that the police would begin dismantling the encampment. In interviews, witnesses said there had been little warning before counterprotesters went on the offensive.

One of the counterprotesters, Liel Asherian, was seen on video footage kicking at the encampment’s plywood barrier, pulling boards to the ground and slamming a tennis racket against the wood that remained. He said he had gone that night to see the encampment on his own, though he later acknowledged that a friend of his was also pictured at the scene. In an interview, he said he was not part of any group and had not intended to participate in a conflict.

Mr. Asherian said he had approached the pro-Palestinian encampment to ask some people why they were protesting. He said he believed Jewish people such as himself and Palestinians were like cousins, and he expressed alarm at the innocent Palestinians being killed in Israel’s military campaign. But he said he disliked the disruptive tactics the pro-Palestinian protesters were using at U.C.L.A.

He said things devolved when someone called him a “dirty Jew” and he was doused in pepper spray.

“That made me start breaking down their barricades,” he said.

Also among the counterprotesters that night was Narek Palyan, an activist known for making frequent antisemitic statements, as well as comments critical of gay and transgender people. He said he went alone and was motivated to show up in part because he had seen a video of a Jewish woman on the pro-Palestinian side criticizing white people.

“I wanted to go find her, specifically,” he said, adding that he was not able to.

Mr. Palyan said he did not necessarily support either side in the protest or the war.

He said he spent much of the night asking people questions about their positions and trying to keep people from fighting by throwing makeshift weapons into nearby bushes. Mr. Palyan, who is Armenian American, also said he had warned two younger Armenian boys to stay out of the melee.

“I told them, ‘This isn’t ours,’” he said.

Anthony Cabassa, a self-described conservative independent journalist who posted videos of the chaos, said many people may have flocked to the scene on Tuesday night in the hours after U.C.L.A. declared the encampment illegal, believing that the police would move in to clear it and make arrests.

But then the counterprotesters descended on the protest, pulling metal gates away from the group and attacking protesters.

“We were all waiting for the L.A.P.D. to show up, and they never did,” Mr. Cabassa said in an interview. “As the night went on, more and more pro-Israel folks started showing up, to the point where it was starting to get worrisome.”

He said some people seemed to have arrived after seeing broadcasts of the tense scene that he and other livestreamers made, wanting to witness what would happen next.

“People were responding to my livestream and saying ‘I just showed up because of you. I live nearby,’” he said. But others, he said, appeared to have planned for potential clashes, wearing all-black outfits and ski masks. Mr. Cabassa recalled being concerned about their presence.

In the end, more than 30 protesters were injured, according to the Council on American-Islamic Relations Los Angeles, before police dispersed the crowd.

Brian H. Levin, the founding director of the Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at California State University, San Bernardino, said that, with religion and ethnicity at the heart of the recent protests, the attack had amounted to a hate crime.

“This comes at a time when major U.S. cities, including Los Angeles, have had a surge in anti-Arab and Muslim hate crimes and have hit a record for anti-Jewish crimes,” he said.

Mr. Levin watched the incident via livestream and said the weapons, the presence of some of the same people from previous protests and the waving of a yellow flag associated with Chabad-Lubavitch, a Hasidic Jewish movement, suggested some organizational coordination among the counterprotesters.

The director of the nearby Chabad House said the group had no role in the protest that night.

But he also noted that some of the implements wielded by the counterprotesters “were spontaneous weapons of opportunity,” and that some people “may have just showed up randomly with their own separate xenophobic and religious bigotries.”

The next day, after the counterprotesters had left, police officers moved in to remove the pro-Palestinian encampment, making more than 200 arrests.

Marie Salem, a U.C.L.A. graduate student and one of the protesters, questioned why the police had arrested dozens of student protesters but had not yet arrested any of those who had attacked them.

“The majority of the encampment is students that attend this university, and who were not violent,” Ms. Salem said. “We were met with violence, and the other side looked like majority not-students, which the university chose to protect over their own students.”

Jonathan Wolfe and Shawn Hubler contributed reporting. Susan C. Beachy and Kitty Bennett contributed research.

— Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs ,  Mike Baker and Serge F. Kovaleski Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs reported from Los Angeles, Mike Baker from Seattle and Serge F. Kovaleski from New York.

Frustrated by Gaza Coverage, Student Protesters Turn to Al Jazeera

Nick Wilson has closely followed news on the war in Gaza since October. But Mr. Wilson, a Cornell student, is picky when it comes to his media diet: As a pro-Palestinian activist, he doesn’t trust major American outlets’ reporting on Israel’s campaign in Gaza.

Instead, he turns to publications less familiar to some American audiences, like the Arab news network Al Jazeera.

“Al Jazeera is the site that I go to to get an account of events that I think will be reliable,” he said.

Many student protesters said in recent interviews that they were seeking on-the-ground coverage of the war in Gaza, and often, a staunchly pro-Palestinian perspective — and they are turning to alternative media for it. There’s a range of options: Jewish Currents , The Intercept, Mondoweiss and even independent Palestinian journalists on social media, as they seek information about what is happening in Gaza.

Their preferences embody a broader shift for members of Generation Z, who are increasingly seeking out news from a wider array of sources and questioning legacy outlets in a fragmented media ecosystem.

Israel’s recent ban on the local operations of Al Jazeera has only elevated the network’s status among many student protesters. They prize coverage from reporters on the ground, and Al Jazeera has a more extensive operation in Gaza than any other publication. Students also noted the sacrifices it has made to tell the story there. Two Al Jazeera journalists have died since the start of the war.

“Al Jazeera is sort of playing that role for a lot of younger Americans, in terms of getting a different perspective than they feel like they’re getting from U.S. media,” said Ben Toff, an associate professor of journalism at the University of Minnesota.

While many Western media outlets, with few if any journalists in Gaza before the war, have struggled to gain access to the territory, Al Jazeera has been recognized for its raw, searing portrayals of the death and destruction there. A typical report may show video of Israeli tanks rolling into cities, alongside drone shots of leveled buildings in Gaza City and Palestinians fleeing their homes.

“It’s news about the Middle East, and it doesn’t really convey it in a Western perspective , ” said Alina Atiq, a student at the University of South Florida who has pushed her university to divest from Israel.

The network, owned by Qatar, has its headquarters in Doha and operates two separate newsrooms that provide English- and Arabic-language content. Its mobile apps have been downloaded in the United States 295,000 times since October, an increase of more than 200 percent from the previous seven months, according to Appfigures, a market research firm.

Among the outlets frequently cited by protesters, Al Jazeera English is by far the most popular on social media. It has 1.9 million followers on TikTok — up from around 750,000 at the outset of the war — and 4.6 million on Instagram.

Hussein Ibish, a senior resident scholar at the Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington, described the network’s Arabic-language channel as more outwardly pro-Palestinian than the English one, which he said has a more subtle slant.

Critics say its coverage veers into support of the armed resistance to Israel. The Israeli government, which has accused Al Jazeera of acting as a “mouthpiece” for Hamas, last Sunday seized its broadcast equipment and shut down its operations in the country for at least 45 days.

Al Jazeera called the government’s accusation “baseless” in a statement, adding that it has broadcast every news conference held by the Israeli cabinet and representatives for the Israel Defense Forces, in addition to videos from Hamas.

It also said that its reporting “provides diverse viewpoints and narrative and counter narrative,” and that charges of pro-Palestinian bias should be “scrutinized through careful analysis of our journalistic standards and reporting practices.”

The Israeli government’s rejection of Al Jazeera appears to have bolstered the network’s reputation among some of the students.

“It goes to show the extent to which Israel is afraid of the coverage and reportage of Al Jazeera,” said Matthew Vickers, a junior at Occidental College in Los Angeles who has been active in efforts to persuade his school to divest from companies tied to Israel.

The protesters rattle off a list of mainstream American publications as having coverage they find objectionable, including CNN, The Atlantic, the BBC and The New York Times, among many others. Though major news outlets have reported extensively on Israel’s campaign in Gaza, the death toll and the damage, the coverage in the view of student protesters doesn’t assign enough blame to Israel for Palestinian deaths, or thoroughly fact-check Israeli officials. And they said protest coverage has focused too much on antisemitism on college campuses instead of Islamophobia.

“There’s a fair amount of misinformation that is being fed to us by mainstream media, and just a clear bias when it comes to the Palestine issue,” said Cameron Jones, a student at Columbia University and an organizer with Jewish Voice for Peace, a pro-Palestinian organization.

The activists’ interest in Al Jazeera stands in contrast with the outlet’s previous struggles to find an audience in the United States. The network started an American channel in 2013, but that folded in 2016 with nightly ratings that hovered around 30,000, far shy of viewership for cable networks like Fox News and CNN.

Part of what doomed the network back then was “a distinctly anti-American bent” to its coverage, Mr. Ibish wrote in a 2016 guest essay for The Times. But now, broadcast from a different country, the network’s tone is finding its audience on university campuses, he said.

“There’s a third-worldist, anti-imperial point of view, and that’s also the view that many college kids have adopted,” he said.

Jeremy W. Peters contributed reporting.

— Santul Nerkar

On a day with many calm ceremonies, Berkeley’s protests stand out.

At the University of California, Berkeley, hundreds of soon-to-be graduates rose from their seats in protest, chanting and disrupting their commencement. At Virginia Commonwealth University, about 60 graduates in caps and gowns walked out during Gov. Glenn Youngkin’s speech. At the University of Wisconsin, a handful of graduates stood with their backs to their chancellor as she spoke.

After weeks of tumult on college campuses over pro-Palestinian protests, many administrators prepared themselves for disruptions at graduations on Saturday. And while there were demonstrations — most noisily, perhaps, at U.C. Berkeley — ceremonies at several universities unfolded without major incident. Many students who protested did so silently.

Anticipating possible disruptions, university administrators had increased their security or taken various measures, including dismantling encampments, setting aside free speech zones, canceling student speeches and issuing admission tickets.

Some administrators also tried to reach agreements with encampment organizers. The University of Wisconsin said it had reached a deal with protesters to clear the encampment in return for a meeting to discuss the university’s investments.

Some students, too, were on edge about their big day — many missed their high school graduations four years ago because of the pandemic and did not want to repeat the experience.

In 2020, David Emuze and his mother had watched his high school graduation “ceremony,” a parade of senior photos set to music on Zoom, from their living room in Springfield, Ill. This time, he and his classmates at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign heard that other schools, like the University of Southern California and Columbia University, had canceled their main-stage commencements altogether because of campus unrest.

But on Saturday morning, Mr. Emuze donned his electric-blue mortarboard and orange sash, and his mother watched live from the audience as he received his bachelor’s degree in public health. “It was a touching, peaceful, inspiring and motivational ceremony,” he said, with a note of relief in his voice.

He said the keynote speaker, Jeanne Gang, an architect and University of Illinois alumna, had hit just the right note. She acknowledged that “we all know about what’s going on in the world right now,” but said it was a time to come together and celebrate achievements.

At Berkeley, the home of the free-speech movement, the protesters made themselves heard. Greta Brown, 23, an environmental science graduate, wore cap, gown and a stole with the word “Palestine” emblazoned on it. She was among those who stood and chanted during the graduation speeches. “I felt like it was necessary,” she said, because the university had not done enough. “I just heard a lot of, like, ‘Oh, we hear you,’ and a centrist point of view.”

At the beginning of the ceremony, Chancellor Carol Christ was met with boos when she began to speak, but there were louder cheers when she mentioned the pro-Palestinian encampment nearby. “Students have been camping around Sproul Hall for almost three weeks,” Dr. Christ said. “They feel passionately about the brutality of the violence in Gaza.” She added, “I, too, am deeply troubled by the terrible tragedy.”

As the speeches continued, the disruptions escalated. Dozens of students in the crowd in the stands rose with signs reading “Divest,” and at least 10 Palestinian flags. They began to chant, and then interrupted the speech by the student body president, Sydney Roberts, who said, “This wouldn’t be Berkeley without a protest.”

Despite warnings from a school official, a group of students staked out a section of empty stadium seats behind the main stage, chanting, “Hey hey, ho ho, the occupation has got to go” and “UC divest” and attracting other students until the crowd swelled to about 500. Most of them slowly made their way to the exit as the graduation drew to a close.

Not all of the protests were centered on the Middle East. At Virginia Commonwealth in Richmond, Micah White, 26, was one of roughly 60 students who walked out while the governor was speaking.

“The first thing that motivated me is the hypocrisy of V.C.U. declaring themselves to be a minority-serving institution, declaring themselves to be for diversity, equity and inclusion, and bringing Youngkin in as commencement speaker,” he said.

The university’s board voted on Friday against requiring students to take racial literacy classes . Mr. Youngkin, a Republican, requested to review course materials for proposed racial literacy classes.

Mr. Youngkin also supported the dismantling of an encampment on campus late last month during which 13 people, including six students, were arrested. Sereen Haddad, 19, who studies psychology at V.C.U., said she was knocked to the ground during the clash between protesters and the police that day and that Mr. Youngkin had failed to acknowledge that the encampment was peaceful.

The ceremonies came after a week in which some colleges made arrests and cleared encampments of pro-Palestinian demonstrators. In recent days, authorities dismantled encampments at the University of Pennsylvania and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology . Officers were also called in to empty an encampment at the University of Arizona, in Tucson, deploying “chemical munitions” in the process, hours before its graduation ceremony on Friday evening.

Anger over the clearing of an encampment lingered for some at the University of North Carolina commencement on Saturday night. Many students jeered their interim chancellor, Lee Roberts, who last month ordered that an encampment of pro-Palestinian protesters be removed. Still, when two students waved Palestinian flags and walked on the field in the middle of Mr. Roberts’s speech before security escorted them out, the majority of the stadium booed them and chanted, “USA! USA!”

Cynthia Howle and Eduardo Medina contributed reporting.

An earlier version of this article misstated the given name of a female student at Virginia Commonwealth University and misidentified her gender. She is Sereen Haddad, not Sareen.

An earlier version of this article misstated the title of the person who warned a group of students against disrupting the ceremony. It was a school official but not a vice provost.

How we handle corrections

— Shaila Dewan ,  Holly Secon ,  Leah Small and Robert Chiarito

Jerry Seinfeld, a strong supporter of Israel, will speak at Duke University.

Duke University will have a big-name graduation speaker on Sunday: Jerry Seinfeld.

Two of Mr. Seinfeld’s three children have attended Duke, where he and his wife, Jessica Seinfeld, are active boosters.

But they are also known for something more controversial these days: their support for Israel. Mr. Seinfeld has become a public voice against antisemitism and in support of Jews in Israel and the United States. In December, he traveled to Tel Aviv to meet with hostages’ families, soberly recounting afterward the missile attack that greeted him during the trip.

Ms. Seinfeld, a cookbook author, attracted attention when she promoted on Instagram a counterprotest — which she said she had helped bankroll — at the University of California, Los Angeles, where clashes with pro-Palestinian demonstrators turned violent. In 2018, the family visited a West Bank paramilitary training camp that had become a tourist attraction.

Some students have objected to Mr. Seinfeld’s appearance at Duke.

The Rev. Dr. Stefan Weathers Sr., an ordained minister in the American Baptist Church who is being awarded a Ph.D. in divinity, recently wrote a letter to the university asking that Mr. Seinfeld be replaced, citing Mr. Seinfeld’s ongoing and strong support for Israel.

While Dr. Weathers acknowledged in the letter to Dr. Vincent E. Price, Duke’s president, that the Hamas attacks on Israel were a “horrific display of hate and inhumanity,” he also argued that Israel’s ongoing retaliation has killed more than 34,000 people.

“What has taken place over the past six to seven months can only be described as genocide,” Dr. Weathers wrote. He received a polite, if noncommittal, letter of response from Dr. Price, he said. And despite other questions raised by some pro-Palestinian students, the university has remained supportive of Mr. Seinfeld’s appearance, which it first announced in a video during a Duke basketball game.

A spokesman for Duke did not respond to requests for comment.

Dr. Weathers said during an interview on Friday that he was expecting some kind of a protest Sunday amid the normally polite and genteel Duke gathering, where Mr. Seinfeld is also scheduled to receive an honorary degree.

“There won’t be a business-as-usual commencement taking place,” he said, promising to “lift up our voices any way we can.”

— Stephanie Saul

Arizona State bans a scholar from campus after a confrontation at a protest.

Arizona State University has banned a postdoctoral research scholar and faculty member from campus as it investigates a video that went viral depicting him confronting a woman in a hijab, the school said this week.

In the video from May 5, the scholar, Jonathan Yudelman, along with another unidentified man, can be seen cursing and getting in a woman’s face at a pro-Israel rally near the school’s Tempe campus .

It was unclear what occurred before the video, but at one point in the video Mr. Yudelman can be seen repeatedly advancing toward the woman who is wearing a hijab, and telling her — “I’m literally in your face, that’s right” — as she backs away from him.

The woman responds and tells him that he is disrespecting her religious boundaries to which Mr. Yudelman responds, “You disrespect my sense of humanity,” followed by a profanity.

Mr. Yudelman, who was a postdoctoral fellow at the university’s School of Civics, Ethics and Leadership , had earlier resigned from the position, effective June 30, according to a statement the school released on Wednesday. But the school said he was placed on leave on May 6, adding that he was no longer permitted to come to campus, teach classes or interact with students or employees.

“Arizona State University protects freedom of speech and expression but does not tolerate threatening or violent behavior. While peaceful protest is welcome, all incidents of violent or threatening behavior will be addressed,” the statement added.

Mr. Yudelman was interviewed on May 5 at the pro-Israel rally by Phoenix television station KPNX . In the clip , he stated that campuses across the country were being “taken over by supporters of terrorism,” and stated that Jewish students were being intimidated. “It was important to come out, show the broader community that there are people who stand against this,” he said.

Mr. Yudelman did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

— Anna Betts

Pennsylvania’s governor leans into the campus fight over antisemitism.

A few hours after Columbia University canceled its main commencement ceremony following weeks of pro-Palestinian student protests, Gov. Josh Shapiro of Pennsylvania was in his office in Harrisburg, taking stock of the ways he sees universities letting students down.

“Our colleges, in many cases, are failing young people,” he said in an interview this week. “Failing to teach information that is necessary to form thoughtful perspectives. They are willing to let certain forms of hate pass by and condemn others more strongly.”

Mr. Shapiro — the leader of a pre-eminent battleground state, a rising Democrat and a proudly observant Jew — has also emerged as one of his party’s most visible figures denouncing the rise in documented antisemitism after the Hamas-led Oct. 7 attack on Israel.

And at a moment of growing Democratic anger and unease over how Israel is conducting its devastating military response, Mr. Shapiro, 50 — who has no obligation to talk about foreign policy — has not shied away from expressing support for the country while criticizing its right-wing government.

Plunging into a subject that has inflamed and divided many Americans carries risk for an ambitious Democrat from a politically important state. The politics around both the Gaza war and the protest movement are exceptionally fraught within the Democratic Party , and many of its voters and elected officials have become increasingly critical of Israel.

But Mr. Shapiro has been direct.

Asked if he considered himself a Zionist, he said that he did. When Iran attacked Israel last month, he wrote on social media that Pennsylvania “stands with Israel.”

When the University of Pennsylvania’s president struggled before Congress to directly answer whether calling for the genocide of Jews violated the school’s rules, Mr. Shapiro said she had failed to show “moral clarity.” ( She later resigned .) When opponents of the Gaza war picketed an Israeli-style restaurant in Philadelphia known for its falafel and tahini shakes, Mr. Shapiro called the demonstration antisemitic and showed up for lunch.

And as university officials have struggled to define where free speech ends and hate speech begins, a tension upending the final weeks of the school year, Mr. Shapiro has issued stern warnings about their responsibility to protect students from discrimination. The issue hits close to home: On Friday, police cleared an encampment of pro-Palestinian demonstrators off the campus of the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Shapiro had said it was “ past time ” for Penn to do so.

‘It should not be hard’

In the interview, Mr. Shapiro stressed that he did not believe all encampments or demonstrators were antisemitic — not “by any stretch.” But he suggested that on some campuses, antisemitic speech was treated differently than other kinds of hate speech.

“If you had a group of white supremacists camped out and yelling racial slurs every day, that would be met with a different response than antisemites camped out, yelling antisemitic tropes,” he said.

Law enforcement officials and advocacy groups have tracked a rise in antisemitic, anti-Muslim and anti-Arab acts in recent months.

Speaking after an appearance at a Holocaust Remembrance Day ceremony on Monday, Mr. Shapiro emphasized that “we should be universal in our condemnation of antisemitism, Islamophobia and all forms of hate.”

While there is room for “nuance” in foreign policy discussions, he said, “it should not be hard for anyone on the political left or right to call out antisemitism.”

In a new survey , Mr. Shapiro, a former state attorney general, had a job approval rating of 64 percent, with just 19 percent of Pennsylvanians saying they disapproved.

He has long emphasized bipartisanship and prioritized nonideological issues like rapidly reopening a stretch of Interstate 95 after a collapse. And his own religious observance has helped him connect with people of other faiths in a state where Jews are estimated to make up about 3 percent of the electorate.

“I make it home Friday night for Sabbath dinner because family and faith ground me,” he said in a campaign ad.

Many Jews in Pennsylvania hope that he will become the first Jewish president. On that subject, he deflects as skillfully as any potential White House aspirant: He laughs or insists that he loves and is focused on his current job.

“I am very humbled that people have taken note of our work,” he said. “I sort of dismiss those comments because they’re not helpful to the work I’m trying to do every day as governor, the voice I’m trying to have both here in the commonwealth and across the country to root out hate and to speak with moral clarity.”

He added, “It’s certainly not helpful when it comes to our top political priority, which is to re-elect President Biden.”

‘Josh is front and center’

The Mideast war, which has killed more than 34,000 people in Gaza, according to local health authorities, has fueled a broad and significant protest movement.

But on college campuses, there are sharp debates over when demonstrations against Israel and its treatment of Palestinians veer into antisemitic targeting of Jewish students and institutions.

To Mr. Shapiro, the distinction is clear: Criticism of Israeli policies is fair game. “Affixing to every Jew the policies of Israel,” he said, is not.

Mr. Shapiro said he felt a “unique responsibility” to speak out both because he leads a state founded on a vision of religious tolerance , and because he is a “proud American Jew.”

Indeed, his Jewish identity is intertwined with his public persona to a degree rarely seen in American politicians.

He is a Jewish day school alumnus who has featured challah in his campaign advertising and alludes to a collection of Jewish ethics in his speeches. In recent weeks, he offered an under-the-weather 76ers player matzo ball soup and celebrated the end of Passover with Martin’s Potato Rolls, a Pennsylvania delicacy.

“It’s not an easy time to be Jewish, and to be a Jewish politician,” said Sharon Levin, a former teacher of Mr. Shapiro’s. “Josh is front and center.”

Mr. Shapiro has also spent significant time in Israel, proposing to his wife in Jerusalem . Asked if, like Mr. Biden , he considers himself a Zionist, he confirmed that he did.

“I am pro-Israel,” he said. “I am pro-the idea of a Jewish homeland, a Jewish state, and I will certainly do everything in my power to ensure that Israel is strong and Israel is fortified and will exist for generations.”

He also supports a two-state solution , is a longtime critic of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and said he mourned “the loss of life in Gaza.”

That approach is common among elected Democrats. But it is clearly at odds with the campus protests, which are often explicitly anti-Zionist.

The issue is virtually certain to divide Democrats on future presidential debate stages.

For now, Mr. Shapiro has not drawn the kind of backlash from the left that some other Israel supporters have, in part because he is not voting on foreign policy. And while another Pennsylvania Democrat, Senator John Fetterman, has sometimes engaged provocatively with pro-Palestinian demonstrators, Mr. Shapiro has a more measured, lawyerly style.

“It’s critically important that we remove hate from the conversation and allow people to freely express their ideas, whether I agree with their ideas or not,” he said.

Tensions over Israel

Some Muslim leaders say Mr. Shapiro has not found the right balance in his post-Oct. 7 comments.

The Council on American-Islamic Relations in Philadelphia said in a statement that two of its board members had skipped an iftar dinner he hosted, arguing that he had “created much harm and hurt among Muslim, Arab and pro-Palestinian Pennsylvanians.”

“The governor, like the White House, is not fully able to see the deep level of resentment that exists about his stances,” Ahmet Tekelioglu, the executive director of that chapter, said in an interview. (In a statement on Friday, he also criticized Mr. Shapiro’s call to disband the Penn encampment.) “The governor has lost the trust of many in the Muslim-American community in Pennsylvania that had long considered him a friend.”

Mr. Shapiro, whose team has clashed with CAIR before, replied, “I’m not going to let one press release from one group that has its own agenda take away from the close, strong relationship I have with the Muslim community.”

“We have tried to create, at the residence and across Pennsylvania, a place where all faiths feel welcomed,” he said.

State Representative Tarik Khan, a Philadelphia-area Democrat who is Muslim, did attend the iftar. It included time for prayer and a “legit dinner,” he said, rather than “hors d’oeuvres and get the hell out.”

“At a time when there’s a lot of trauma, sometimes the easy thing is to do nothing,” Mr. Khan said. “If he didn’t care about our community, he wouldn’t have spent that time.”

Growing expectations

Mr. Shapiro faces different pressures from the Jewish community.

In the Philadelphia area, many know him or his family personally — or feel as if they do — and in some cases expect him to speak out frequently in support of Israel. But, said Jonathan Scott Goldman, the chair of the Pennsylvania Jewish Coalition, his job is to lead the whole state.

“Jewish people want to and do claim Josh as their own,” Mr. Goldman said. “He knows he’s not just a Jewish governor. He’s a governor, and he’s the governor of all Pennsylvanians.”

In the interview, Mr. Shapiro reiterated that he was focused on that job.

But asked if — broadly speaking — he believed the country could elect a Jewish president in his lifetime, he replied, “Speaking broadly, absolutely.”

“It doesn’t mean that our nation is free of bias,” he said. “If you’re asking me, can the country rise above that, and elect someone that might look different than them or worship different than them? The answer is yes.”

— Katie Glueck Reporting from Pennsylvania’s State Capitol building in Harrisburg, Pa.

Here’s why antiwar protests haven’t flared up at Black colleges like Morehouse.

As President Biden prepares to give graduation remarks this month at Morehouse College in Atlanta, a prestigious historically Black institution, the White House is signaling anxiety about the potential for protests over the war in Gaza.

During a recent visit to Atlanta, Vice President Kamala Harris stopped to ask the Morehouse student government president about the sentiment on campus about the conflict, how students felt about Mr. Biden’s visit and what the graduating class would like to hear from him on May 19.

Then, on Friday, the White House dispatched the leader of its public engagement office and one of its most senior Black officials, Stephen K. Benjamin, to the Morehouse campus for meetings to take the temperature of students, faculty members and administrators.

The reasons for concern are clear: Nationwide demonstrations over the war and Mr. Biden’s approach to it have inflamed more than 60 colleges and universities , stoked tensions within the Democratic Party and created new headaches for his re-election bid.

Yet Mr. Biden appears to be entering a different type of scene at Morehouse.

While anger over the war remains palpable at Morehouse and other historically Black colleges and universities, these campuses have been largely free of turmoil, and tensions are far less evident: no encampments, few loud protests and little sign of Palestinian flags flying from dorm windows.

The reasons stem from political, cultural and socioeconomic differences with other institutions of higher learning. While H.B.C.U.s host a range of political views, domestic concerns tend to outweigh foreign policy in the minds of most students. Many started lower on the economic ladder and are more intently focused on their education and their job prospects after graduation.

At Morehouse — which has a legacy of civil rights protests and is the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s alma mater — discontent over the Gaza war has played out in classrooms and auditoriums rather than on campus lawns.

“This should not be a place that cancels people regardless of if we agree with them,” David Thomas, the Morehouse president, said in an interview on Thursday. Of Mr. Biden’s visit, he said, “Whether people support the decision or not, they are committed to having it happen on our campus in a way that doesn’t undermine the integrity or dignity of the school.”

Some students have held contentious meetings with university leaders and urged them to rescind Mr. Biden’s invitation, and a small group of faculty members has vowed not to attend commencement. Some alumni wrote a letter expressing worries that student protesters could be punished, noting Morehouse’s history of “celebrating student activists long after they have graduated.”

But the college might appear politically safer for the president to visit than many others. Morehouse is a custom-bound place where undergraduates traditionally do not step on the grass in the heart of campus until they receive their degrees. Alumni view commencement as a distinguished event not only for students but also for scores of family and community members — making it a less likely venue for a major disruption.

Mr. Biden chose to speak at Morehouse after the White House had received invitations from an array of colleges. It will be the third time in four years he has addressed graduates of a historically Black institution; he has also spoken at commencement for one military academy each year.

Among those lobbying Mr. Biden to come to Morehouse was Cedric Richmond, a member of the college’s class of 1995, who ran Mr. Biden’s public engagement office and is now a senior adviser at the Democratic National Committee .

Mr. Richmond, who has a nephew at Morehouse, predicted Mr. Biden would speak about the high expectations of the college’s alumni, promote his record of reducing Black unemployment and narrowing the racial wealth gap, and deliver familiar exhortations about perseverance.

Mr. Richmond does not think Mr. Biden will face protests.

“The Morehouse College graduation, at least as I remember it, is a very solemn event,” he said. “You have almost 500 African American males walking across that stage, whose parents and grandparents sacrificed and those students worked their butts off to, one, get into Morehouse, and two, to graduate. That’s a very significant day. And I’m just not sure whether students or protesters are going to interfere with that solemn moment.”

Vice President Harris, who graduated from Howard University, another historically Black institution, is engaged in her own virtual tour of such colleges. A congratulatory video she recorded will be played for graduates at 44 H.B.C.U.s; she is often introduced as a surprise guest and greeted with cheers.

In Atlanta last month, Ms. Harris asked the Morehouse student government president, Mekhi Perrin, what approach Mr. Biden should take in his address.

“I think really she was just trying to gain an idea of what exactly students’ issues were with his coming, if any at all,” Mr. Perrin said. “And what would kind of shift that narrative.”

Mr. Biden has been trailed by Gaza protesters for months. The last time he spoke at a four-year college campus was in January, when demonstrators interrupted him at least 10 times during a rally at George Mason University in Virginia.

Morehouse’s traditions are strong. Dr. King said it was a place where he had advanced his understanding of nonviolent protest and moral leadership — which current Morehouse students say they take seriously.

“I feel like the protests do need to come out, because if you don’t see students advocating for what they believe in, then the change that they’re advocating for will never come about,” said Benjamin Bayliss, a Morehouse junior. Looking toward the statue of Dr. King in front of the chapel named for the civil rights leader, he added, “You really feel the weight of what King did and the fire of the torch that he lit that we have to carry on.”

Yet even as some students feel compelled to protest, outside factors can shape their decisions. Roughly 75 percent of students at H.B.C.U.s, including 50 percent of Morehouse students, are eligible for the Pell Grant , a federal aid program for low-income students. More than 80 percent of Morehouse students receive some form of financial aid. In the Class of 2024, nearly a third of graduates will be the first in their family to receive a bachelor’s degree.

Some students at Black colleges also may decide against protesting because of family pressure , which amplifies the importance of securing their degrees.

“Your student body at Columbia is very different than the student body at, say, Dillard,” said Walter Kimbrough, who spent a decade as president of Dillard University, a historically Black institution in New Orleans. “It doesn’t mean that people aren’t concerned. But they understand that they have some different kinds of stakes.”

The stakes are also high for Mr. Biden, whose standing with Black voters has softened ahead of November’s presidential election. Young people are less enthusiastic about voting at all — partly because of Mr. Biden’s handling of the Gaza war, but also because they are unhappy with the choice between him and former President Donald J. Trump.

“I think it’s really just picking the lesser of two evils,” said Freddrell Rhea Green II, a Morehouse freshman. “Anything better than Donald Trump, a madman, a quote unquote tyrant, is better for me.”

“Joe Biden is probably a very nice person,” said Samuel Livingston, an associate professor of Africana studies at Morehouse. “But niceness is not the level of leadership that we need. We need ethical leadership. And continuing to support the aiding, abetting and the stripping of Palestinian land, from Palestinian people in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, is not ethical.”

Some students, like Auzzy Byrdsell, a senior studying kinesiology and journalism, support their classmates’ protests but fear a possible response from the police to a crowd of largely Black young men.

“Do we get tear-gassed?” said Mr. Byrdsell, the editor in chief of The Maroon Tiger, the school’s student newspaper. “Do we get arrested? That would not be the greatest look for a Morehouse College graduation.”

Senator Raphael Warnock of Georgia, a 1991 Morehouse alumnus, said that he hoped Mr. Biden would highlight his record and his agenda — but that there was little the president could say about the Gaza conflict to assuage his critics on campus.

“While what he says is important,” Mr. Warnock said, trying to put himself in the shoes of student protesters, “I think much more important is what he does in the future.”

Kitty Bennett contributed research.

— Maya King and Reid J. Epstein Maya King reported from Atlanta, and Reid J. Epstein from Washington.

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