IMHO Journal

Covid-19 and Social Inequality: How Poor Filipinos Suffer More During Pandemics

By: [wpv-hd-taxonomy type="imho_author"]

Regletto Aldrich Imbong

March 31, 2020 Length:1754 words

Summary: On social inequality and the Filipino government’s measures taken against the coronavirus – Editors.

The Philippines has a long history of disasters, both natural and human-made, that wreaked havoc upon the lives and livelihoods of thousands of Filipinos. Its geographic location makes the country more prone to frequent earthquakes, strong typhoons, and other natural disasters. These natural occurrences have not only revealed the vulnerability of most of its sectors but also uncovered the underlying socio-economic structure that determined how resources, commodities, and wealth are distributed and how such a distribution affects social relations in general.

When the state of national health emergency was declared by President Rodrigo Duterte last 8 March 2020, the country had already recorded ten Covid-19 cases and had gained the reputation of having the first death outside of China. [1] After such a declaration by the President, more declarations followed, both at the national as well as the local levels. First, there was the community quarantine in Metro Manila. Later on, this was upgraded to an enhanced community quarantine (ECQ) throughout the entire island of Luzon, the largest island in the Philippines. In this enhanced quarantine, a strict home quarantine is to be observed in all households from 17 March to 13 April 2020. [2] While certain individuals and groups are among the exceptions to the general rule of home quarantine, virtually all of the people of Luzon are prohibited from going out of their households during the entire duration of the ECQ. The ECQ would be replicated later in some provinces and cities in the islands of the Visayas and Mindanao. The Philippines’ response to the Covid-19 pandemic would also later on be addressed by the creation of the National Action Plan (NAP) chaired by Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana, [3] a military general and the administrator of Martial Law in Mindanao from 2017 to 2019. In fact, the NAP would be composed of military generals whose medical knowledge, it can be presumed, is far inferior to that of scientists and health experts more fit to lead a body tasked to curb the effects of a pandemic.

While the enhanced community quarantine seems to have an equalizing effect to all affected citizens, a closer look both at its content as well as at its application reveals a social inequality that has haunted the Philippine society for centuries already. First, the idea of a home quarantine would really be effective if and only if there were indeed a home for all citizens to stay quarantined inside in the first place. The Philippines has a record high of urban squatting, where 20-25 million Filipinos do not have decent housing. [4] Urban squatting in the Philippines has deep historical roots, but the problem is essentially entangled with the lack of job opportunities in the urban areas and of affordable social housing for the poor working people. [5] The housing issue in the Philippines would make timely what Friedrich Engels explained in 1872 in The Housing Question . “What is meant today,” he argued, “by housing shortage is the peculiar intensification of the bad housing conditions of the workers as a result of the sudden rush of the population to the big cities.” He further explained that such a shortage is characterized by a “colossal increase in rents, still greater congestion in the separate houses, and, for some, the impossibility of finding a place to live in at all.” What is rather alarming of this housing shortage is that it not only haunts the working class people – and the unemployed of course – but also the petty bourgeoisie as well. [6] In the absence of decent housing where one can shelter oneself from the dangers of a contagious and deadly virus, one can merely secure a night’s rest on exposed sidewalks most vulnerable to the threat itself, thus defeating altogether the very notion of quarantine. This situation of homelessness is worsened as demolitions of informal settlements continue despite the declaration of a national health emergency. [7]

Second, restricting the movement of the general population has a more disadvantageous effect to those who live by daily wages. Daily wages here literally mean the amount paid to the laborer on a daily basis as an exchange for his/her labor power for that particular day. And with the “no work, no pay” scheme determined by the contractual [8] basis of labor prevalent here in the Philippines, most if not all of the working people are bound to suffer from an obstructed daily working schedule. With a meager daily minimum wage of Php 537 (USD 10.53) in the National Capital Region, the highest minimum wage in all the regions of the Philippines, a worker will lose around Php 15,000 (USD 294) in one month’s time. This would not be compensated by the government’s adjustment measure program under which an affected worker is promised Php 5,000 (USD 98) in cash as an alleviating measure during the ECQ period. Here, Marx’s comment in Grundrisse that “the historic character of wage labour is non-fixity” [9] takes on a new light as it is exemplified by the plight of Filipino wage laborers suffering the uncertainty caused by the current pandemic.

Third, the Filipino people did not spare themselves the hassles and dangers of panic buying. But while the rich and the middle class panicked to secure for themselves and buy goods which they deemed necessary for their survival during the ECQ, the poor merely panicked. They don’t have the means to buy the stuff they need. Or rather, from a Marxist perspective, individuals, through exchange, could only demand that portion of the social goods allotted to them by distribution, the latter being determined by social laws beyond the agency of the individual. [10] And what is allotted to them through distribution is exchanged through the value equivalent to their labor power. In simpler terms, individuals can only demand or exchange as much as their pay allows them to. And in a country where millions are living on daily minimum wage and still a thousand others are practically living without work at all, the share and distribution of the social goods can be as unequal as the income gap between the rich and the poor Filipinos. [11] The monstrous face of social inequality is revealed during times of crises and pandemics.

Fourth, this social inequality proves itself more in the implementation of the ECQ. Glaring and contrasting examples are between Dorothy Espejo and Sen. Aquilino Pimentel III. It was already noted above how the homeless become very vulnerable, especially in this Covid-19 pandemic. Dorothy Espejo is a 69-year-old homeless grandmother who, after allegedly shouting expletives at barangay officials who called to her as she slept on the streets of Manila, was jailed in violation of prohibiting resistance and disobedience to authority. [12] She could be imprisoned for up to 6 months and fined up to Php 100,000 (USD 1,960). Sen Aquilino Pimentel, on the other hand, is Covid-19 positive. Despite strict protocols on self-quarantine, the senator breached not only these protocols but the ECQ itself by rushing his pregnant wife to the hospital, thus potentially endangering not only his wife and his unborn child, but also all the health workers he came into contact with during that time. [13] The senator’s reckless action forced the health workers he came into contact with under self-quarantine to be exposed to the virus thus diminishing the number of health workers in a country that is in dire need of nurses, doctors, and other health workers. The Department of Justice, contrary to the action against Dorothy Espejo, called for compassion in relation to the Senator’s case. [14] There are more stories of abuse and discrimination against the poor, the Muslims, women, and other ordinary citizens during the implementation of the ECQ in the Philippines that manifest social inequality in the country.

While pandemics are global and universal in character, their effects and especially the suffering they cause vary from one social class to another. Recently, it has been reported that the billionaires seek shelter from the Covid-19 pandemic in chartered superyachts. [15] This is a luxury which ordinary citizens, not even the middle class, can afford. But if there is one lesson that the Covid-19 pandemic has to teach humanity, it is that, for one to be safe, others must be also. Social solidarity, instead of social distancing, became the challenge that went viral on social media. But social solidarity must not be understood as the philanthropic actions of a few toward the many. Rather, social solidarity must be anchored on the eradication of the conditions of social inequality itself. If we apply Engels’ solution to the housing problem to fit to our current predicament, we can only end social inequality and the suffering it causes to the poor during pandemics if we “abolish altogether the exploitation and oppression of the working class by the ruling class.” [16]

[1] Sofia Tomacruz, “Duterte Declares State of Public Health Emergency Amid Rise in Corona Virus Cases,” Rappler , 9 March 2020, available at; 29 March 2020.

[2] Anjo Alimario, “Enhanced Community Quarantine Takes Effect in Luzon,” CNN Philippines , 17 March 2020, available at–takes-effect-in-Luzon.html; 29 March 2020.

[3] Virgil Lopez, “Palace Bears National Action Plan VS. COVID-19,” MSN News , 26 March 2020, available at; 29 March 2020.

[4] Habitat for Humanity, “Upgrading Slums in the Philippines,” Habit for Humanity , 2017, available at; 29 March 2020.

[5] Gerardo Sicat, “Historical Roots of Urban Squatting,” PhilStar , 21 November 2017, available at; 29 March 2020.

[6] Friedrich Engels, “The Housing Question,” in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Selected Works, vol. 2 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969), 305.

[7] Bulatlat, “300 Families in Pasay Lose Homes Amid COVID-19 Pandemic,” Bulatlat: Journalism for the People , 18 March 2020, available at; 29 March 2020.

[8] Ibon Media, “Contractualization: A Neoliberal Policy,” Ibon , 26 April 2018, available at; 29 March 2020.

[9] Karl Marx, Grundrisse , trans. Martin Nicolaus (New York: Penguin Classics, 1973), 891.

[10] Marx, Grundrisse , 89.

[11] Reicelene Joy Ignacio, “Income Inequality Widening Amid Strong Economic Growth,” Business World , 30 May 2019, available at; 29 March 2020.

[12] Lian Buan, “Cops Arrest Homeless Lola who Shouted at Tanods Warning About Curfew,” Rappler , 17 March 2020, available at; 29 March 2020.

[13] Xave Gregorio, “Makati Hospital Berates Sen. Pimentel for Violating Quarantine Protocols,” CNN Philippines , 25 March 2020, available at; 29 March 2020.

[14] Lian Buan, “’Compassion’: DOJ not Investigating Pimentel Quarantine Breach Without Complaint,” 25 March 2020, available at; 29 March 2020.

[15] Alan Tovey, “Billionaries Seek Sanctuary From Coronavirus Aboard Superyachts,” The Telegraph , 22 March 2020, available at; 29 March 2020.

[16] Engels, “The Housing Question,” in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Selected Works, vol. 2, 305.

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Jose Fermin B. Crave

a very timely scholarly article created by an author who is so adept of the topic and whose social involvement with the Philippine poor is beyond reproach. worth reading indeed.


this is such a great and very comprehensive article. all the points were backed with powerful ideas and narratives from various articles, and i want to personally thank the author in advance for posting this which will enable me to complete my essay work. i will not forget credits, thanks again!


From the same author.

social inequality essay tagalog

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KEY FINDINGS Overcoming Poverty and Inequality in the Philippines: Past, Present, and Prospects for the Future

Overcoming Poverty and Inequality in the Philippines

Download the Full Report

  • The Philippines has made significant progress in reducing poverty, but income inequality has only recently begun to fall. Thanks to high growth rates and structural transformation, between 1985 and 2018 poverty fell by two-thirds. However, income inequality did not begin to decline until 2012. It is still high: the top 1 percent of earners together capture 17 percent of national income, with only 14 percent being shared by the bottom 50 percent.
  • Several structural factors contribute to the persistence of inequality. The expansion of secondary education and mobility to better-paying jobs, citizen ownership of more assets and access to basic services, and government social assistance have helped reduce inequality since the mid-2000s. However, unequal opportunities, lack of access to tertiary education and a scarcity of skills, coupled with inequality in returns to college education, gendered social norms and childcare, and spatial gaps, sustain inequality.
  • Inequality of opportunity limits the potential for upward mobility. While there has been considerable progress in expanding access to basic services such as electricity, safe drinking water, and school enrollment, large disparities limit the development of human capital. Inequality of opportunity and low intergenerational mobility waste human potential, resulting in a lack of innovation and a misallocation of human capital in the economy.
  • While schooling is widely accessible, its quality and attainment vary by income group. Children from poorer households are less likely to be enrolled and, if they are, to reach age-appropriate grade levels. That means they are less likely to reach tertiary education, which severely constrains their earning potential and their prospects for upward mobility. With the relatively low share of workers with tertiary education, the premium for college education has remained high. Additionally, tertiary education tends to deliver much higher returns for rich than poor households, possibly due to differences in school quality or f ields of study and employment.
  • COVID-19 partly reversed decades-long gains in reducing poverty and inequality. The pandemic halted economic growth momentum in 2020, and unemployment shot up in industries that require inperson work. In 2021, poverty rose to 18.1 percent despite large government assistance. The economy has begun to rebound but signs are emerging that the recovery will be uneven. Prolonged loss of income has taken a heavy toll on the poorest households. With food prices going up and a reliance on adverse coping strategies, among them eating less, there is a risk of serious consequences for the health and nutrition of children in vulnerable households.
  • The shock from the COVID-19 pandemic led to a shift in the workforce to less productive sectors and occupations. Employment in wage work has notably decreased and employment in agriculture has risen. These trends have been concentrated among youth and the least educated, which suggests an uneven recovery and widening income inequality.
  • The pandemic is likely to result in long-term scarring of human capital development. Over half of households estimate that their children learned from remote learning less than half what they would have learned from face-to-face schooling. The proportion increases to 68 percent in poor households. Extended distance learning is expected to have reduced the learning-adjusted years of schooling by over a full year. Learning loss, combined with the de-skilling associated with prolonged unemployment, could lead to sizable future earnings losses.
  • Job polarization could further increase as the nature of work changes. Job polarization among wage workers emerged between 2016 and 2021: employment in middle-skilled occupations went down and employment in both low-skilled and high-skilled occupations went up. This pattern may rise with the transformation of jobs post-COVID-19 and could increase prevailing disparities in incomes.
  • Policy can reduce inequality by supporting employment and workers, improving education access and quality, promoting inclusive rural development, strengthening social protection mechanisms, and addressing inequality of opportunity.

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Inequalities of Class, Gender, and Ethnicity in the Philippines

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Understanding Culture, Society and Politics

Poverty and social inequalities.

  • Teaching Resources

Author: Arjan Aguirre

Poverty and social inequalities are contemporary issues that have affected millions and millions of people across the world. Poverty destroys lives by denying people access to their basic needs like food, shelter, and health services. Social inequalities, on the other hand, set the conditions for the structural limitation and exclusion of peoples to opportunities and resources based on their identity, orientation, or gender, among other things. Both poverty and social inequalities are not just a hindrance to one’s survival and growth, they are—most importantly—also an impediment to our collective development as a nation.

What do you think about our modules? Please let us know by answering this short survey!

In this module, both teachers and students are invited to understand how this two-pronged problem has evolved into a systemic inhumane reality that has reduced millions people to its most basic condition—mere biological existence that is devoid of dignity, future, and meaning. These systemic deprivations and often institutionalized limitations of wherewithal, opportunities, and resources among the population have resulted in widespread malnutrition, substandard shelter, health deterioration, miseducation, social exclusion, and marginalization, among others. Sadly, they have become part of our modern societies, legitimized in our weak institutions and practices, incorporated and entrenched in the historical legacies of our communities, and normalized in our contemporary biases and prejudices as a nation.

The topics here will help the learners discover how poverty and social inequalities emerge and continue to manifest, shape and influence our humanity and our future. The discussions that will be covered here are meant not just to educate but also to draw out learnings from experiences and realizations that can allow them to respond and contribute to the ongoing discussions and efforts to raise the awareness of our public and deepen our resolve to address widespread poverty and social inequalities in our midst.


Most Essential Learning Competencies 

  • Examine the concept, characteristics, and forms of stratification systems using sociological perspectives.

Content Standards

By the end of this module, learners are expected to demonstrate an understanding of:

  • Social stratification as the ranking of individuals according to wealth, power, and prestige;
  • Social and political inequalities as features of societies and the global community
  • Concepts and definitions that can help us make sense of poverty and social inequalities;
  • Causes and drivers of poverty and social inequalities; and
  • Roles of stakeholders on poverty and social inequalities.

Performance Standards

By the end of this module, learners are expected to:

  • Analyze aspects of social organization;
  • Identify one’s role in social groups and institutions;
  • Recognize other forms of economic transaction such as sharing, gift exchange, and redistribution in his/her own society
  • Understand the importance of poverty and social inequalities in the Philippine context; and
  • Demonstrate one’s role in alleviating poverty and ending social inequalities in our society.

social inequality essay tagalog

Lesson 1: What is Poverty?

What does poverty mean? What makes one poor? Who are the poor people in our society? Why should we care about poverty? These are just some of the questions that come to mind when we are asked about the topic of poverty. At present, it has become so difficult to answer these questions knowing that poverty has become a multidimensional and complex social phenomenon. 

Lesson Objectives

At the end of the lesson, the student is expected to be able to:

  • Determine the definition, forms and outcomes of poverty; and
  • Recognize various ways poverty is determined these days.

Key Concepts

  • Poverty – lack in capability and control to meet basic needs and services
  • Relative poverty – state of poverty in which an individual is unable to meet the local standards of living.
  • Absolute poverty – condition wherein people are totally unable to meet basic needs and services.
  • Subjective poverty – condition of lack based on individual realities.
  • Needs – formed due to a lack of something crucial to a person.
  • Necessity – something that improves one’s condition, but is also something one can live without.
  • Income – basic standard to know if one is able to meet their needs and necessities.
  • Consumption – covers the amount of things an individual can pay or purchase.
  • Poverty line – a measure of poverty that uses the average price of commodities needed for one’s survival as the basis.

Self-evaluation Form (Part 1)

Answer the following questions.

1. What do you already know about the lesson?


2. What do you want to know more about the lesson?

Poverty, in its most basic sense, is generally understood as the ‘deprivation in well-being’ (Haughton and Khandker 2009). This understanding assumes that our well-being is inherently tied up to our lack of control of the things that allow us to meet our needs. Therefore, for most of us, poverty is the absence of this relative control over resources to make ends meet. The measure of poverty, in other words, is done by comparing one’s access to and control of these resources, such as income and possessions.

social inequality essay tagalog

Social scientists and experts nowadays have devised ways to understand poverty depending on how one sees it: a) Relative poverty – is understood as a condition of living that allows people to access their basic needs. However, their earnings cannot meet the average level of standard living in their locality. This means that people who live in relative poverty can still live normally in their society, but cannot enjoy comforts such as having their own car to travel from one place to another; b) Absolute poverty – is a kind of poverty that people experience where they cannot meet the necessities for them to live: food, water, shelter, and health services. People under this category unfortunately are extremely vulnerable to hunger, undernutrition, disaster, and pandemic outbreaks. c) Subjective poverty – uses a different understanding of poverty where one’s perceptions and expectations are taken into account in gauging one’s place in the society. Here, the people are really expected to be reflective of their situation; allowing them to define and make sense of their condition vis-à-vis their access to necessities and a comfortable life.

Measuring poverty is done in various ways. At the household level, the most popular one is by using income as the base in knowing one’s ability to access one’s needs and other necessities. Income is best understood as the total amount that resulted from one’s consumption and one’s assets (Haig 1921; Simons 1938; Haughton and Khandker 2009). The problem with this measurement is that it is too simplistic and that it tends to disregard other factors that happen in between consumption and assets that lead to income.

Looking at consumptio n, this measurement, in fact, can already reveal one’s access to life necessities or basic needs. It is understood here that consumption is supposed to complement one’s ability to purchase or pay (Haughton and Khandker 2009). However, just like income, consumption can also be problematic because it is difficult to measure given that there are goods and services that sometimes are not necessarily reflected in one’s spending.

At present, measuring the poverty line, or the use of the average price of commodities needed for one’s survival as the basis to know who is poor or not, is currently used in many societies. In this case, people whose meagre resources or income cannot reach the poverty line are considered to be living in poverty (Giddens 2006). Again, just like the previous attempts to measure poverty, this measurement falls short in taking into account the differences of cost of living in areas in a society: urban versus rural, or in cities versus towns.

At the aggregate level, poverty is measured by using indices that reflect a country’s average income such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) . For most of us, this measure is used to know how a particular country is doing in terms of the total value of all the goods, services, and transactions that have been produced minus the costs that produced them within a specific period of time. The problem of this measurement, though, is that it does not cover other sources of income and consumptions within a country.

These days, many institutions and scholars are using more holistic and multidimensional ways of measuring poverty that take into account other factors and aspects that perfectly capture the condition of poverty. One of these measures is the Human Development Index of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) that highlights human capabilities as the main criteria of measuring development in a country. It is understood as the average measure of these three: one’s life expectancy from birth, years of education, and gross national income per capita (GNI).

It is important to know what poverty is and how it can be measured because this issue involves some of the most vulnerable individuals, households, people, and sectors. in our society. In times of trouble, the poor people are the first ones who experience the brunt of natural calamities, famine, wars, crises, and pandemic outbreaks. They are also the first ones who are abused and exploited by other people for profit and other illicit acts such as human trafficking, selling of organs, and other crimes.

Worse of all, poverty is aggravated by misgovernance, corruption, and abuse of power from the government. The impoverished population first feel the impact of substandard public services and goods—leading to their worsening situation, making things harder for them to survive.

In the Philippines, poverty incidence has ranged from 20.5 percent to 22.6 percent in recent years according to the World Bank (2020). Data on subjective poverty reveals a greater percentage, as 48 percent of Filipinos feel poor, 29 percent feel borderline poor, and 23 percent feel not poor in the second quarter of 2021. The largest population of self-rated poor are found in Visayas with the number at 70 percent while Luzon and Mindanao having 38 percent and 51 percent respectively (Social Weather Stations, 2021).

Table 1.1 Annual Per Capita Thresholds and Poverty Incidence among Families by Region: 2015 vs. 2018

social inequality essay tagalog

 2018 Official Poverty Statistics

Self-Evaluation Form (Part 2)

1. What have you learned from the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. How will you apply the knowledge you have learned in this lesson in improving Philippine society? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

social inequality essay tagalog

  • List of Activities

Synchronous Activities (In-class) 

Activity: Did You Get It? Instructions. The teacher should prepare an incentive, for example candies, for the class, and distribute these unevenly to students and/or not include some or few students in class.

Step 1. Pause for a moment and ask these questions to the students: – Who has received the items? Who has not? – What do they feel about what they have received and/or not received in relation to other students?

Step 2. The teacher should be able to articulate the points about ‘deprivation’ and the forms of poverty. Step 3. In preparation for the next topic, the teacher should also get the input from the students about what they have noticed about the distribution of the candies in class. Is it done according to looks? Academic standing? Gender? Belief? Background?

Asynchronous Activities

Activity: Jam-board activity Instructions. The teacher shares the jam board to the students.

Students may post their own understanding of poverty using this guide: – In which aspects do you think you are lacking, or what qualities do you have that make you perceive that you are in poverty? – Explain why you think people experience poverty. Why does this lack meet the standards of poverty?

Self-paced Learning (Optional Activities)

Activity: Video Instructions. Watch this video: Can Extreme Poverty ever be eradicated?

Compose a 300-word essay of your reflection on this video using this guide: – Do you think poverty is something that we can solve? – Can you suggest ways on how we can eliminate poverty?

Lesson 2: What are social inequalities?

 Lesson Objectives

  • Understand what ‘social inequalities’ means in society today;
  • Know where we can observe social inequalities; and 
  • Become more aware of the manifestations they can take in this modern period, or how they appear these days.
  • Social inequality – condition of unequal access to needed resources, services, and standing in society.
  • Ethnic inequality – unequal distribution of wealth, resources and opportunities brought about by ethnic divides
  • Slavery –  condition when an individual is considered as the property of another
  • Gender – social construct on one’s behavior and performance in society. 
  • Class inequality – condition of unequal access based on income, and their access to wealth and means of production. 
  • Caste – a social group assigned to a person from birth.
  • Social Inequalities

Social Inequalities , as understood recently, are the “condition where people have unequal access to valued resources, services, and positions in the society” (Kerbo, 2003, p.11 cited by Blackburn, 2008, p.251). In this sense, as compared to poverty, this unequal access pertains to an institutionalized limitation that conditions a person’s access to what he or she needs or values in the society. Nowadays, these inequalities are determined by existing social stratifications that are based on attributes and backgrounds such as class, background, gender, and ethnicity.

Unlike poverty, social inequalities use bases that are not justified by reason or nature (Blackburn, 2008). Throughout the centuries, societies have formulated restrictions that helped them order and structure their social relations that eventually favor and privilege few at the expense of the many. For instance, ‘ethnic inequality’ uses one’s ethnic background as the basis of giving preference or privilege. In some societies, people who belong to ethnic backgrounds such as Chinese, Indians, among others, are discriminated against for their culture, religion, practices, and clothing. These people experience both overt and subtle limitations for their development and growth in their workplaces, schools, and communities by discriminating against them to access good positions, quality education, and participate in communal activities, among other things.

Slavery is another form of social inequality. Slavery has been an institution throughout human history. There are a number of factors which makes people vulnerable to slavery, which include war, local conflict and ethnic hostilities. Many of those forced into slavery were prisoners-of-war, criminals and debtors. In the 17th to 19th centuries, slaves from Africa were frequently imported to American colonies.

Slaves were treated unequally with the general population and thus not given the same rights as free men. As a consequence, their ethnicity was often mistreated and discriminated against. This was made worse by social darwinism or the perceived superiority of Europeans over other “races,” and racial segregation.

The legacy of discrimination still pervades some societies to this day. Many Black communities in former European colonies, e.g., United States, South Africa, Brazil, have been neglected or undersupported by local and national governments. These communities are also often plagued by poor housing, decrepit infrastructure, slow work mobility, underfunded education and less health subsidies. Despite recent reforms and changes in their policies and laws, people of color still experience systemic denial of opportunities, delays in promotions and racist treatments from their communities and governments.

Gender is another source of inequality that is also unjustifiable and intolerable in many ways. This social inequality goes way back to centuries when women have already been regarded as a lesser kind of people—having characteristics and attributes that are regarded as weak and vulnerable. In some countries, women are barred from working, studying, or occupying important positions in society. These days, even if societies have opened up opportunities to women, many still experience being denied better occupation, promotion, lesser benefits, unrecognized contributions, among others (Blackburn, 2008).

Across the globe, the struggle for gender equality that has started among women is now joined by its new allies in the LGBT+ communities. Just like women, people from the LGBT+ community such as lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgenders (thus LGBT), among many orientations, are also victims of widespread discrimination, exclusion and abuse.

social inequality essay tagalog

Other forms of inequalities are class inequality and caste system , among other things. Class inequality is understood as a form of inequality that is based on one’s income, access to wealth, or means of production in a society (Giddens, 2006). Our society, according to this stratification, is divided between the upper, middle, and lower classes, with the upper class having the bigger income or most access, middle class with moderate income or ample access, and lower class with minimal income or limited access. For centuries, this system has been used by scholars and activists in pointing out the unjust situation of the working class vis-à-vis the capitalist class. In a capitalist set up, the capitalists, or the owners of capital, usually get the bigger share of the profit at the expense of the hardworking laborers who run the factories, offices, and other work settings. In the long run, this system has led to the concentration of wealth for the upper class and systemic economic exclusion of the ‘99%’ of the population.

social inequality essay tagalog

A caste system is a form of structuring a society similarly to the class system. A caste is assigned to a person for life (Giddens, 2006). In a caste society, people are sometimes prohibited to marry people from other social groups. The most well-known caste system is found in India, where they practice Hinduism. In the Hindu caste system, they structure their society into four: Brahmins (learned people and intellectuals), Ksyatriyas (soldiers and rulers), Vaisyas (farmers and merchants), and Shudras (laborers and artisans) (Giddens, 2006). There are gaps in the rights that members from each caste exercise, such as access to employment, education and other services, and basic needs. However, Giddens (2006) observed that these conditions may become less rigid due to globalization.

These days, the aforementioned forms of inequalities aggravate the worsening conditions of peoples in various parts of the world.

In the Philippines, these forms of inequalities are scattered in our communities, institutions and practices. Many women are still discriminated against in their workplaces, schools, universities, and health facilities. Many individuals from the LGBT+ communities also face the same, if not worse, conditions or situations, in the sense that they are openly discriminated against and excluded in our society—based on our culture, biases, and prejudices. Millions of our workers up to now are still denied their security of tenure, benefits, social protections from their employers and workplaces. Together with poverty, these forms of inequalities have also caused so much injustice and harm to many people.

It is important to know what social inequalities are and how they manifest in our society today, because this issue involves the same most vulnerable individuals, households, people, and sectors in our society. These people are often the most vulnerable during times of crisis such as natural calamities, famine, wars, and pandemic outbreaks. Additionally, both the poor and the marginalized are abused and exploited by the same people for profit and other illicit acts such as human trafficking, selling of organs, and other crimes.

This is especially evident in the Philippines, as marginalized groups have suffered the most in the recent pandemic.. Indeed, many of those in the informal sector have had their livelihoods severely affected by the months-long lockdown. Those who were able to make a living had to face reduced mass transportation. In addition, public utility vehicles (PUVs) that the public can afford and access are unreliable, highly unmaintained, and lacking in safety measures (Africa, 2019). These same laborers were threatened with “no vaccination, no pay” and “no vaccine, no work” policies, to which labor groups have disputed (Medenilla, 2021). And those who were infected with COVID-19 faced preferential treatment in hospitals.

In the presence of misgovernance, corruption, abuse of power from the government, and weak political institutions, people who are victims of social inequalities experience overlapping forms of deprivation of life necessities and restriction to opportunities for them to live a decent life. These days many women, LGBT+, people of color, and abused workers among others. live below the poverty line. Poverty and social inequalities overlap in many societies. You can see overlapping qualities that are present in some people, like low-income women or LGBT who are black or belong to mixed ethnic backgrounds.

Instruction. Answer the following questions.

Activity: Discussion Instructions. The teacher should divide the class into 5 and ask each group to talk about the difference between the forms of discrimination experienced by: – women; – the LGBTQIA+; – ethnic communities; and – socio-economic classes.

Step 1. The teacher should be able to articulate the points about these social categories and that the discrimination and exclusion happen both in subtle and overt ways. Step 2. In preparation for the next topic, the teacher should also get the input from the students about what they can do to help mitigate the effects of both deprivation (from poverty) and restrictions (from social inequalities)?

Activity: Problem Tree Instructions. Identify the root cause of the inequalities in our society.

Step 1. Discuss stems that make them possible and manifest in our society. Step 2. Determine the effects of these inequalities in our society.

Rubric for Discussions

Abao, C. & Cornelio, J. (2021). [ANALYSIS] Poverty, hunger, and Duterte’s wasted political capital. CNN Philippines. Accessed from

Africa, S. (2019, October 28). Solving the NCR mass transport crisis. IBON Foundation. Accessed from

Asian Development Bank (2018) Poverty Data: Philippines. Accessed from

Blackburn, R. (2008). What is Social Inequality? International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 28 (7/8), 250-259.

Bugui, S., Broom, F., Adriano, J., and Rueda, A. (2021). COVID-19, lies and statistics: corruption and the pandemic. Accessed from

Giddens, A. (2006) Sociology. 5th ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Haughton, J. & Khandker, S. (2009) Handbook on Poverty and Inequality. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Kerbo, H. (2003) Social Stratification and Inequality: Class Conflict in Historical and Global Perspective. London: McGraw-Hill.

Medenilla, S. (2021, October 21). Labor groups question legality of ‘no vaccine, no work’ policy. Business Mirror. Accessed from

Openstax (2015) Introduction to Sociology 2e. Houston, Texas: Rice University.

Philippine Statistics Authority (2019) Proportion of Poor Filipinos was Estimated at 16.6 Percent in 2018. Accessed from

Project Everyone (n.d.) World Largest Lesson. Accessed from

Ramos, M. (2021). DOJ chief: Law bans ‘no vaccine, no work’ policy. Inquirer. Accessed from

Sen, A. (1999) Development as Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press.

Social Weather Stations (2021, July 25).Second Quarter 2021 Social Weather Survey: 48% of Filipino families feel Poor; 23% feel Not Poor, 29% feel Borderline Poor. Accessed from Social Weather Stations | Second Quarter 2021 Social Weather Survey: 48% of Filipino families feel Poor; 23% feel Not Poor, 29% feel Borderline Poor ( h)

  • Introduction
  • Rubrics for Grading

social inequality essay tagalog

Book cover

Social Equity in the Asia-Pacific Region pp 187–213 Cite as

Social Equity in the Philippines: A Continuing but Elusive Promise

  • Alex B. Brillantes Jr 2 ,
  • Maria Victoria R. Raquiza 2 &
  • Maria Pilar M. Lorenzo 3  
  • First Online: 26 May 2019

419 Accesses

4 Citations

In this chapter, Brillantes, Raquiza, and Lorenzo focus on the imperatives of social equity as a fundamental—but normative—principle for contemporary Philippine public administration. The pursuit of social equity may be seen as a response to the problems of pervasive poverty and inequality in spite of, paradoxically, rapid economic growth. The chapter cites two government programs that ostensibly aim to bring about social equity, the Conditional Cash Transfer program and the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion law. Evidence has shown that both programs have yet to make a significant impact to redistribute wealth in a lasting way within the context of social equity. Hence, the chapter argues that social equity in the Philippines is a continuing process but remains an elusive goal.

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These senior scholars of public administration included Raul P. de Guzman, Onofre D. Corpuz, Ledivina V. Carino, Nestor N. Pilar, and Romeo B. Ocampo whose essays addressing the question were included in a special issue of the Philippine Journal of Public Administration , 30, p. 4, October 1986.

Ledivina C. Carino, Maria Concepcion Alfiler, Nestor Pilar, and Emmanuel Buendia led the calls to indigenize and localize the theory and practice of public administration in the Philippines. The Philippines Journal of Public Administration devoted a special issue on the search indigenous forms of governance and public administration: Domingo, M.O. (2004). Indigenous Leadership and Governance. Philippines Journal of Public Administration, 48 , 1–2. Manila: PJPA.

Brillantes and Fernandez ( 2008 ) argued that the homegrown movement called Gawad Kalinga (which means “to give care”) was an example of a uniquely Philippine governance (civil society taking the lead here, in partnership with government and business sectors) approach that bore distinctive traits of Philippine public administration with a very distinct social equity character. Founded by Antonio Meloto, GK has been recognized not only locally but internationally as well.

The New Public Administration (NPA) movement emerged in the US in the late 1960s and early 1970s during the Minnowbrook conference where social equity emerged as a normative base of public administration (Frederickson 2010 , p. 3).

Over the years, Brillantes and Perante-Calina have argued for the imperatives of equity, ethics , and accountability to be among the classic 3Es of management. This has been included in the public sector reform framework. See, for instance, Alex, Brillantes Jr., and Lizan, Perante-Calina. “Antonio Meloto: Empowering the Filipino Poor Toward Sustainable and Innovative Communities” in Ayano et al. (eds.), Knowledge Creation in Community Development. Institutional Change in Southeast Asia and Japan , Palgrave: Macmillan. (2018), where our public sector reform framework has been developed.

We use praxis liberally to suggest the combination of “theory and practice” of public administration.

That Philippine “independence ” was set by the Americans to coincide with American independence day was no coincidence. This essentially reflected America’s desire for its erstwhile colony to continue to reflect the image and values of its former colonial master. This has since been rectified by President Diosdado Macapagal in the early 1960s by announcing the date of independence of the Philippines as 19 June 1898, when the Philippines declared its independence from Spain after the Philippine revolution. Strangely, on the Philippine side, July 4 has been declared as “Philippine-American Friendship day” naively celebrated only by the Philippines, betraying the continued colonialism still present in the Philippines.

The Philippine civil service and bureaucracy was set up by the US at the turn of the century on 19 September 1900 with the Act No. 5 entitled “An Act for the Establishment and Maintenance of an Efficient and Honest Civil Service in the Philippines”. Its structure and processes were largely patterned after the American civil service , including the adoption of the principles of efficiency and meritocracy in the civil service.

Poverty incidence is the proportion of families/individuals with per capita income less than the per capita poverty threshold to the total number of families /individuals.

According to the Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication (AIJC), Filipino Muslims are “not integrated as one definable and united society” but possess characteristics endemic to them such as “1. language 2. political structure 3. history and degree of Islamic integration with cultural traditions and customs already existent. Each of the subgroups has been proud of its separated identity and conflict between communities has been endemic throughout Philippine Muslim history. However, there common experiences, especially in relation to non-Muslim Filipinos, have somehow brought them together time and again” on (27 January 2019 from )

Today, reducing poverty in the short- to medium-term stages of the program objective has since been dropped. The program is currently presented as a ‘human development measure to improve the health, nutrition and the education of children aged 0–18’ (Accessed at: Downloaded: 14 May 2018). The program’s other objectives are to provide cash assistance to poor families ‘to respond to their immediate needs’ and to address ‘intergenerational poverty cycle by investing in the health and education of poor children’.

Even if the country’s poverty incidence, as measured by the Philippine Statistics Authority, declined from 26.3 to 21.6 at the end of 2015, this could not be attributed to Pantawid Pamilya given the findings of the two earlier impact evaluations and the fact that was no other impact evaluation was conducted to cover 2015 when the 2015 PSA finding on poverty was released.

Infrastructure here covers personnel, facilities, and supplies.

US$ 1 = PhP 53.13 (2 November 2018 conversion rate).

Since 2003, Gawad Kalinga has been receiving various awards, some of the most prominent ones are the following: 2006 The Outstanding Filipino Award (TOFIL) Awardee for Community Service, 2006 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership, 2009 Hilton Humanitarian Award Finalist, 2010 Reader’s Digest Asia Philippines’ Most Trusted, 2010 Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship, 2010 Asia CEO Awards, 2010 Ernst & Young’s Social Entrepreneur of the Year Philippines, 2011 Nikkei Asia Awards, and 2012 Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship.

In the back cover of the book Social Equity in Public Administration (Frederickson 2010 ) the following “for whom” questions were raised within the context of social equity: “Social equity values have to do with the fairness of the organization, its management, and its delivery of public services. Social equity asks these questions: For whom is the organization well managed? For whom is the organization efficient: For whom is the organization economical? Are public services more or less fairly delivered?”

ABS-CBN News. (2018, October 24). Senator Presses Government on Unconditional Cash Transfers . Retrieved on 25 October 2018 from

Africa, J. E. A., Raquiza, M. V. R., Evalyn, G., & Ursua, E. L. J. (2017). Reforming Philippine Anti-poverty Policy: A Comprehensive and Integrated Anti-poverty Framework . Quezon City: National Anti-Poverty Commission Secretariat.

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Brillantes, A., & Fernandez, M. (2008). Is There a Philippine Public Administration? Or Better Still, for Whom Is Philippine Public Administration? Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines: A Reader . Quezon City: UP NCPAG.

Brillantes, A. Jr., & Perante-Calina, L. (2018a). Antonio Meloto: Empowering the Filipino Poor Toward Sustainable and Innovative Communities. In H. Ayano et al. (Eds.), Knowledge Creation in Community Development: Institutional Change in Southeast Asia and Japan . Cham: Palgrave.

Brillantes, A., & Perante-Calina, L. (2018b). Leadership and Public Sector Reform in the Philippines. In E. Berman & E. Prasojo (Eds.), Leadership and Public Sector Reform in Asia . Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

Cabuenas, J. (2018, January 23). PHL is 3rd Fastest Growing Economy in Asia . Retrieved from GMA News Online on 18 June 2018 from

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Brillantes, A.B., Raquiza, M.V.R., Lorenzo, M.P.M. (2019). Social Equity in the Philippines: A Continuing but Elusive Promise. In: Johansen, M. (eds) Social Equity in the Asia-Pacific Region. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

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social inequality essay tagalog

Translation of "inequality" into Tagalog

Sample translated sentence: The book Essay on the Inequality of Races, by the 19th-century French writer Joseph de Gobineau, laid the groundwork for many such works to follow. ↔ Ang aklat na Essay on the Inequality of Races, ng manunulat na Pranses noong ika-19 na siglo na si Joseph de Gobineau, ay naglatag ng pundasyon para sa maraming gayong akda sa hinaharap.

An unfair, not equal, state. [..]

Automatic translations of " inequality " into Tagalog

"inequality" in english - tagalog dictionary.

Currently we have no translations for inequality in the dictionary, maybe you can add one? Make sure to check automatic translation, translation memory or indirect translations.

Computer generated translations

kaibhan (@1 : pl: nierówność )

pagkakiwal (@1 : es: asimetría )

pagkaiba (@1 : pl: nierówność )

depresyon (@1 : pt: depressão )

Phrases similar to "inequality" with translations into Tagalog

  • gender inequality gender inequality

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  1. Argumentative Essay.docx

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  3. The Enlightenment Era and Social Inequalities

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  6. 😍 Poverty in the philippines essay tagalog. Poverty In The Philippines

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  1. Covid-19 and Social Inequality: How Poor Filipinos ...

    Covid-19 and Social Inequality: How Poor Filipinos Suffer More During Pandemics. March 31, 2020 Length:1754 words. Summary: On social inequality and the Filipino government's measures taken against the coronavirus - Editors. The Philippines has a long history of disasters, both natural and human-made, that wreaked havoc upon the lives and ...

  2. Diskriminasyon sa Sekswal na Oryentasyon at Pagkakakilanlan ng Kasarian

    Sa Bostock v.Clayton County, Georgia, Blg. 17-1618 (S. Ct. Hunyo 15, 2020), sinabi ng Kataas-taasang Hukuman na ang pagpapaalis sa trabaho ng mga indibidwal dahil sa kanilang sekswal na oryentasyon o katayuan bilang transgender ay labag sa pagbabawal ng Titulo VII sa diskriminasyon dahil sa kasarian. Isinagawa ng Hukuman ang pagpapasya nito sa pamamagitan ng pagtuon sa simpleng teksto ng ...

  3. KEY FINDINGS Overcoming Poverty and Inequality in the Philippines: Past

    In the past three decades, the Philippines has made remarkable progress in reducing poverty. Driven by high growth rates and structural transformation, the poverty rate fell by two-thirds, from 49.2 percent in 1985 to 16.7 percent in 2018. By 2018, the middle class had expanded to nearly 12 million people and the economically secure population had risen to 44 million. This report is intended ...

  4. Inequalities of Class, Gender, and Ethnicity in the Philippines

    See Full PDFDownload PDF. Inequalities of Class, Gender, and Ethnicity in the Philippines Andrea Soco, Ph.D. Inequalities structure social relationships and shape every aspect of our lives. In the Philippines, the wide gap between the rich and the poor and the highly unequal distribution of resources have been the subject of much debate and ...

  5. Poverty and Social Inequalities

    Gender - social construct on one's behavior and performance in society. Class inequality - condition of unequal access based on income, and their access to wealth and means of production. Caste - a social group assigned to a person from birth. Self-evaluation Form (Part 1) Answer the following questions. 1.

  6. Pagkakapantay-pantay ng mga kasarian

    Ang pangkaraniwang simbolo para sa pagkakapantay-pantay ng kasarian. Ang pagkakapantay-pantay ng mga kasarian (kilala rin bilang gender equity, gender egalitarianism, o sekswal na pagkakapantay-pantay) ay ang layunin ng pagkakapantay-pantay ng mga kasarian o ng mga seks, na nagmumula sa paniniwala sa kawalan ng katarungan na may iba't ibang anyo ng hindi pagkakapantay-pantay sa kasarian.

  7. "Just Let Us Be": Discrimination Against LGBT Students in the

    A Cebuano term for a person assigned male at birth whose gender expression is feminine and who may identify as gay or as a woman; it can be used pejoratively as a slur for an effeminate individual ...

  8. (PDF) The Paradox of Inequality: Factors Influencing Income Inequality

    The importance of these elements will be discussed in this study to eliminate income inequality in the Philippines and for every Filipino citizen to develop in their lives. Secondary data will be ...

  9. Social Inequalities and Political Organization in the Philippines

    since 1987 (Choudhury 2010). Migrant Filipino workers, including these "sea-based migrant Filipino workers," send home remittances amount-ing to about $2 billion a month. This tremendous influx of $26.6 billion sent home by overseas Filipino workers in 2016 accounted for 9.8% of the country's gross domestic product (de Vera 2017).

  10. Overcoming Poverty and Inequality in the Philippines

    Abstract: In the past three decades, the Philippines has made remarkable progress in reducing poverty. Driven by high growth rates and structural transformation, the poverty rate fell by two-thirds, from 49.2 percent in 1985 to 16.7 percent in 2018. By 2018, the middle class had expanded to nearly 12 million people and the economically secure ...

  11. Social Inequality in Urban Philippines

    Past Perceptions of Social Inequality in the Philippines There are several types of social inequality in the Philippines. There is inequality based upon ethnicity, gender, land ownership, linguistic ability and religious affiliation. However, by far the most blatant, perva-sive and important type of inequality is that described as class ...

  12. Social Inequality

    Write an argumentative essay that explains the nature of social inequality in the Philippines. What is the current situation of social inequality and can the. Skip to document. University; High School; Books; ... It is also their right to feel the love and care of the government to the Filipino citizens. Also, opening new and broad. 2. English ...

  13. Social Inequality in the Philippines

    "The key to reducing inequality is better education, better healthcare, social safety nets and higher and broader economic growth, especially in agriculture," Edwin Lacierda, a spokesman for the president of the Philippines, said in a news briefing in Manila.. The government of the Philippines is working to expand access to health care, education and land ownership among the country's poorest ...

  14. Social Equity in the Philippines: A Continuing but Elusive Promise

    The pursuit of social equity may be seen as a response to the problems of pervasive poverty and inequality in spite of, paradoxically, rapid economic growth. The chapter cites two government programs that ostensibly aim to bring about social equity, the Conditional Cash Transfer program and the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion law.

  15. Ano ang ibig sabihin ng SOCIAL INEQUALITY sa Tagalog

    Mga halimbawa ng paggamit social inequality sa isang pangungusap at ang kanilang mga pagsasalin. Social inequality has become grotesque features. - Social inequality ay naging katawa-tawa mga tampok.

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  17. inequality in Tagalog

    Translation of "inequality" into Tagalog . Sample translated sentence: The book Essay on the Inequality of Races, by the 19th-century French writer Joseph de Gobineau, laid the groundwork for many such works to follow. ↔ Ang aklat na Essay on the Inequality of Races, ng manunulat na Pranses noong ika-19 na siglo na si Joseph de Gobineau, ay naglatag ng pundasyon para sa maraming gayong akda ...

  18. Social Inequality Essay Tagalog

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  19. kahulugan ng SOCIAL INEQUALITY

    Answer: Social Equality ay ang pagiging pantay o patas maaring sa karapatan, kalayaan, etc sa lahat mahirap ka man o mayaman Wala itong pinipiling katayuan sa buhay, kung anong ipinagkaloob sa mayaman ganoon din sa mahirap. Samantala, ang Social Inequality ay kabaliktaran ng Social Equality. Dito nagkakaroon ng diskrimanasyon, ang hindi pantay ...

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