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Essay checker: free online paper corrector

Your best chance for an A+ essay. Try our free essay checker below.

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Why should you use a free essay checker?

The simple answer? Good grammar is necessary, but it's not easy. You've already done countless hours of research to write the essay. You don't want to spend countless hours correcting it too.

You'll get a better grade

Good grammar, or its absence, can determine if you get a good grade or a failing one. Impress your lecturer not just with how grammatically sound your writing is but how clear it is and how it flows.

You'll save time

Essay writing can be a long and tedious process. ProWritingAid's essay checker saves you the hassle by acting as the first line of defense against pesky grammar issues.

You'll become a better writer

Essay writing is a particular skill and one that becomes better with practice. Every time you run your essay through ProWritingAid's essay corrector, you get to see what your common mistakes are and how to fix them.

Good Writing = Good Grades

It's already hard to know what to write in an essay. Don't let grammar mistakes hinder your writing and prevent you from getting a good grade. ProWritingAid's essay checker will help you write your best essay yet. Since the checker is powered by AI, using it means that grammar errors don't stand a chance. Give your professors something to look forward to reading with clear, concise, and professional writing.

Illustration of character grading a paper with A+

How does ProWritingAid's essay checker work?

Your goal in essay writing is to convey your message as best as possible. ProWritingAid's essay checker is the first step toward doing this.

Get rid of spelling errors

ProWritingAid's essay checker will show you what it thinks are spelling errors and present you with possible corrections. If a word is flagged and it's actually spelled correctly, you can always choose to ignore the suggestion.

Fix grammar errors

Professors aren't fans of poor grammar because it interrupts your message and makes your essay hard to understand. ProWritingAid will run a grammar check on your paper to ensure that your message is precise and is being communicated the way you intended.

Get rid of punctuation mistakes

A missing period or comma here and there may not seem that serious, but you'll lose marks for punctuation errors. Run ProWritingAid's essay checker to use the correct punctuation marks every time and elevate your writing.

Improve readability

Make sure that in the grand scheme, your language is not too complicated. The essay checker's built-in Readability report will show if your essay is easy or hard to read. It specifically zones in on paragraphs that might be difficult to read so you can review them.

What else can the essay checker do?

The editing tool analyzes your text and highlights a variety of key writing issues, such as overused words, incohesive sentence structures, punctuation issues, repeated phrases, and inconsistencies.

You don't need to drown your essay in words just to meet the word count. ProWritingAid's essay checker will help to make your words more effective. You'll get to construct your arguments and make sure that every word you use builds toward a meaningful conclusion.

Transition words help organize your ideas by showing the relationship between them. The essay checker has a built-in Transition report that highlights and shows the percentage of transitions used in your essay. Use the results to add transitions where necessary.

An engaging essay has sentences of varying lengths. Don't bore your professor with long, rambling sentences. The essay checker will show you where you need to break long sentences into shorter sentences or add more sentence length variation.

Generally, in scholarly writing, with its emphasis on precision and clarity, the active voice is preferred. However, the passive voice is acceptable in some instances. When you run your essay through ProWritingAid's essay checker, you get feedback on whether you're using the passive or active voice to convey your idea.

There are specific academic power verbs, like appraise , investigate , debunk , support , etc., that can add more impact to your argument by giving a more positive and confident tone. The essay checker will check your writing for power verbs and notify you if you have less than three throughout your essay.

It's easy to get attached to certain phrases and use them as crutches in your essays, but this gives the impression of boring and repetitive writing. The essay checker will highlight your repeats and suggest contextually relevant alternatives.

Gain access to in-house blog reports on citations, how to write a thesis statement, how to write a conclusion, and more. Venture into a world of resources specific to your academic needs.

What kinds of papers does ProWritingAid correct?

No matter what you're writing, ProWritingAid will adapt and show you where your edits are needed most.

  • Argumentative
  • Descriptive
  • Textual analysis
  • Lab reports
  • Case studies
  • Literature reviews
  • Presentations
  • Dissertations
  • Research papers

Professors and students love using ProWritingAid

If you're an English teacher, you need to take a look at this tool - it reinforces what you're teaching, highlights strengths and weaknesses, and makes it easier to personalize instruction.

prowritingaid customer

Jennifer Gonzales

Only reason I managed to get an A in all my freshman composition classes.

ProWritingAid customer

Chris Layton

Great tool for academic work. Easy to use, and the reports and summary evaluation of your documents in several categories is very useful. So much more than spelling and grammar!

prowritingaid customer

Debra Callender

Questions & Answers

1. how do i use the essay checker online tool.

You can either copy and paste your essay in the essay checker field or upload your essay from your computer. Your suggestions will show once you enter text. You'll see a number of possible grammar and spelling issues. Sign up for free to get unlimited suggestions to improve your writing style, grammar, and sentence structure. Avoid unintentional plagiarism with a premium account.

2. Does the essay checker work with British English and American English?

The essay checker works with both British English and American English. Just choose the one you would like to use and your corrections will reflect this.

3. Is using an essay checker cheating?

No. The essay checker won't ever write the essay for you. It will point out possible edits and advise you on changes you need to make. You have full autonomy and get to decide which changes to accept.

4. Will the essay checker autocorrect my work?

The essay writing power remains in your hands. You choose which suggestions you want to accept, and you can ignore those that you don't think apply.

5. Is there a student discount?

Students who have an eligible student email address can get 20% off ProWritingAid Premium. You can apply for a student discount through Student App Centre .

6. Does ProWritingAid have a plagiarism checker?

Yes. ProWritingAid's plagiarism checker will check your work against over a billion webpages, published works, and academic papers, so you can be sure of its originality. Find out more about pricing for plagiarism checks here .

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Essay Checker

With Ginger’s Essay Checker, correcting common writing errors is easier than ever. Try it free online!

Avoid Common Writing Mistakes with the World’s Top Essay Checker

The Ginger Essay Checker helps you write better papers instantly. Upload as much text as you want – even entire documents – and Essay Checker will automatically correct any spelling mistakes, grammar mistakes, and misused words. Ginger Essay Checker uses patent-pending technology to fix essays, improving your writing just like a human editor would. Take advantage of the most advanced essay corrector on the market. You’ll benefit from instant proofreading, plus you’ll automatically improve your writing skills as you view highlighted errors side by side with Ginger Essay Checker’s corrections.

Check Essays Fast with Ginger Software

You’ve selected a topic, constructed an outline, written your thesis statement, and completed your first draft. Don’t let your efforts go to waste. With Ginger Software’s Essay Checker, you’ll be the only one to see those little mistakes and perhaps even those glaring errors peppering your paper. The tedious task of checking an essay once had to be done by hand – and proofreading sometimes added hours of work to large projects. Where writers once had to rely on peers or editors to spot and correct mistakes, Essay Checker has taken over. Better yet, this innovative online paper checker does what other free essay corrector programs can’t do: Not only does it flag errors so you can learn from your mistakes, it automatically corrects all spelling and grammar issues at lightning speed.

Stop Wasting Time and Effort Checking Papers

You have a heavy workload, and the last thing you need to do is waste time staring at an essay you’ve just spent hours writing. Proofreading your own work – especially when you’re tired – allows you to find a few mistakes, but some errors inevitably go unnoticed no matter how much time you spend re-reading what you’ve just written. The Ginger Essay Checker lightens your workload by completely eliminating the need for hours of tedious self-review. With Ginger’s groundbreaking Essay Checker, a vast array of grammar mistakes and spelling errors are detected and corrected with unmatched accuracy. While most online paper checker tools claiming to correct essays simply flag mistakes and sometimes make suggestions for fixing them, Essay Checker goes above and beyond, picking up on such issues as tense usage errors, singular vs. plural errors, and more. Even the most sophisticated sentence structures are checked with accuracy, ensuring no mistake is overlooked even though all you’ve done is made a single click.

Essay Checker Paves the Way to Writing Success

Writing has always been important, and accuracy has always been sought after. Getting your spelling, grammar, and syntax right matters, whether your audience is online or off. Error-free writing is a vital skill in the academic world, and it’s just as important for conducting business. Casual bloggers need to maintain credibility with their audiences, and professional writers burn out fast when faced with mounds of work to proofread. Make sure your message is conveyed with clarity by checking your work before submitting it to readers – no matter who they are.

Checking essays has never been easier. With Ginger Essay Checker, you’ll save time, boost productivity, and make the right impression.

Slick Write

Check your grammar in seconds.

Slick Write is a powerful, free application that makes it easy to check your writing for grammar errors, potential stylistic mistakes, and other features of interest. Whether you're a blogger, novelist, SEO professional, or student writing an essay for school, Slick Write can help take your writing to the next level. Curious? See why Slick Write is the best. Try the interactive demo , or check your own document . No software download or installation is required.

Why Slick Write?

The grammar checker is lightning fast

Customizable feedback to suit your style

We do not redistribute your documents

Add impact to reports

Improve your grades

Engage your audience

Inspire confidence

English is a difficult language, so using correct grammar and diverse vocabulary will set you apart from the crowd. Using good sentence structure and wording improves your content's impact and readability while building your readers' trust. Slick Write goes beyond spell checking to teach you the habits of effective writers. How does your writing rate?

Improve your resumé

The job market is competitive. Gain an advantage, impress employers, and land more interviews by demonstrating professionalism and superior communication skills on your resumé.

Get the extensions

Using an extension is the easiest way to submit your work to Slick Write. They are available for Chrome and Firefox .

Bust your writer's block, and create new metaphors by playing the word association game . To begin, type a word or phrase in the box below, and hit enter. To quickly find associations for your own text, highlight a word or phrase in it, and use the toolbox popup.

The associator learns contextual word associations from real literature, so it may return offensive results.

Results for:

I know what I'm doing. Disable these hints.

  • Submission Limit There is a limit of 200,000 characters, which is approximately 30,000 words. Anything longer should be submitted in smaller chunks, or it will be automatically trimmed.
  • No document It looks like you forgot to enter your document. Paste it in and try again.
  • Structure This tab shows sentence structure within the context of the document. Hover over a sentence to see its word count. Select a word or phrase, or click a sentence to get more information.
  • Quotes This tab shows your quotations highlighted as Slick Write sees them.

More information »

  • Sentence type flow Pieces with good flow will make use of all four sentence types, varying them to keep the reader interested.
  • Sentence length flow Sentence length is indirectly related to sentence type, and is a good indicator of flow. Flow can be altered by adding, removing, lengthening, shortening, combining, or splitting sentences. Long sentences will be indicated by a red line on the graph. Sentences that flow poorly with their surroundings will be orange, and the source of the problem can often be found in a nearby sentence.
  • Word length flow Word length is a minor contributor to overall flow, but even minor variations are signs of good rhythm.
  • Passive Voice Index This is a measure of how frequently the passive voice is used. Consider revising your document if it scores over 100.
  • Prepositional Phrase Index This is a measure of how frequently prepositional phrases are used. Consider revising your document if it scores over 100.
  • Average sentence length Sentence length is a major contributor to the level of education required to read a body of text.
  • Sentence length standard deviation This is a measure of the amount of variation in the length of a text's sentences. In texts that have broad appeal, this tends to fall between 50 and 90% of the average sentence length. You can increase this number by making long sentences longer, and short ones shorter.
  • Sentence deviation to length ratio This is a measure of the sentence variety, and a major contributor to flow. Most novels score between 0.5 and 0.9, and popular ones often score near the high end of the range. You can increase this number by making long sentences longer, and short ones shorter.
  • Just the stats preset Use this preset when you're only interested in the stats tab. Critique and Flow will be hidden.
  • Honesty preset This preset checks for common indicators of deception, either by lying or omission, and is based on the findings of this study . Areas with high concentrations of these indicators should be viewed with skepticism. Note that the presence or absence of these indicators does not guarantee that a statement is true or false, and that the study was done on spoken communications, so it might be more applicable to interviews and speeches. As always, use your brain.
  • Doubled words A word used twice in a row may be a typo.
  • Commonly confused words This will check for the internet's most frequently confused words and notify you if it looks like you misused one. It is experimental and probably the least reliable feature. Consult a dictionary when necessary.
  • Sentences starting with the same word A word should not be used to start more than one sentence in a single paragraph.
  • Misplaced conjunctions It is considered poor style to place coordinating conjunctions at either end of a sentence. Placing a subordinating conjunction at the end of a sentence is against the rules.

It is said that one day, passive voice will bring weakness to your prose.

More information » Even more information »

  • Overwriting Words like "very" and "really" make sentences wordier and weaken your message. These can be deleted in almost all cases without affecting the meaning of the sentence.
  • Abstract words Abstract words lack specificity and overusing them can make even simple concepts difficult to understand. There are times when abstract words are desirable or even necessary; it would be difficult to write about math or programming without mentioning variables or functions, but you should use more specific terms whenever possible.
  • Wordy and redundant phrases These phrases make your writing more difficult to understand. In most cases, they can be replaced with one or two words, or even deleted.
  • Legalese These antiquated, arcane words and phrases will make your writing look like a contract.
  • Double negatives Double negatives are almost always poor style.
  • Adverbs They aren't bad in small quantities, but consider revising your document if more than 5.5% of its words are adverbs. Adverbs ending in "-ly" are considered the worst offenders.
  • Adjectives They aren't bad in small quantities. A few of the words on this list can also function as other parts of speech. You have been warned.
  • Contractions In formal writing, the use of contractions is considered a fault.

The boxer decked his opponent.

  • Profanity Profanity should not be used in formal writing outside of direct quotations.

The critic's scathing review hit the nail on the head .

  • Similes Similes and metaphors should be used sparingly. This option will detect most common types of similes.
  • "Said" replacements Some people think that these substitutes for "said" are weak or obnoxious, especially if overused.

Her dress was long , and it touched the floor.

Her long dress touched the floor.

  • Gender-specific pronouns Avoid using gender-specific pronouns in formal writing when the subject's gender is unknown.
  • Weasel words Like abstract words, weasel words and phrases lack specificity. At best, they convey uncertainty. At worst, they can be used to "weasel out" of telling the truth in a straightforward manner. When checking a document that is speculative by nature, you might want to disable this detector.
  • Third person pronouns According to this study , high concentrations of third person pronouns may indicate deception.
  • Bias language These words and phrases often show the author's bias.
  • Uncommon words Uncommon words will increase the document's reading difficulty.

Hot peppers burn my mouth, but I eat them anyway .

Since burritos taste good , I like to eat them.

  • Sentence fragments A sentence must have at least one noun and one verb. Anything that does not is a fragment, and if it occurs outside of dialog, it should probably be rewritten.
  • Long sentences Long sentences tend to be more difficult to read, making them good candidates for trimming or splitting. Alternatively, parallelism may be used to improve their readability, though this will not decrease the ARI score.
  • Success with Style: Using Writing Style to Predict the Success of Novels
  • Grammar Girl For your obscure writing questions
  • Basic Prose and Style Mechanics An excellent, concise resource
  • Television Tropes & Idioms Tricks of the trade
  • Writing Realistic Injuries An invaluable article for anyone who writes action or horror
  • Online Etymology Dictionary Learn the history of English words
  • Scribophile Discuss the finer points of writing with other novelists
  • Suggestions from the official See Sharp Press blog Learn about the mistakes that will keep your novel from being published.
  • Smashwords Easy ebook distribution for indie authors
  • Duotrope Find and learn about publishers
  • CreateSpace
  • Amazon Kindle Direct Publishing
  • Creative Writing Prompts and Exercises Spark your creativity
  • RhymeZone A popular rhyming dictionary
  • Seventh Sanctum Name generators and more
  • Apache OpenOffice The best free office software
  • Literature & Latte Makers of the popular Scrivener editor

Did you find a bug? Do you want us to add a new feature? We would love to hear about it.

🌟 New Update: As of JAN 30, 2024, Experience enhanced grammar and punctuation detection! 🚀

Your Go-To Free Essay Checker for an Easy A+

Word limit Exeeded. Visit → RewriterPro AI Checker for higher limits.

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No AI Content

Get rid of text that sounds like some machine wrote it.

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Remove Grammatical Errors

Say goodbye to tiny grammatical mistakes that go unnoticed.

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No charges. No hidden costs. Use it as much as you want.

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Get your results within seconds and save time.

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All English Dialects Covered

Covers all dialects, including UK, USA, Australian, and more.

Why Do I Need an Essay Checker?

You’ve spent countless hours researching and writing your essay. The last thing you want is to spend more hours correcting it. Grammar Lookup can help you with that by correcting every grammatical mistake in your essays and papers, removing all the plagiarism, and making it sound human. 

Our tool uses advanced AI technology to check your essays for grammatical errors efficiently, AI content (Powered by RewriterPro AI Checker ), and plagiarism. The result? Essays are ready to impress your professor and help you get good grades. 

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How Will Grammar Lookup Check My Essay?

Our essay checker can help you by:

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Detecting AI

Don’t want your essay to look like an AI tool wrote it? Detect AI-like phrasing with our AI essay checker and see how much percent of it sounds like AI.  

Catching Unwanted Plagiarism

The last thing you (and your professor) want in your essay is plagiarism. With our essay plagiarism checker, that won’t be a problem. Just check for plagiarism and see how much of it was accidentally resembling other people or websites.

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Removing Grammatical Mistakes

No one likes to read a paragraph full of typos and small mistakes that make your head spin. And you surely wouldn’t want it in your essay! Our tool is trained on 300+ grammar points to instantly catch every little grammatical error. You’ll be able to see and correct every grammatical mistake in your essay in just one click.

How Does the Essay Checker Detect Grammatical Mistakes?

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Avoids Punctuation Problems

The tool efficiently detects errors in your text to refine it with appropriate punctuation suggestions. Be it a period, a comma, an apostrophe, or a colon, the tool corrects it!

Prevents Spelling Errors and Typo

Review your work with our free essay grammar checker to identify and correct spelling or typo mistakes and turn in error-free work!

Improves Clarity

The key to quality writing is clarity. Our checker ensures that your sentences are easy to understand and well-structured. Thus making your message more effective.

Covers All English Dialects

We’ve got all of English’s dialects covered, from American to British,  Australian, and more. This smart paper checker understands the punctuation rules of each dialect. This ensures that your writing is always up to the mark.

Why It’s Outstanding

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When you proofread your essay, you may not catch every instance of a style choice or mistake. You may capitalize a term at the start of an essay, but not do it at the end. But with this paper checker, you’ll get consistent results every time.

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Super Easy to Use 

Using Grammar Lookup’s essay checker is as easy as a piece of cake. Simply type or paste your text into our checker, press “detect AI content” or “check plagiarism” and voila! And it shows grammatical errors instantly as you enter the text, no need to even click a button. 

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Students often ask their family or friends if they can “check my essay?” But some mistakes are so common that they can go unnoticed easily. With our essay checker, you can always catch and correct every little error.

Good grades come from good writing, and Grammar Lookup’s college essay checker is what you need to:

Save your time.

Essay writing can be tedious and time-consuming. Our essay checker saves your precious hours by acting like the first line of defense against those pesky grammar issues. 

Become a Better Writer And Researcher

Writing an essay that doesn’t just look and sound good, but is loved by your professor isn’t easy. And you can only get better at it when you have two things. A lot of practice, and a robust and tested paper checker like Grammar Lookup’s Essay Checker. 

Which Types of  Essays Does Grammar Lookup’s Essay Checker Correct?


Check if your evidence is correct and written properly.

Textual Analysis

Make sure you understand the text and support your ideas well.

Improve how your story reads and flows smoothly.

See if your explanation makes sense and your essay is well-organized.


Make your descriptions more vivid and grammatically accurate.

Our Essay Checker has Helped 5000+ Students Graduate

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Essay Checker

Identify your essay and paper's spelling, punctuation, or grammar mistakes with our free essay checker.

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How to Use Our Free Essay Checker?

Ensuring the quality and flawlessness of your essay is straightforward. Follow the steps shared below to check for mistakes in your essay.

Write Better Essays and Thesis with Duplichecker's Essay Corrector

Uncover your writing deficiencies and rectify them instantly using the suggestions shared by our online essay corrector. Duplichecker offers you a top-notch online facility that makes your prose clear and coherent. This free tool allows you to review your essay for spelling mistakes, grammar errors, and misused words.

This utility helps students identify the bugs in their writing that can hurt their grades. Using the suggestions of this tool, you can ace your written assignment. This web-based facility is highly advantageous for students and enables them to write fluent, natural, and impressive essays . The best part is that it doesn't require a user signup or subscription. All you require is an uninterrupted internet connection to access our essay checker free.

AI Essay Checker and Corrector for Flawless Writing

Essay, Spelling, & Punctuation
English Only
100% Free

What Aspects Does Our Essay Corrector Examine?

The free essay checker and corrector help writers ensure their written tasks' quality. With this tool, you can evaluate every attribute of your written text that can affect its readability. Using our essay corrector, you can detect the following:

Lack of Fluency

The irregular and inconsistent flow of information can affect the readability of content. The lack of fluency in your writing can make it ambiguous for the readers. With our free writing checker, you can easily identify the mistakes in a text that are affecting its fluency.

Spelling Errors

Our free paper checker highlights the spelling errors in the text you have entered on it. It will save you from doing all the proofreading yourself and reduce your efforts. The advanced tool will never overlook any single minor spelling error in your text.

Grammar Errors

Grammatical mistakes in an essay can interrupt your message and make the text hard to understand for readers. Our AI essay checker and corrector will run a deep check of essay grammar and make sure that your content is flawless and conveys your message appropriately.

Punctuation Mistakes

Many writers overlook punctuation errors like missing periods or commas and find them common. But, punctuation marks can affect the meaning of a sentence and make it unattractive for the readers. The writing checker will scan the text to detect punctuation mistakes and help you correct these errors to improve your writing.

Words Repetition

Adding unnecessary words or repeating the words can damage its engagement and readability. The essay checker can enhance the effectiveness of your words. It will help you strengthen your arguments and ensure every word in the text leads you toward an understandable conclusion.

Inappropriate Capitalization

Capitalizing important words, even if they are not proper nouns, is a common approach many writers practice while crafting content. This approach often makes your essay look cluttered. An essay corrector can correct inappropriate capitalization and save your essay from being congested with capitalized text.

Benefits of Using our Free Paper Checker

Our paper checker greatly assists students in ensuring the quality of their written assignments. A few major benefits of using this free essay checker and corrector for students are discussed below.

Better Writing

Writing a quality and flawless essay requires extensive practice. Our paper writing checker offers great assistance to individuals who want to improve their writing skills . With this essay fixer, they can easily check for grammatical mistakes. It will allow them to overcome those deficiencies, improving their essay crafting skills.

Better Grades

Grammatical mistakes in your essay can affect your grade. The essay you submit to your teacher must be error-free to earn their appreciation. Therefore, running a paper check on your written text with our essay checker is essential to ensure its flawlessness to get better grades.

Improve Proofreading

Extensive proofreading will save you from submitting an essay with writing errors. But, it may take considerable time to examine your written text. The availability of our thesis checker comes in handy in such a situation. This online tool scans the written content and instantly identifies any misspellings or grammatical errors.

Enhance Communication

Spelling or grammar mistakes in your paper may affect its effectiveness. This will also raise questions about your writing capabilities. Therefore, checking essay grammar before sending it to your instructors or classmates will help you avoid any such embarrassment. With our thesis statement checker, you can quickly check if your text contains any writing errors and offer suggestions to rectify any grammar mistakes if found. This will help you convey your message appropriately and ultimately improve communication .

Features You Get with Duplichecker's Paper Checker

This paper checker assists you in creating highly engaging and flawless content .

Free Essay Checker

Unlike most online essay checkers, our web-based essay fixer doesn't require any premium subscription from its users to check essay grammar. You can check for grammatical and spelling mistakes in as many papers and articles as you desire without paying a single penny.

Accurate Suggestions

Worry about the quality of your written paper? Run an essay check to identify any typos, punctuation, or grammar mistakes in the essay. Moreover, our online essay checker provides accurate suggestions that support you in removing bugs from your essay and making it engaging and easily understandable for readers.

Multilingual Support

Our AI essay checker can identify grammar and spelling mistakes in various supported languages with full contextual support, suggestions, and corrections. Using this tool, you can check grammatical mistakes in essays written in English, French, Russian, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, German, Portuguese, and Turkish.


Now, you don't need to proofread the entire essay or paper to identify any deficiency or mistake in the text. Our advanced thesis checker will perform this task on your behalf and instantly detect spelling or grammatical errors in your thesis. This will save you hours of hard work and provide reliable and quick results.

Frequently Asked Questions

How this essay reviewer check my paper.

Duplichecker's essay corrector gives users an opportunity to rectify mistakes in their written text easily. Simply enter the text on this essay checker. The utility will scan your text and highlight grammatical or spelling mistakes if found in it.

How do I Know If My Essay is Good?

You can ensure the quality of your written text using our essay fixer. If your essay contains any errors, you can easily find them by running a quick grammar check .

Is Using an Online Essay Checker Considered Cheating?

No! The essay checker will not write the article or essay for you. By using the paper corrector, you can find out the mistakes in your essay or paper. The use of online essay corrections will improve the readability of written text to make it perfect for sharing with teachers or supervisors.

Can I Use an Essay Checker for Academic Papers and Essays?

Yes! Our highly advanced essay corrector helps students and researchers improve the quality of their papers and essays. With this tool, they can easily find deficiencies in their text and remove them to make it easily understandable for the readers.

Will This Paper Checker Auto-Correct My Paper Mistakes?

Yes, This paper checker will highlight any grammar, spelling, or punctuation mistakes in your written essay and correct them in a few seconds.

How Do I Check My Essay for Plagiarism?

You can easily detect instances of plagiarism in any essay with the help of our advanced plagiarism detector . It analyzes your uploaded text, compares it to a database of published articles, and highlights any significant matches. This will help you ensure the uniqueness of your essay efficiently.

How to Check If an Essay Was Written by Chatgpt?

Duplichecker's AI content detector is a highly advanced tool that can detect if an essay is written by an AI model or human-written. It will scan your entered text, evaluate its genuineness, and display if it's generated by an AI tool or written by humans swiftly.

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The DupliChecker.com team comprises of experts in different fields, all with the same primary focus: helping our clients generate greater business by use of online services.

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Get Your IELTS Essay Checked For Free!

Everything you need to know about how it works, why you need it – and how it helped our student sunny to improve her writing score..

Our free IELTS essay checker will give you some personalized writing help you need to improve your writing score.

Don’t waste time with fake ‘VIP’ courses or expensive ‘experts’. The IELTS Writing test is tough, and you want to make sure you do everything you can to improve your score.

There are a lot of different things that go into writing a good IELTS essay, and it can be difficult to keep track of everything.

Our free IELTS essay checker will help you identify the areas where you need improvement for task 1 and task 2 so that you can score higher on your next exam.

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What is an ielts writing checker.

Sunny was, like a lot of IELTS students, worrying about improving her score – and she learned that the smartest students use the right tools.

An IELTS writing checker is a tool or service that assesses and evaluates the quality of an IELTS writing task.

The checker evaluates the writing skills of the test taker, including the clarity, coherence, organization, and accuracy of the written text.

An IELTS writing checker may provide feedback on various aspects of the essay, including grammar, vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure. Additionally, they may give suggestions on how to improve the essay and achieve a higher score.

Why should you use an IELTS writing checker?

Sunny had previously tried to use a well-known online grammar checker which had helped her writing sound better – but she needed an IELTS-specific tool.

An IELTS writing checker can be a helpful tool for anyone who is preparing to take the IELTS exam. Here are a few reasons why you might want to use an IELTS writing checker:

  • To get feedback on your writing: This is especially helpful if you are studying for the exam on your own and don’t have a teacher or tutor to give you feedback.
  • To improve your score: By identifying the specific areas that you need to work on in order to improve your score on the writing section of the exam.
  • To practice writing under timed conditions: The IELTS writing checker can simulate the conditions of the actual exam by giving you a prompt and a time limit to complete your essay. You should complete section 1 in 20 minutes, and write at least 150 words. Section 2 should take 40 minutes, with at least 250 words. This can help you get used to writing under pressure and develop your time management skills.
  • To learn from your mistakes: The IELTS writing checker can highlight the mistakes you make in your writing, such as grammar errors, spelling mistakes, or problems with sentence structure. By learning from your mistakes, you can avoid making the same errors in the future.

How to use the IELTS writing checker effectively?

  • Familiarize yourself with the marking criteria: Before you start using the IELTS writing checker, it’s important to understand the criteria that the examiners use to mark your writing. This will help you understand what you need to focus on to improve your score.
  • Practice writing regularly: To get the most out of the IELTS writing checker, it’s important to practice writing regularly. This will help you improve your writing skills and give you more opportunities to use the checker.
  • Analyze your mistakes: When the writing checker highlights your mistakes, take the time to analyze them and understand why you made them. This will help you avoid making the same mistakes in the future.
  • Use the feedback to improve your writing: The IELTS writing checker provides feedback on your writing, so use it to your advantage. Take note of the areas where you need to improve and make the necessary changes to your writing.
  • Work on your time management: During the IELTS exam, time management is crucial. To prepare for this, try to complete your writing tasks within the allotted time and use the writing checker to check your work quickly.
  • Don’t rely on the IELTS writing checker entirely: While the writing checker is a useful tool, it’s important to remember that it’s not perfect. Use it as a guide, but don’t rely on it entirely. Always use your own judgement and common sense when it comes to your writing.

What are some common mistakes made in IELTS writing?

There are several common mistakes that candidates make in IELTS writing. Here are a few:

  • Not addressing the task properly: One of the most common mistakes that candidates make is not addressing the task properly. They may write a well-organized and grammatically correct essay, but if it does not answer the question asked in the prompt, they will not get a good score. For example, ‘What are the advantages and disadvantages of owning a car?’ If you only write about the advantages of having a car, you can not score high on task achievement.
  • Poor grammar and spelling: Another common mistake is poor grammar and spelling errors. Candidates should aim to write in grammatically correct sentences and avoid spelling mistakes. These errors can significantly impact the overall score.
  • Lack of coherence and cohesion: Candidates should ensure that their writing is coherent and cohesive. The essay should have a logical flow, and ideas should be linked together using appropriate transition words and phrases.
  • Inappropriate word choice: Using inappropriate words or vocabulary can also result in a lower score. Candidates should aim to use a range of vocabulary, but it should be used appropriately in context.
  • Not meeting the word count: Candidates must meet the word count requirements for each task. Writing too few or too many words can result in a lower score.
  • Not organizing the essay properly: Candidates should aim to organize their essay into clear paragraphs with a clear introduction, body, and conclusion.
  • Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious offence and can lead to disqualification from courses and exams. If you plagiarise practice IELTS essays, it’s hard to know what you are capable of writing by yourself anyway.

How can the IELTS writing checker help you improve your score?

The IELTS writing check can be a valuable tool in helping you improve your writing skills and ultimately, your IELTS score. Here are a few ways in which the IELTS writing check can assist you:

  • Feedback on your strengths and weaknesses: The IELTS writing check provides you with personalized feedback on your writing, including an assessment of your strengths and weaknesses. This feedback can help you identify the areas you need to work on to improve your score.

For example, Sunny hadn’t realised that she had a habit of writing ‘however’ in the middle of paragraphs and mis-

spelling ‘because’, ‘in conclusion’ and ‘instead’. Now, she is much more aware of these mistakes.

  • Identification of common mistakes: The IELTS writing check can also help you identify common mistakes that you may be making in your writing, such as grammar, vocabulary, or sentence structure errors.
  • Practice opportunities: The IELTS writing check provides you with practice opportunities to work on your writing skills. By submitting practice essays for review, you can receive feedback on your writing and work on improving your weaknesses.
  • Familiarization with the IELTS exam format: The IELTS writing check can help you become more familiar with the IELTS exam format and requirements. This can help you feel more confident and prepared for the actual exam.
  • Customized study plan: Based on the feedback provided by the IELTS writing check, you can develop a customized study plan to focus on the areas that need improvement. This can help you maximize your study time and improve your score more efficiently.

Use our free IELTS essay checker to improve your writing score

Taking the IELTS test can be daunting, but with help from our free essay checker, you can bring your score up.

By identifying common mistakes and offering personalized advice on how to correct them, our tool will help you sharpen your writing skills so that you are ready for the real thing.

Whether you’re preparing for a general or academic IELTS exam, using our free essay check tool is an essential part of taking the test and improving your overall international education experience.

Boost Your Scores: Try Our Online IELTS Essay Checker Today

Writing good essays is a big part of the IELTS test. To get a good score, your essay must be strong. But how can you know? That’s where our tool can help. It’s named the online IELTS essay checker , and you can try it here .

This tool is like a friendly teacher. You show it your essay, and it tells you what is good and what needs to be better. This way, you learn fast. The best thing? It saves you money.

Many students spend a lot of money on classes or buying books. But our tool is less costly. And it helps you right away. After you learn from our free essay checks on this page, use our online IELTS essay checker . It can help you know how to make your writing stronger.

In short, our online IELTS essay checker is here to guide you. It’s simple, it helps fast, and it won’t take much money. If you want to do well in the IELTS and not spend a lot, our tool is a great choice. Good luck and happy writing!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

How does an ielts essay check work.

Once you upload an essay to the essay checker, the grammar checker scans your text and highlights IELTS essay issues within your document so you can see it in context.

Your feedback will include detailed explanations so you can understand why the text was flagged. Other highlighted areas will include examples of how the issues can be fixed.

Is an essay checker worth it?

Yes. You can get instant feedback without having to wait for a teacher to mark your essay. Sign up for more IELTS Materials here.

GR 10 Use a variety of complex and simple sentences

GR 11 Check your essay for errors.

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Personalized Writing Help When You Need it

Unintentional plagiarism, grammar mistakes, and uncited sources  can turn what you thought was a good paper into a poor one. When you’re writing a paper the last thing you want is for your message to get lost due to incorrect punctuation or confusing sentence structure. You know that the great ideas in your head would make for a standout paper, if only you could get them written clearly on the page. If this struggle sounds familiar, you’re not alone.

Great ideas may be an essential part of high-quality writing, but they’re not the only component. Excellent papers and essays clearly express strong ideas with good grammar, proper punctuation, spot-on spelling, and thorough, careful citations. While this may sound like a lot, your teachers and professors are grading you on your skills as both a writer and a researcher, which means your assignments will require an ethical and attentive approach. Luckily, there is no shortage of available tools to help you along your way.

You could use a plagiarism checker free, though, these tools often lack grammatical support. Given the high stakes and rigorous requirements, the aid of a plagiarism checker without the needed support of a grammar checker could mean the difference between an “A” paper and a “C” or even “D” paper.

Thankfully, the EasyBib Plus plagiarism tool provides all-in-one support to cover all your bases. Our premium essay checker is convenient, easy to use, and includes access to a grammar and spell checker, plus a plagiarism checker. With a single scan, you’ll receive personalized feedback to help identify potentially missing citations and help improve your sentence structure, punctuation, grammar, and more.

Not sure if that noun is spelled correctly, or if the preposition at the end of your sentence is grammatically correct? The EasyBib Plus plagiarism tool is your one-stop shop to help check plagiarism, get grammatical suggestions, correct spelling and punctuation errors, and help create polished papers you can be proud to turn in. And, we haven’t told you the best part yet: you can try our tool free and scan your work for grammar suggestions right now!

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A Grammar Check for Peace of Mind

You know that grammar plays a significant role in your assignments. Not only does it factor into your overall grade, but without clear and precise language, your ideas can lose their impact or might even be misunderstood entirely. Still, with so many different parts of speech and rules to learn and apply, it’s not uncommon to get them mixed up and find yourself questioning your knowledge now and again:

Can you use an adverb to modify a noun? (No. You need an adjective for that.)

Well, can you use it to modify a pronoun ? (Still no.)

What do they modify, then? (Almost everything else. Fun, right?)

Ugh. (That was an interjection .)

Does this have to be so difficult? (Nope!)

Scanning your paper with the EasyBib Plus writing tool delivers more than the basic punctuation and spell check functions that come standard in word processing programs. You’ll receive immediate, targeted feedback that can help improve the sentence structure and style of your writing. Not only can this help ensure that you don’t lose points off your grade for grammatical errors such as mismatched verb tense, but it can also help to clarify your meaning and strengthen your arguments by eliminating confusing punctuation and run-on sentences that confuse readers.

Reviewing your work to correct errors and refine the flow of your writing is a critical part of the revision process for novices and novelists alike. Even the most conscientious of wordsmiths might make mistakes, such as using a conjunctive adverb in place of a coordinating conjunction or pairing a plural determiner with an uncountable word. They likely appreciate a subscription-based or free grammar check as much as a beginning writer. That’s why the EasyBib Plus writing tool is designed for all writers, from students who are still learning the fundamentals to published professionals who get paid by the word.

The EasyBib Plus writing tool provides quick, targeted feedback that you can use to help improve your writing immediately. Also, our free resource library is available 24/7, just like the rest of our tools, to help you brush up on the areas that challenge you the most (Conjunctive what? Uncountable who?) That means you can continue to sharpen your skills and improve your writing over time, which will help make finishing your next project easier.

Ready to give your paper a boost? Sign up for EasyBib Plus or scan a paper right now for a free spell check—it’s easy!Just upload or copy and paste your paper to the online grammar check tool and, in a matter of seconds, you’ll be able to receive up to 5 feedback cards so you can begin polishing your draft.

To learn more about proofreading tools, you can find more info here. Or, for more tips on grammar, punctuation, and style, check out this useful reference .

Why is Grammar So Important, Anyway?

Why is grammar important? As long as others know what you mean, does it really matter if you use proper grammar? These are age-old questions, but the answers remain unchanged. Grammar is important for many reasons:

Communication:  Communication is about more than merely listening and talking. We communicate in myriad ways: with our voices, our mannerisms, our facial expressions, our actions, and frequently, our written words. Written communication is just as important as all the other ways we broadcast our thoughts and feelings. Unlike our other communication methods, though, written communication leaves a record. While most of us relax our style when talking to or texting friends, the fact remains that more formal venues require a more formal tone. Proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation are a necessary element of professional and academic writing, so running your work through a spelling and grammar check before you submit it is an absolute must.

Clarity:  Expressing your thoughts, ideas, and opinions is an uphill battle when you communicate them with less-than-stellar punctuation, spelling, and grammar. A missing or misplaced comma, for example, can entirely change your meaning:

  • Call me Ishmael = My name is Ishmael.
  • Call me, Ishmael = I want Ishmael to call me.

Spelling errors can result in similarly muddled meaning:

  • Her shoes perfectly complemented her dress. = Her shoes and dress go well together.
  • Her shoes perfectly complimented her dress. = Her shoes can both speak and engage in flattery.

Grammar deficiencies such as a dangling modifier yield similarly confusing results:

  • I saw the girl’s purple backpack in the library. = The purple backpack belonging to the girl is in the library; I saw it.
  • I saw the purple girl’s backpack in the library. = You know the girl who mysteriously turned purple? I saw her backpack in the library. This week has not been easy on her.

Credibility: Establishing your credibility is critical whether you’re writing for school or business. Proving that you can reliably communicate using proper grammar is essential to establishing and maintaining the trust of your teachers, professors, readers, customers, and colleagues.

To learn even more about the importance of English grammar in writing, check here .

What Happens After I Upload My Paper?

Once you upload a paper, the EasyBib Plus grammar checker scans your text and highlights grammar issues within your document so you can see it in context. For users running a grammar check and spell check using the grammar check free tool, up to the first 5 issues are shown. For subscription subscribers, all of the areas that require your review will be highlighted once the scan is complete.

No matter which version of the tool you’re using, your feedback will include detailed explanations so you can understand why the text was flagged. Other highlighted areas will include examples of how the issues can be fixed. Some will include a detailed explanation as to why the issue was flagged. This personalized feedback allows you to make an educated decision about whether to edit your text or dismiss the suggestion, so you’re always in control of your final draft.

Subscription users also have the plagiarism checker at their disposal when scanning their papers for style and grammar suggestions. Just as with our other writing tools, when you use the tool to check plagiarism, changes are never made without your review, so you are always in the driver’s seat. You can review each highlighted area as well as the sources of matching text and will always be given a choice to either accept or ignore both citation and grammar suggestions.

Whether you are a student or a professional, the EasyBib Plus tools are powerful allies that can help you improve your paper, establish credibility as a writer, and maintain an ethical writing process.

Try our checker free for 3 days to see what you think*. Trust us; you’ll wonder how you got along so far without it!

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Check for Unintentional Plagiarism

Persistent use of the best grammar checker and spell checker you can find will help to shape up the style and substance of your composition. However, to ensure the integrity of your work and root out unintentional instances of academic dishonesty, you’ll also need to incorporate a subscription-based or free plagiarism checker for students.

The ability to scan your paper and check plagiarism and grammar before submitting your work is an invaluable tool for students. It’s so valuable, in fact, that students are not the only ones who consistently use this type of software.

Many teachers and professors use a service to ensure that student papers are original and include properly formatted and sourced citations for all reference materials. For some, this may be a consistent element of their grading process, while others may utilize one only when they feel there is a reason to do so.

What Exactly Does a Plagiarism Checker Do?

If you’ve used an online plagiarism checker before, you may be familiar with the process that these tools employ. For those who have never used one, it can be helpful to understand how these tools work and what you should expect as a result of using one.

The most basic free tools will scan your paper and provide you with a percentage that indicates how much of your work is original. This feature can be useful to a point, as some instructors and institutions set a percentage for the amount of similar text that is considered acceptable. This policy does not mean that they are lenient about academic dishonesty but, instead, that they recognize that similar or even matching word choice is not always an indicator of copying.

However, some schools do not tolerate any form of incremental plagiarism, period. In these institutions, “check paper for plagiarism” is likely a standard action when grading all papers.

With a free plagiarism checker, the percentage of word-for-word plagiarism in your text may be the only feedback you receive. Moreover, some of these providers may wade in unethical waters, and offer essay writing services in conjunction with their checking services. This is why many students and teachers prefer subscription-based checkers that focus on integrity, such as the EasyBib writing tools.

With our premium tools, you get more than just supporting proof that your paper is original and in your own words. Your writing is scanned for potentially matching text and areas that needs your attention is highlighted. We’ll provide you with the source of the matching text so you can review it and decide how to proceed. If you agree that a citation is needed, our citation tools and resources will provide you with the information you need to help format and insert the new sources in your text as well as your works cited page.

How Does the EasyBib Plus Online Plagiarism Checker Work?

The EasyBib Plus writing tool provides an all-in-one spell check, grammar review, and plagiarism checker that not only helps you with the paper you’re writing now but enables you to gain new knowledge and improve your writing for the future, too.

Our essay checker searches online for phrases, sentences, or passages that are similar to those in your paper. If it returns matching text, this may indicate that you have passages that are missing citations.

Just as with many checkers, our tool will tell you how many instances of matching text it finds in your paper. Our plagiarism tool is designed to do more than most free tools, however.

When a portion of your paper is flagged for review, we provide you with the source that it matches. As with our online spell check tool, you have the power to review each area and choose how to proceed. If you decide to cite the flagged text, you can review the suggested source and access our citation tools to help create a proper citation and start building a bibliography for your paper. Or, you may determine that no citation is needed, in which case it’s simple to dismiss the suggestion and continue to the next section.

If you’re unsure about how to proceed, our library of resources can help you learn more and make an educated decision. In this way, you gain more than just the ability to correct your work; over time, you can learn how to avoid plagiarism altogether.

Reasons Your Teacher May Run Your Paper Through a Plagiarism Detector

As stated previously, your teachers and professors grade papers with a fixed process that includes “check paper for plagiarism” as a standard, across-the-board action. Others may check for plagiarism only when they feel there is cause to do so. There are a few red flags that may stand out to them while reviewing a paper that would lead to their running a plagiarism check, including:

Style/Voice:  Most teachers are familiar with the style and voice that you use in your writing. While most will hope that the feedback they provide when grading your work will help you to improve problem areas over time, a paper or essay that has a dramatically different style or voice than the work you’ve previously submitted can be a red flag.

Inconsistency:  Changes in the font, font size, formality, formatting, and more may indicate that portions of a paper have been copied and pasted. If these inconsistent passages are not presented as quotations or don’t include citations, this may further indicate to your teacher that there’s plagiarism in the paper.

Old References:  Part of a well-researched paper is verifying the legitimacy and relevance of your sources. While some older references may be acceptable depending on the topic, if all of your sources are outdated, it may lead your teacher to believe that you’ve recycled your own work or someone else’s.

Looking for a checker to try? With EasyBib Plus you get unlimited checks to give you peace of mind when turning in your papers!

What is Plagiarism?

If you’re looking for a free online plagiarism checker , you’re already aware that it’s not something you want to be found in your papers. However, you may still be wondering: what does plagiarism mean? It’s a reasonable question and one that merits exploring. After all, some of the actions and circumstances that fall within the plagiarism definition come as a surprise to those who only learn that they’ve committed them after it’s too late.

So what is plagiarism? To define plagiarism in the most basic sense, you might say that it is taking someone else’s ideas and words and passing them off as your own.

If your goal is avoiding plagiarism entirely, you’ll need to go beyond the basics to thoroughly define plagiarism, recognize it, and keep clear of it. Some examples of plagiarism that students find surprising include forgotten citations, poor paraphrasing, and re-submitting your own work in whole or in part for more than one assignment. This useful article provides more help in recognizing and understanding the different forms that academic dishonesty can take.

Of course, using your own words and ideas does not count as plagiarism, nor does using common knowledge . Basically, common knowledge is information that is well known by the average person. Examples of common knowledge:

  • there are 12 months in a year
  • the freezing point of Celsius is zero degrees
  • Socrates was a Greek philosopher

So should you only include your original thoughts and common knowledge in your papers? Of course not! Research-based assignments are meant to demonstrate your skills as a researcher, after all, as well as your ability to build upon the work of others to formulate new ideas. To avoid accidentally committing an act that falls within the plagiarism definition when you’re using another person’s words or ideas, though, you need to give them proper credit. This means you’ll need to clearly identify direct quotations or properly paraphrase them when including them in your paper.

Regardless of your approach, you’ll also need to cite your sources according to the style your professor specifies. Generally, you will use MLA format for the arts and humanities and APA format for the sciences, but it’s always best to check with your instructor when you’re unsure.

If you know what style to use but still aren’t sure how to create your citations, don’t fret! Our library of resources includes free guides to help you learn about various styles so you can properly structure and place them. And our premium tools not only help you check grammar, spelling, and originality in your papers, but subscribers also enjoy access to our citation creation tools!

What are the Different Types of Plagiarism?

In addition to the question “what is plagiarism,” you may also be wondering, “why do students plagiarize?” While some students do intentionally plagiarize because they believe they can pass off someone else’s work as their own to avoid spending time on their assignments, many others do so accidentally. They may not understand how broad the plagiarism definition is or they haven’t learned how to research and cite their sources properly. That is why it is vital to recognize plagiarism in all of its forms if you wish to ensure the integrity of your work.

Examples of plagiarism & How to prevent it

Direct plagiarism:

Intentionally copying another person’s work without including a citation that gives credit to the source. When most students are asked to identify potential plagiarism examples and behaviors, this direct and deliberate act is what they think of first.

  • Prevention: If you use an idea or quote from another source, cite it in the text. Make it clear that it was not your own words. 

Incremental plagiarism:

Copying parts of another person’s work, such as phrases, sentences, or paragraphs without crediting the source. When deciding which tools to use to check a paper for plagiarism , instructors often seek out those that will identify incremental forms as well as instances of direct copying and similar phrasing.

  • Prevention : Decide to either directly quote the phrases or sentences you want to use, or write a good paraphrase. In both cases, be sure to add a citation. Using a plagiarism checker could also help you identify problematic passages.


Academic self-plagiarism occurs when a student submits the same paper or parts of a paper for more than one assignment. When your instructors are grading your papers, they’re assessing your research and writing skills in the present. When you submit work that you completed in the past, they are both unable to evaluate your current skills and unaware that you haven’t completed the assignment.

  • Prevention: Write a new paper for each assignment you’re assigned. If you feel strongly that your past work could enhance your new paper, speak to your instructor and ask for permission first.

Misleading citations:

Including a citation for a quote or idea that misrepresents the source material. This can occur if a student does not understand the reference they are citing; if a student includes a citation for a disreputable source; or the source material simply does not align with the idea or argument that the student has attributed to it.

  • Prevention: Carefully review your assignment to understand it. As you research, take the time to evaluate each source notes . Remember, it’s better to have quality citations over an abundance of citations.

Invented sources:

If a reference in a student’s bibliography is found not to exist, it is considered an invented source. This may occur if a student couldn’t find a reputable source to back their argument, or if they needed to include additional references to meet the requirements of the assignment and chose to take an unethical shortcut rather than completing the required amount of research. No matter the reason, this behavior ultimately hurts them in the long run. Not only will they fail to gain the experience they need to conduct research in the future properly, but they’ll also experience significant consequences if they’re caught.

  • Prevention: Set aside time to do proper research so you can find enough sources. Start creating a list of sources as you’re researching and take good notes. This will help you keep track of your sources so none are forgotten. If you do end up forgetting where a quote came from, a paper checker could help you pinpoint the original source. 


Patchwriting is often confused with paraphrasing, but there’s a significant difference. When you paraphrase, you demonstrate that you understand the topic well enough to restate it in your own words. When you patchwrite or spin, it is more akin to a word-swapping game; there’s no need to understand the subject, merely to have access to a thesaurus so you can substitute enough synonyms to mask the source material. This can be intentional, but it may also be a result of having a poor understanding of how to paraphrase.

  • Prevention: Using your own words, write down the key points of the phrase or idea, and put them together in a sentence. Be sure to include a citation as well. 

A good way to test if you’re patchwriting or paraphrasing is to remove your sources from view. If you can write about what you’ve read without looking at the source material, you likely understand it well enough to paraphrase it. If you have to review the source material with each new sentence or consult a thesaurus while writing about it (except when you’re adding direct quotations), you may be spinning your sources instead of paraphrasing them.

Academic Integrity Policies and Statements

If you’re still uncertain about what counts as plagiarism, look for your school’s/ organization’s policies on academic integrity and plagiarism. The policies of academic institutions usually cover what is considered plagiarism, the consequences of committing it, and how to avoid it. One great example is Purdue University’s Academic Integrity statement .

What are the Consequences of Plagiarism?

No matter the setting, plagiarism is not taken lightly, and the consequences can be significant. For a good reason, too! Whether in an academic or professional setting, the plagiarism consequences reflect the seriousness of the act, which is ultimately a form of theft that hurts everyone involved.

Just as with the theft of a tangible object, there can be legal punishments for plagiarism. It is, after all, a form of copyright infringement in many instances. A quick search for plagiarism articles will reveal that professional instances of intellectual theft have resulted in civil lawsuits and can even be criminally prosecuted under rare circumstances. In addition to the possible legal consequences, professionals may lose their jobs or have to start over in a new field after their acts of fraud are uncovered.

As a student, you’re likely to wonder what happens if you plagiarize in college or high school. While there will almost always be consequences for this behavior, there is no one-size-fits-all plagiarism sentence. Depending on the circumstances, academic dishonesty could result in outcomes such as:

  • You might get a zero for the assignment in which the infringement occurred.
  • You may receive a failing grade for the class. If it is a required course, this could leave you without enough credits to move on to the next level until you can repeat it and, in some instances, postpone graduation.
  • You may be expelled from your school or university.

The academic dishonesty may be noted on your transcript, which can lead to you not getting into your preferred college, graduate school, or Ph.D. program in the future.

Nobody wants to be known as a fraud or to have a reputation for dishonesty follow them through their career. And, given the consequences that can extend beyond just their reputation, it’s no wonder that professional and academic writers who wish to avoid them take the time to understand the complete definition of plagiarism and run their work through a plagiarism checker before sending it out into the world.

Even the vigilant can fall prey to inferior tools, unfortunately. Before selecting a plagiarism checker, you should understand how they work and what they can (and cannot) detect.

How We Check for Plagiarism

When exploring how to check for plagiarism, most students and professionals conclude that including a checking tool in their revision process is not only helpful but necessary. When you consider the Herculean task of checking each line of your paper against the text of each of your resources, the benefits of a checker are clear. Moreover, this manual approach would only alert you to matching text in the sources you’re aware of, after all, and leaves the sources you haven’t reviewed untouched.

But, hang on. Why would sources you haven’t reviewed factor into your review? The answer to this lies in the plagiarism definition you learned above. What is plagiarism? It’s presenting someone else’s work or ideas as your own, intentionally or otherwise. It is not uncommon to uncover an idea while you’re researching a topic and later misremember it as your own. This might even occur years after you originally came across it.

You might wonder: how can plagiarism be avoided if you have to account for the source of every thought you include in your work? A few exceptions minimize the scope of this. Common knowledge about your topic does not need to be supported by a citation, nor does knowledge that you gained through your personal experience. Using a subscription-based or free plagiarism checker will help you locate any passages that may fall into these categories so you can review them and decide for yourself whether a citation is needed.

EasyBib Plus writing tools provide easy, convenient, and reliable support to help you find potentially missed citations and can help you improve your paper into a high-quality paper with integrity. Simply upload your paper, select the checker, then sit back and relax as the site scans your document. In mere moments, we’ll search the web for passages of similar text and highlight duplicate content for your review.

Regardless of the tools you use to help you revise and polish your work, it’s ultimately your responsibility to ensure that you’re writing and submitting ethical work. That’s why our tools go beyond the basics and require your participation. The tool never automatically makes changes to your paper, but only flags sections that may need your attention and provides you with the matching source so you can to make an educated decision.

If you find that a citation is needed, our citation tools can help you create properly formatted citations and develop a complete bibliography. And, if you review the passage and determine that the match is coincidental, you can dismiss the alert and move on to the next.

Seamless Citation Creation

Professional writers and students alike can find creating citations incredibly confusing. Nevertheless, they are an integral part of a well-written and researched paper and a requirement in almost all academic settings. But, have you ever wondered why they are so important? Citations really do have a purpose—other than driving us crazy— that make it necessary always to cite our sources.

We cite our sources for a few important reasons:

We need to give credit where credit is due. When you use a quote from someone else’s work, you need to give credit for using their words and ideas. Research is often based on the works and ideas of others. However, to include the words and ideas of another without giving them proper credit is to plagiarize, even if the act was unintentional.

In addition, showing that you’ve done proper research by including in text & parenthetical citations and a comprehensive list of sources to back up your arguments gives your work a layer of credibility that can help you earn the trust of your reader or teacher.

Readers can find the sources you used.  When you’re writing high school or undergraduate papers, your only readers may be your instructors and peers. However, including citations at every level of writing helps to ensure that anyone who reads your work can access your sources to check their accuracy, learn more about your topic, and further their own research.

Sources can take your research and learning to the next level, too. When you are conducting research on a topic, checking the works cited or annotated bibliographies prepared by your sources can lead you down new avenues in your research to further develop your ideas and help you write your papers.

Correctly utilizing citations gives strength to your thoughts and opinions. Understanding the value of citations does not, unfortunately, make them any easier to create. We know how confusing it can be, but don’t throw in the towel on learning how to cite websites in MLA , create your APA citation website references, or format your works cited —this is where we come in!

While a free online plagiarism detector may tell you how much of your work is unoriginal and may even identify the passages that meet their plagiarize definition, a premium EasyBib Plus plagiarism checker account also gives you access to our powerful citation resources and generator so you can:

Scan your papers with the plagiarism tool to check for plagiarism-free work before you submit.

Review flagged passages to determine if they meet the plagiarism definition and create unlimited citations in APA format and MLA format for anything fitting the plagiarism meaning. Need more styles ? Check out our regular citation generator for thousands of choices and free resources to help you learn how to create an APA parenthetical citation , APA book citation , APA works cited , and so much more!

Build a full bibliography for your paper right along with your parenthetical or in-text citations, which can save you hours of work along the way compared to manually creating and formatting them.

How Else Do We Help You Improve Your Paper?

The EasyBib Plus plagiarism detector helps you check your content or paper for text that may be missing a citation—which may fall within the definition of plagiarism—to help ensure you don’t accidentally plagiarize. It also includes grammar check and spelling check tools to help identify errors and suggest grammatical tweaks that could help to elevate the level of your writing.

Running a plagiarism check couldn’t be easier! Just upload your paper to the online proofreader, and in a few moments we’ll have your writing and citing suggestions. And, there’s no need to worry about your paper after it’s been scanned.

Run a Grammar and Spell Check for Free!

There’s no denying that your schoolwork can be challenging at times, and your assignments can lead to some late nights even when you’ve started them early. The last thing you want is to submit assignments that don’t reflect your best effort, but it can occasionally be quite the juggling act to get everything done on time.

Why not let our plagiarism checker free up space on your calendar by helping you revise your papers quickly and efficiently? The EasyBib Plus paper checker is your one-stop shop to check for plagiarism, create citations, spot spelling mistakes, and receive feedback on your grammar and style.

When you proofread and do a manual spelling check on work that you’ve written, you’re more likely to overlook mistakes. This is even more likely if you’re pressed for time or trying to complete several different assignments at once. There are tricks to help minimize this, such as reading your work aloud to identify poor grammar or reading each sentence backward to find spelling errors. When time is of the essence, though, these solutions aren’t the most convenient or useful options. That’s why many students seek the assistance of online tools that will run a grammar and plagiarism check on their work.

Are you asking yourself, “ How do I check my grammar online ?” We’ve got the perfect checker for you! Our advanced tools help you find and correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation mistakes. Our targeted feedback and free writing and citing resources help you learn as you go to improve your writing over time.

The best part? You can use our grammar and writing tools any time of the day, any day of the year for! Looking to try it? Just upload or copy and paste your text into our online proofreader for a free grammar check with up to 5 suggestions, or sign up for EasyBib Plus today! EasyBib Plus gives you use of the plagiarism checker and unlimited access to suggestions that can help improve your spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, writing style, and grammar.

Published February 3, 2019. Updated April 9, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Melissa DeVrieze Meyer . Michele is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib. You can find her here on Twitter. Melissa is a professional writer and editor based in New Jersey. She writes for academic brands and independent publishers about writing, grammar, and literature, and creates study and curriculum materials for ESL learners. You can find her on Twitter .

Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.


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The Critical Function of Judicial Review in Sustaining Constitutional Principles

This essay about judicial review highlights its critical role in maintaining constitutional principles by allowing courts to invalidate unconstitutional laws and actions. It emphasizes the importance of judicial review in protecting individual rights, promoting accountability, and maintaining the balance of power within the government. The essay also discusses the variations in judicial review practices across different countries and the potential controversies surrounding its application. Despite these debates, the fundamental importance of judicial review in upholding the rule of law and constitutional governance is underscored.

How it works

A general judicial review maintains account in right numerous staffmen, delegates a flow, to estimate constitutional actions, hardened legislative bodies and executive. This obligatory principle for storage compartment delegations, provides, that no governmental branch no oversteps their constitutional borders, and saves individual freedoms.

Fundamentally, a general judicial review co-ordinates possibility flow to do invalid laws and actions, that disorganize a constitution governmental. This critical position for manners aplomb authority among branches combine a government. In actual unis, practice a general judicial review firmly strengthens a judicial supreme decision in Marbury v.

Madison (1803). Main justice administration Marshall John in this considerable case confirmed delegations judicial authority to interpret a constitution, provides, that neither legislative, nor executive organs no able breach their terms. This decision confirmed judicial authority so as together equal branch governmental, capable despite limitation delegations other branches.

Although implementation a general judicial review is mimiced through jurisdictions, his unselfish snatches, successive:, leans superiority initiales a constitution. In a different country, so as for example personnels and India unite, a general judicial review is well reasonable and actively used practice. In other, it, at a case, more limit or fully absent, decorates legal traditions and constitutional contexts well-assorted. In vexation from these distinctions, a concept remains an aspect constitutional administration basic.

Only from play in favour of the keys general judicial review is his role in defence individual rights. Investigates governmental actions, flow can adjure abuse authority and to provide, that constitutional civil’ laws lean. This private role criticizes in case, include above all rights, so as for example freedom word, equality to the law, and necessary process. For example, in brown v. Direction teaching (1954), U.S. A supreme court used a general judicial review, to abolish constitutional laws, that the racial division set on people schools, so leans principle equal defence constitutional in adequacy with a law.

However, a general judicial review pulls out responsibility and governmental transparency. Subordinates legislative actions and administrative despite attentive judicial examination, these contraignent legislators and dignitary to stick to constitutional stallions. This position a supervision can have potentiels abuses authority and to encourage confirmation decision more serious and deliberate. It is why, a general judicial review serves a guarantee despite governmental arbitrary actions and illegal.

However, authority general judicial no review without his criticize. Different repulse, that, it can lead despite judicial activity, where a flow is outstripped by their delegations and accept decisions, that are due to be a competense politiques a legislative branch. This trouble appears often, when laws shock flow or administrative actions from constitutional soils, sparkles discussions from possibility corresponding judicial authority. However, supporters declare, that general above all judicial review for manners constitutional integrity and defence individual rights.

After his internal importances, general judicial review too influences legal international norms. Much nations look despite constitutional canonical courts, so as for example U.S. Court or constitutional supreme German court, so as designs for a display they noticed systems. The this influential international distinguishes a seriousness general judicial review in advancement line law globally and strengthens principles justice and rights man suitable any semi.

Seriousness a general judicial review draws out he after judicial authority. She brings up co-operations between branches government, influences confirmation legislative decision and administrator, and protects freedoms person. So as like, it are elements democratic administration and line critical law. While discussions from his possibility and influence, obviously, are careful, importance general judicial review basic in an entry constitutional principles some.

In a general total review, judicial is an above all device for a salary, that governmental actions co-ordinate he with constitutional mandates. These protect individual rights, pulls out responsibility, and leans an aplomb forces in borders government. In vexation from one continue discussions from his borders, principle a general judicial review continues to frisk an in critical role escort line law and entry integrity constitutional administration.


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AR July/August 2024: AR Public

Diller Scofidio + Renfro | Field Operations | Atelier Novembre | Rinaldo Olivieri | Roberto Burle Marx | DLR Architects Department| A2 Architects | Studio Ser | Rural Urban Framework | Collectivo C733 | Jamie Fobert Architects | Purcell | Fernanda Canales Arquitectura

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Spaces where people can move, speak and act freely and without being monitored are all but absent in today’s cities. ‘Parks, agoras, town halls, parliaments and college greens,’ Shannon Mattern reminds us in this issue’s keynote, ‘can be orchestrated to facilitate surveillance.’

This issue revisits five public spaces, asking how their original designers envisaged their use and how this has changed with time and shifting socio-economic incentives. Some are success stories: Copacabana beach in Rio de Janeiro, complete with Roberto Burle Marx’s pavements, ‘attracts the richest and the poorest’, while at Le Cent Quatre in Paris, amateur artists and professionals come to rehearse, learn and play in a convivial atmosphere.

Others have languished, such as Abidjan’s modernist La Pyramide, or have introduced access barriers – entry to Meskel Square in Addis Ababa is now subject to a fee. In New York, on the other hand, the High Line has precipitated extreme gentrification along its length; its ‘successes and shortcomings are as much a product of the neoliberal economy as of its designers’, writes Peter Lucas.

Against this context, the second edition of the AR Public awards celebrates new public spaces around the world. What becomes apparent in the following pages is the critical role played by public bodies in carving out public space – and the urgency of strengthening this responsibility.

1513: AR Public

Cover of the July/August 2024 issue of the Architectural Review on a blue background. the cover depicts a hotdog stand at night beneath the High Line in New York

Cover (above) Dean Kaufman for  The Architectural Review The southern end of Manhattan’s elevated High Line park sits on Gansevoort Street, next to the Whitney Museum of American Art in the heavily gentrified Meatpacking District. Having taken a hit during the Covid-19 pandemic, New York’s pretzel vendors – a fixture of the city’s public life – are back in full force here. They stay open while the High Line closes to the public at dusk

Folio (lead image) © Larissa Fassler / VG Bild-Kunst Bonn / DACS 2024 In 2013, the artist Larissa Fassler traced the movements of people on Paris’s Place de la Concorde. The events documented include a teenage girl running away from the police, jaywalkers, public urination, tourists and spots where unhoused people spend the night

Keynote Surveillance space Shannon Mattern

Revisit High Line in New York City, US by Diller Scofidio + Renfro and James Corner Field Operations Peter Lucas

Revisit Meskel Square in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Rahel Shawl

Revisit Le Cent Quatre in Paris, France by Atelier Novembre Manon Mollard

Revisit La Pyramide in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire by Rinaldo Olivieri Julia Gallagher and Yah Ariane Bernadette N’djoré]

Revisit Le Cent Quatre in Paris, France by Atelier Novembre Francesco Perrotta-Bosch

AR Public awards

Winner Dún Laoghaire Baths in Dún Laoghaire, Ireland by DLR Architects and A2 Architects Lisa Godson

Highly commended Seven interventions in Monte, Switzerland by Studio Ser Stefano Passamonti

Highly commended Ger Innovation Hub in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia by Rural Urban Framework Katie Schulder-Battis

Commended Muelle de San Blas, Mexico by Colectivo C733 Suleman Anaya

Commended National Portrait Gallery in London, UK by Jamie Fobert Architects and Purcell Catherine Slessor

Commended Border library and sports centre in Agua Prieta, Mexico by Fernanda Canales Arquitectura Pablo Emilio Aguilar Reyes

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Since 1896, The Architectural Review has scoured the globe for architecture that challenges and inspires. Buildings old and new are chosen as prisms through which arguments and broader narratives are constructed. In their fearless storytelling, independent critical voices explore the forces that shape the homes, cities and places we inhabit.

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Artificial intelligence as a disruptive technology—a systematic literature review.

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1. Introduction

2. materials and methods.

  • First exclusion: ○ Document types—the Editorial Materials and Meeting Abstracts were removed (WoS—38, S—42), leaving 124 (WoS) + 142 (S) = 266 papers; ○ All publishers with only 1 article, as we considered that they did not have a serious approach toward this topic, were removed (WoS—20, S—23), leaving 104 (WoS) + 119 (S). Further, at this stage, the intermediary results (1) were merged into the same file, resulting in 223 articles.
  • Second exclusion: ○ With the support of EndNote (used for reference management), it was possible to identify duplicate records (196) originating from the two databases and retain only 1 entry (98). In this manner, we obtained the intermediary results (2), with a total of 125 references.
  • Third exclusion: ○ The remaining list was evaluated for relevance based on title, keyword, and abstract analysis, and the articles that did not fit the purpose of the research were eliminated (−28), leaving a total of 97 papers included in the study.

3.1. AI as a Disruptive Technology in Healthcare (Medicine)

3.1.1. disruptive features in the applications to surgery, 3.1.2. disruptive features in the applications to healthcare, 3.2. ai as a disruptive technology in business—logistics and transportation and the labor market, 3.2.1. logistics, 3.2.2. labor market, 3.3. ai as a disruptive technology in agriculture, 3.3.1. smart farming, 3.3.2. digital twins, 3.3.3. the fourth industrial revolution (4ir), 3.4. ai as a disruptive technology in education, 3.5. ai as a disruptive technology with respect to urban development—society, smart cities, and smart government, 3.5.1. disruptive technology’s impact on society, 3.5.2. smart cities, 3.5.3. smart government, 4. discussion and conclusions.

  • Enhanced diagnosis, as AI algorithms can examine a large number of medical data to help clinicians make more accurate diagnoses, thus minimizing the possibility of misdiagnosis;
  • Personalized medicine, since by using a patient’s particular medical history and genetic data, AI can aid the development of individualized treatment approaches;
  • Superior patient outcomes, as AI may be used to track patients, anticipate future health difficulties, and alert medical professionals to take preventative action before significant health issues arise;
  • Expedite drug development, because AI can analyze massive volumes of data to hasten the process of developing new drugs and bringing them to market;
  • Improved clinical trials, due to the fact that data from clinical trials may be analyzed using AI algorithms, thus assisting in the selection of the most efficient therapies and enhancing patient results.
  • The development of AI in healthcare creates ethical issues, such as the issue of responsibility in situations of misdiagnosis or treatment suggestions;
  • Limited clinical validity poses a serious problem, because in certain complicated medical situations, AI algorithms may not be as accurate as human specialists and may not be completely verified for assessing all medical disorders;
  • Healthcare professionals and patients who are suspicious about the accuracy and dependability of the technology can be resistant to the adoption of AI in the industry.
  • For improved supply chain management, AI may aid routing, scheduling, and delivery optimization, which lowers transportation costs and increases delivery times;
  • Transportation safety may be improved by using AI to track and improve driver behavior, reduce collisions, and increase road safety;
  • AI can enhance logistics efficiency, as it may be used to improve inventory management, optimize storage and picking procedures, and expedite warehouse operations;
  • AI is transforming the labor sector by replacing many old manual jobs while also opening up new career prospects in programming and data analysis;
  • AI may improve customer experience as it can be used to offer updates on tracking and delivery in real-time, thereby reducing wait times and raising satisfaction;
  • AI may aid the maximization of fuel use and the cutting of emissions through effective vehicle scheduling and routing and thus contribute to minimized environmental impacts;
  • Many laborious and repetitive tasks will be automated, which may result in fewer jobs and employment possibilities, particularly in sectors such as logistics and transportation;
  • As the demand for more high-skilled positions in AI and data analysis increases and fewer low-skilled occupations are automated, the rising usage of AI may worsen already-existing income discrepancies;
  • The widespread usage of autonomous cars may result in substantial social and cultural changes, such as the loss of individual driving abilities and the demise of the automobile culture.
  • Improved agricultural yields and less waste are possible with the use of AI, which may help farmers optimize planting, irrigation, and fertilization;
  • Better resource management may help farmers conserve energy, water, and other resources while decreasing waste and enhancing sustainability;
  • Enhanced food safety can be enforced by tracking the whole food production chain from farm to table, while AI can assist in the identification and prevention of food-borne diseases;
  • AI can provide real-time analysis of crop, soil, and weather variables, thus enabling farmers to make educated decisions;
  • Predictive maintenance may reduce downtime and boost production by predicting when machines and equipment need maintenance.
  • AI systems are not immune to technical glitches or malfunctions, and the agricultural sector might suffer significantly as a result, leading to crop losses and possible food shortages;
  • The usage of AI in agriculture may have unforeseen environmental effects, including increased pesticide and herbicide use, degraded soil, and the loss of biodiversity.
  • A decrease in dropout rates and improved student results due to AI’s ability to detect students’ areas of need and offer focused support;
  • Education that is customized to each student’s requirements, interests, and learning preferences may be achieved by using AI to deliver personalized learning experiences for students;
  • Improved assessment and feedback due to AI’s ability to automate, enhance, and optimize the grading and feedback process and provide students faster, more precise, and more thorough feedback on their work;
  • Lifelong learning is possible because of AI, which can help people continue to learn and advance their expertise.
  • Education quality may suffer due to the usage of AI in the classroom when human interaction, creativity, and critical thinking abilities are substituted by automated procedures;
  • A lack of critical thinking abilities may be precipitated by AI because the use of AI-powered tools and resources may lessen the necessity for critical thinking and problem-solving abilities, which may retard the development of these skills among students;
  • The dependence on technology due to an overreliance on AI in the classroom may result in a lack of creativity, independence, and decision-making abilities, which will reduce students’ capacity to think and work independently.
  • An increase in transparency, as by using AI to render governmental processes more open and accountable, individuals will be able to better understand how choices are made;
  • Enhanced fraud detection, since AI may be used to identify and stop corruption and fraud in government systems, thus increasing public confidence in these organizations;
  • Better resource allocation, because governmental organizations may use AI to more effectively direct resources, including money and staff, to the areas where they are most needed;
  • The introduction of predictive analytics, as through the use of AI, government agencies may employ predictive analytics to proactively address prospective concerns before they become problems.
  • Privacy issues—Government entities frequently deploy AI algorithms that rely on substantial volumes of personal data, which raises privacy concerns regarding how these data are gathered, kept, and used;
  • Lack of transparency—AI technologies employed by government agencies may be opaque, making it difficult for the public to comprehend how and why choices are being made;
  • The employment of AI in governmental affairs may result in greater control and surveillance, which may have detrimental effects on free expression and civil rights;
  • When an AI system utilized by a government errs or causes harm, it may be challenging to pinpoint the culprit, which results in a lack of accountability.

Author Contributions

Data availability statement, conflicts of interest.

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Click here to enlarge figure

Manuscript-Selected KeywordFrequency in AbstractFrequency in KeywordsFrequency in TitlesTotalFrequency (Total)Rank
Artificial intelligence1256638229
Internet of things277539
3D Printing53412126
ClusterDomain-Related KeywordsTechnology-Related Keywords
BlueHealthcare (Digital heath), Medicine, DentistryAI (Machine learning), Robotics, digitalization, new technology
GreenBusiness, Organizations, Logistics, GovernmentAI (Augmented reality), Digital, Automation, RPA
YellowAgriculture, Smart farming, IndustryAI (Deep learning), Internet technology, Internet of things
RedEducation, Society, Smart city, Environment, AI (applications), Cloud computing, Big Data, Blockchain
AspectPositive ImpactNegative Impact
DiagnosisImproved accuracy, velocity, and consistency of medical actions.Limited clinical validity in certain complex cases.
TreatmentPersonalized treatment plans for patient’s particular situation.Ethical concerns and accountability in cases of misdiagnosis.
Clinical TrialsAre efficient and cost-effective due to AI.-
Predictive MedicineImproved early intervention, reliable and fast screening.-
Healthcare AccessImproved access to medical services due to lower costs.-
OperationsStreamlined workflows and resource management.Job losses in certain areas.
ResearchEnhanced medical research.-
Data Privacy-Concerns over data privacy and security.
Adoption-Resistance to change and skepticism from healthcare employees
Cost-High cost, in the short run, for development and implementation.
Impact onDisruptive Feature Disruptive TechnologiesReference
Healthcare: patient data such as laboratory results, wearable devices’ data, genomic data, medical imagingHas positive aspects such as improved management of patient medical history but also generates plenty of legal and ethical issues.Blockchain and AI[ ]
Medicine: guided surgery and advanced imagingDevelopment of new surgical methods based on previous procedures, a revolution in spinal care via AI, Robotic assistance decreases surgeon fatigue.AI: Robots, ML, and DL[ , , ]
Healthcare in COVID-19 pandemic Robots used intensively for distribution of food and medicine to ill persons, assisting elderly people, biopsies (with Endoscopy bots); 3D prosthetics printing.AI: Robots and 3D printing
AI and blockchain
[ , ]
Healthcare support in HR process of hiring medical personnelAI aids HR with respect to finding and vetting potential healthcare workers. In addition, it has great potential as a cognitive assistant but cannot replace humans.AI[ ]
Healthcare by Healthcare 5.0EXAI is a revolutionary AI innovation that enhances clinical healthcare procedures and provides transparency to predictive analysis.AI: Explainable AI, Healthcare 5.0[ ]
Medicine by Surgery 4.0The digital transformation of surgery.AI: AR/VR, 3D printing[ ]
DentistryRevolutionizes dental medicine’s diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.AI[ , ]
Medicine: ethical issuesAI algorithms can be inaccurate, which leads to low clinical judgment and unfavorable patient outcomes.AI and ML[ ]
Disruptive TechnologyImpact on LogisticsImpacts on TransportationReferences
AITerminal operation (e.g., identifying ill passengers and luggage controls to facilitate efficiency in terms of human logistics within railways and airports), congestion mitigation, and traffic flow predictionVehicle routing, optimal route suggestion[ , ]
Autonomous vehiclesIndirect impactsIndividual vehicles and groups of vehicles traveling together, e.g., platoons; features wireless communication[ ]
Automated robotsShort-distance deliveriesMainly based on economic viability, accessibility to the public, acceptance by different stakeholders, and benefits associated with their use[ , ]
DronesLow impactProvide access to unreachable areas and future use in last-mile delivery[ , ]
3D printingDisrupts traditional manufacturing and logistics processesIndirect impacts/consequences[ , , ]
Big DataEnhance collaborative shipping, forecast demand, and manage supply chainsReal-time traffic flows, aid the navigation of ocean vessels, forecast train delays, adjust ocean vessel speeds, manage infrastructure maintenance, optimize truck fill rates, increase transport safety, locate charging stations, improve parking policies[ ]
IoTLow impactIoT is the backbone that supports vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-person, and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications[ ]
BlockchainExacerbates data-sharing provenance issues, ownership registry issues, and issues including trust, privacy, and transparencyTrack-and-trace affordances; credit evaluation; increases transportation visibility; strengthens transportation security—including with respect to shipping and ports—regarding the tracking of goods; reduces inefficiencies due to extensive paperwork; and reduces disputes regarding logistics of goods[ ]
Electric VehiclesImpacts on urban consolidation centers, off-peak distribution (wherein its environmental benefits are important)City deliveries involving small vehicles—vans and bikes—as well as medium-duty trucks and also heavy-duty trucks[ , ]
AspectPositive Impact(s)Negative Impact(s)
Fleet ManagementDecreased downtime;
increased efficiency through vehicle allocation optimization.
System failures may occur;
increased costs for installation and maintenance may be incurred.
Product’s deliveryMaximized efficiency;
minimized delivery time and costs.
Delivery workers may lose their jobs.
Supply Chain ManagementRoute optimization;
reduced consumption;
facilitates cleaner environment.
Ethical issues such as lack of accountability for supply chain disruptions.
Traffic ManagementOptimized traffic flow;
reduced congestion;
optimized routes.
Privacy concerns due to surveillance;
potential job losses for traffic officers.
Environmental SustainabilityReduced carbon emissions; increased efficiency of fuel consumption.Dependence on technology leads to greater energy consumption.
SafenessSuperior driver assistance;
fewer accidents.
Ethical issues regarding autonomous vehicles;
potential job losses for drivers.
Impact onDisruptive Feature Disruptive TechnologiesReference
Logistics and TransportationImpacts L and T and the opportunities to support management decisions in the L industry.Autonomous vehicles, automated robots, drones, 3D printing, big data, IoT, blockchain, electric vehicles[ , ]
Enhance the sustainability and resilience of L and
green L (green distribution, reverse L, and green warehousing)
Blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT), smart robots[ , , , ]
Logistics by LSPExpand the boundaries of supply chain traceability, transparency, accuracy, and safetyBlockchain, IoT, and bigdata[ ]
Labor market: new jobs createdRequire specialized technical knowledge to develop and operate them;
new jobs are being created; new skills need to be developed
NLP, ML, reasoning, computer vision[ , ]
Labor market: jobs takenReplacing human laborers to reduce expendituresRPA[ ]
AspectPositive Impact(s)Negative Impact(s)
Job CreationNew AI-related jobs.Job losses due to tasks replaced by AI.
Skill DevelopmentOpportunities for skill development and upskilling.Reduced demand for certain skills and job losses for workers.
ProductivityAutomation increases efficiency and
reduces manual labor.
Increased dependence on technology.
Wage disparitiesWage raises for high-skilled workers.Wage decreases for low-skilled workers.
Working ConditionsImproved safety;
reduced physical labor.
Technological addiction;
ethical implications related to AI.
SectorsPositive ImpactsNegative Impacts
Agricultural researchInnovations in predictive analytics, disease control, and breeding programs.Disparities with respect to access to research.
Labor force in AgricultureReduced manual labor tasksJob losses due to task automation.
Livestock managementImproved decision making through data analysisPrivacy concerns regarding data collection and analysis.
Crop production and Precision agricultureIncreased crop yields and profitability.Potential system failures;
high costs of implementation.
Smart farmingWater is saved via smart irrigation;
crop diseases can be identified on site.
Limited access to Internet;
chaotic regional development.
Impact onDisruptive Feature Disruptive Technologies Reference
FarmingSmart irrigation systems (Skydrop)AI and weather forecast[ ]
Keeps track of the mental and emotional states of animalsAI-based recognition technology[ , ]
Innovations in the market of aquaponics: intelligent management system for aquacultureAI[ , ]
Krops: disrupts the old buying and selling practicesAI techniques and Azzure[ , ]
Identification of pest and crop diseases and provision of vigor and water stress indices AI-based image recognition via satellite or drone image analysis[ , ]
Smart farming and urban farmingAI and blockchain[ ]
Agriculture Supply Chain (ASC) Real-time, data-driven ASCBlockchain, AI, IoT, and 3D printing [ , ]
Impact onDisruptive Feature Disruptive TechnologiesReference
Education: management of academic organizationsLack of physical (human) supervisor.AI, blockchain[ , ]
Education: SportsAI poses unethical concerns involving the transformation of athletes into cyborgs (1) and the robotization of training and judgement processes (2).AI: robotics, enhanced vision, AR/VR[ ]
Education: emergence of Education 4.0A lack of interaction between students and professors, robotization of education.AI, robotics, blockchain, 3D printing, 5G, IoT, digital twins, and augmented reality[ , , , ]
Education 4.0 should integrate Industry 4.0 concepts into academic curriculaRapid and massive disruption to all sectors in terms of demand for occupations and skills13 key technologies: IoT, big data, 3D printing, cloud computing, AR, VR/AR, cyber-physical systems, AI, smart sensors, simulation, nanotechnology, drones, and biotechnology[ ]
Education: Instructors and studentsEnhances the integrity of educational experiencesIoT[ ]
Education: engineering students and professorsGenerates a paradigm shift in engineering education4IR boosted by AI[ , ].
Education: dentistry studentsDental students can be trained using full-body robotsRobotics[ , ]
AspectPositive ImpactNegative Impact
Personalized LearningCustomized learning experiences for students.Eliminates social interactions.
Skill DevelopmentAI-based skill development for instructors and students.Reduced demand for certain skills and job losses for educators.
TeachingImproved teaching efficiency and effectiveness.Decreased face-to-face interaction;
automation leads to job losses for educators.
AssessmentMore accurate and efficient assessments.Lack of accountability for assessment outcomes, i.e., who is to blame in case of errors?
EquityImproved equity in education; reduced educational disparities.Data collection and analysis create privacy concerns.
AccessibilityImproved accessibility to education;
reduced costs of education.
Dependence on technology may lead to potential system failures and unavailability of data.
AspectPositive ImpactNegative Impact
Employmentdecrease in manual labor;
development of new jobs.
some professions may become obsolete;
pay gap between low- and high-skilled individuals.
Healthcareenhanced patient care;
lower medical expenses.
health data privacy issues;
job losses for healthcare workers.
Educationcustomized learning;
minimized educational costs.
technology dependency;
possible loss of teaching positions.
Entertainmentenhanced production and distribution of content.reduced face-to-face engagement and social skills.
Communicationhigh accessibility;
fewer language obstacles
addiction to technology.
Privacyenhanced data securityprivacy issues due to data collection and analysis
Aspect ImpactedPositive ImpactNegative Impact
Urban planningeffective urban planning.benefit- and access-related disparities.
Environmental sustainabilitybetter air quality;
low carbon emissions.
technological addiction may lead to system breakdowns.
Traffic managementimproved traffic flow;
less congestion;
route optimization.
surveillance privacy concerns;
job losses for traffic officers.
Waste managementenhanced waste collection and management;
waste reduction.
job loss;
potential system failures.
Citizen’s Satisfactionimproved quality of life.ethical and moral issues.
Energy managementEnergy benefits via AI-monitored energy usage;
reduced energy consumption.
AI systems consume more energy, which might negate any environmental benefits.
AspectsPositive ImpactNegative Impact
Public Service Deliveryreduced wait times;
customized public services.
privacy issues concerning data collection;
job losses for government employees.
Public Safetypredictive policing;
improved emergency response times.
ethical concerns regarding biased algorithms and predictive policing.
Public Decision Makinghigh accuracy and reduced bias;
enhanced data analysis.
Algorithm-related ethical concerns;
lack of accountability for decisions made by AI.
Electionsincreased participation;
reduced voting fraud.
Algorithm-related ethical concerns;
lack of accountability for AI decisions.
Public Fraud Detectionhigh accuracy of detection;
fewer fraudulent activities.
data collection concerns.
Impact onDisruptive Feature(s) Disruptive TechnologiesReference
SocietyIt is an essential tool to national security and a major element of achieving the country’s dream of national rejuvenationAI chatbots: AI and big data[ ]
Society 5.0—a highly integrated cyber and physical platform—is constructed, with people playing a prominent roleIndustry 5.0/Society 5.0[ ]
AIoT is disrupting the public sector.Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT)[ ]
Smart citiesPrecipitates both positive and negative effects in the business worldBlockchain combined with AI, Cloud and IoT [ ]
Integration between smart cities, construction, and real estateSmart Tech 4.0[ , ]
The development of a prosperous and powerful smart city economyCNN and/or AIA[ ]
Smart governmenthumans replaced by machines (negation of 3000 jobs)AI, RPA, and Big data[ ]
The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

Păvăloaia, V.-D.; Necula, S.-C. Artificial Intelligence as a Disruptive Technology—A Systematic Literature Review. Electronics 2023 , 12 , 1102. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12051102

Păvăloaia V-D, Necula S-C. Artificial Intelligence as a Disruptive Technology—A Systematic Literature Review. Electronics . 2023; 12(5):1102. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12051102

Păvăloaia, Vasile-Daniel, and Sabina-Cristiana Necula. 2023. "Artificial Intelligence as a Disruptive Technology—A Systematic Literature Review" Electronics 12, no. 5: 1102. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12051102

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Copa America

Copa America



How Argentina, Lionel Messi lifted a third-straight title with Copa America victory against Colombia

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Argentina win 2024 Copa America on a dramatic day

The Copa America final between Argentina and Colombia was delayed by more than an hour after chaotic and dangerous scenes saw thousands of fans prevented from entering the Hard Rock Stadium in Miami.

The match finally got underway at 9:22pm ET, 82 minutes after it was scheduled to start . Argentina went on to beat Colombia 1-0 after extra time to defend their Copa America crown, despite their star player Lionel Messi being forced off with an injury.

Miami-Dade Police Department said that there were “several incidents” before the gates opened at the stadium. Fans spoken to by The Athletic blamed organizers CONMEBOL . “It’s a disaster,” one said. “They won’t even give water. Not even water!”

Supporters, including young children, were left stranded outside the stadium in large numbers with the searing heat in the area only adding to the issues. And a number of fans were ejected from the stadium throughout the game. For a full recap, click here .

Argentina beats Colombia to win record-breaking Copa America title

Argentina beats Colombia to win record-breaking Copa America title

Ed Mackey

Scaloni: 'This team never ceases to surprise'

Scaloni: 'This team never ceases to surprise'

Getty Images

As they did in their last two major-tournament campaigns, Argentina pulled a rabbit out of a hat when they needed to do it most against Colombia. Scaloni was asked if a third-straight trophy was an era-defining one.

“I don't know if it marks an era, but it's true this team never ceases to surprise, they overcame the difficulties of a very difficult match, with a very complicated opponent and without a good first half,” he said.

“In the second half I think we improved and deserved to win and then always in extra time, in the long run the team always finds something extra, so it's gratifying to see them play and I'm eternally grateful for the way they give their all.”

Lorenzo: 'We're just getting started'

Lorenzo: 'We're just getting started'

The narrow extra-time defeat marked a first defeat for Colombia in 29 matches and coach Lorenzo was upbeat when he spoke afterwards.

“Of the two finalists there is one who is marking an era, it is not a coincidence and before this era they lost two Copa America finals and a World Cup final,” he said. “Scaloni has been with the boys for seven years, I congratulate them. We’re just getting started.

“I hope we play in the next final and qualify for the World Cup. I’m proud of the boys. I thank the players.”

Pre-match delays had an impact, says Lorenzo

Pre-match delays had an impact, says Lorenzo

Speaking after the defeat, Colombia coach Nestor Lorenzo claimed that the pre-match delay affected his side's preparations.

“I think we had a very good build-up to the game but then some unusual situations started to happen,” he said. “(The players) warmed up, cooled down, warmed up again, before the kick-off. Then we had 25 minutes of half-time, strange things for both teams.”

He then discussed the difference in experience of the two teams.

“Generally the tension is felt more by those who have less experience in finals, and it took its toll on us,” added Lorenzo. “It’s not easy to play in a final for everyone, the boys felt a bit of the effort of the whole tournament, they played six games in 21 days.”

Felipe Cardenas

Argentina are special – Copa America proves they just win

Argentina are special – Copa America proves they just win

There’s something special about Argentina, but it isn’t their football. The three-time world champions stumbled their way to a second consecutive Copa America with a 1-0 extra-time win over Colombia. It proved one thing: Argentina just keep winning .

That’s what champions do. Over four weeks in the United States, Argentina never found their best form. Their possession-based philosophy didn’t overwhelm their opponents. Lionel Messi, who won his 45th title as a professional, was a shadow of himself.

Messi, 37, was impactful in flashes but he has been hampered by a groin injury since June 25. He was substituted in the 66th minute of the final with what appeared to be a painful right ankle injury. Yet still, Argentina walked away with their third straight major trophy — the 2022 World Cup sandwiched between the 2021 Copa and this one — becoming the first South American team to do so. The Albiceleste matched the great Spain team that achieved the same feat from 2008-2012.

Argentina are special – Copa America proves they just win

As did Lo Celso

As did Lo Celso

Those three extra-time substitutions from Lionel Scaloni will go down in history for Argentina as they all played a key role in the goal.

Paredes won the ball back and gave it Lo Celso who played a perfectly timed pass into Lautaro and you know the rest!

That was Lo Celso's 14th assist for Argentina since Scaloni took the job as manager in 2018 — only Messi (with 16 assists) has more in that time.

Substitute Paredes made a telling contribution

Substitute Paredes made a telling contribution

Like matchwinner Lautaro, Leandro Paredes was introduced in the seventh minute of extra time. And like the Inter Milan striker, Paredes made his presence count.

He made four tackles during his time on the pitch, more than any of his team-mates throughout the entirety of the match. He also became the first player in the 21st century to make that many tackles as a substitute in a Copa America final.

Oh, and it was one of those tackles that started off the move for the winning goal.

Some contribution from the Roma midfielder!

Di Maria: 'I'll always be grateful to this generation'

Di Maria: 'I'll always be grateful to this generation'

As he said leading into the match, Di Maria knows only too well how it feels to be on the losing side at a major tournament. He was part of the Argentina squad beaten in the final of the 2014 World Cup as well as those in 2015 and 2016 Copa America.

"I'll be always grateful to this generation who gave me everything, helped me win what I always wanted and today," he said after the win against Colombia. "I am leaving like this. It could not be better."

Thankfully Argentina didn't need Di Maria's goals

Thankfully Argentina didn't need Di Maria's goals

36-year-old Di Maria turned in a vintage performance for Argentina who, for once in a final, didn't need one of his goals.

He scored in the 2021 Copa America and 2022 World Cup finals as his country lifted the trophies on both occasions. This final marks the first in 30 years that Argentina have won without Di Maria being on the scoresheet.

By the time they make it to another final, they will be without the former Real Madrid winger...

The worst time for Colombia to draw a blank

The worst time for Colombia to draw a blank

Colombia led 2024 Copa America for goals scored with 12 across their seven matches.

They managed six throughout the group stage and six in their first two knockout games. But when it mattered, in the final, they failed to find the net for the first time at the tournament, despite having eight more shots across the 120 minutes than Argentina.

Lautaro joins Batistuta in Argentinian folklore

Lautaro joins Batistuta in Argentinian folklore

Lautaro Martinez's winning goal in extra time was his fifth goal of 2024 Copa America, earning him the Golden Boot.

Since the start of the 1960s, he is just the second player to score more than four goals in a victorious Copa America campaign.

The other? Countryman Gabriel Batistuta who scored six times in the 1991 edition.

Scaloni on Lionel Messi’s injury

Scaloni on Lionel Messi’s injury

Lionel Scaloni has said that Lionel Messi attempted to play through the pain in the 2024 Copa America final “because he did not want to let his team-mates down”.

Messi received medical treatment in the first half and was withdrawn in the second with an apparent leg injury. Cameras later showed him on the bench with a badly swollen right ankle.

“Leo has something that everyone should have. He's the best in history and, even with an ankle like that, he doesn't want to go off,” Scaloni said.

“But it's not because he is selfish, but because he does not want to let his team-mates down. He was born to be on a pitch.”

Lionel Messi ‘didn’t want to let Argentina team-mates down’ after Copa America final injury

Lionel Messi ‘didn’t want to let Argentina team-mates down’ after Copa America final injury

Sanchez: ‘Colombia deserves everything but we go on’

Sanchez: ‘Colombia deserves everything but we go on’

Tonight’s result means that Colombia’s incredible 28-match unbeaten streak has come to an end. Their last result prior to tonight? Argentina, in February 2022.

Davinson Sanchez, formerly of Tottenham Hotspur and now plying his trade with Galatasaray in Turkey, was one of the few Colombia players to front up after they fell at the final hurdle.

“It hurts after a tournament that the whole team fought for, it hurts when you compete to win and we felt we deserved more. But we have to thank the people,” he said.

“We wanted to give the victory to a country that deserves it, Colombia deserves everything, and we leave empty-handed, but we will go on.”

Scaloni on Di Maria: ‘He ran like he was 25’

Scaloni on Di Maria: ‘He ran like he was 25’

Argentina head coach Lionel Scaloni is full of praise for the departing Angel Di Maria, who disappears into the sunset this evening having won 145 caps for his country, along with two Copa America titles at the 2022 World Cup.

Scaloni said: “He’s had some spectacular games for us but today was one of the best.

“He had the energy to press high when others were faltering. He ran like he was 25. I tried to convince him to carry on, at least to play again in front of his public. He's a legend.”

Needless to say Di Maria isn’t 25 — he turned 36 in February.

Laura Williamson

The Argentina celebrations continue

The Argentina celebrations continue

The Athletic

It is 1:45am in Miami and Argentina players, families and friends are still on the pitch.

It’s unlikely the celebrations will end any time soon.

Jack Lang

Aguero celebrates Argentina's win

Sergio Aguero, one of the players who just missed out on this run of trophies for Argentina, has tweeted his praise for the team. "Thank you so much for another dose of joy," he wrote. "I'm proud of you. You're the best. I love you."

Stonewall Martinez

Incredible stat here: Emiliano Martinez has now played 45 times in goal for Argentina. He has kept 33 clean sheets. THIRTY THREE! That is beyond spectacular.

Argentina conceded only one goal in this tournament, becoming just the fourth team ever to play at least five matches in a single edition of the tournament and concede one or zero goals.

Michael Dominski

Winning goal was a rare sight

Winning goal was a rare sight

Prior to this match, there hadn't been an extra-time goal in the Copa America final since 1937! Lautaro Martínez’s winner was only the fourth ever in extra time of a Copa America final.

The other three were one by Arthur Friedenreich for Brazil against Uruguay in 1919 and two by Vicente de la Mata for Argentina against Brazil in 1937.

Argentina conceded 1 goal at Copa America 2024

Argentina conceded 1 goal at Copa America 2024

Emi Martínez has become the first Argentina goalkeeper to record five clean sheets in a single edition of Copa América. He allowed just one goal, coming from Ecuador's Kevin Rodríguez in the quarterfinal.

Martinez was instrumental in Argentina's victory in this tournament, particularly distinguishing himself during the penalty shootout against Ecuador.

Reader reaction: 'My heart rate won’t recover for a while'

Reader reaction: 'My heart rate won’t recover for a while'

We've had more than 600 comments on our discussion page for this match, and here are a few of the choice ones reacting to Argentina's victory.

Carlos M.: I think Colombia was the best team of the tournament. But Argentina knows how to win these games. The fact that Colombia had one less day of rest and had a tougher semifinal game than Argentina really showed beginning in the 75th minute.

Caroline C.: Lautaro!!! I’m so glad he scored and decided it after a confidence diminishing World Cup (for him). I’m so happy Paredes came in too. The De Paul, Lo Celso, Paredes midfield is class. Though credit to Mac Allister and Enzo for playing great too. Fair play to Colombia. You guys played really well and my heart rate won’t recover for a while. It was an even game. We’ll see you for qualifiers.

Jose A.: Was this a Colombia bottle job or Argentina rising to the occasion, again? Colombia arguably played the best football in the tournament, with James doing a true comeback MVP performance, but LOS MUCHACHOS have so much experience at this, they can limp though a tournament like this and still have the resources to get it done. Much more impressive is that this one was won with Messi being sub-par for long stretches of the Cup, with injury problems to boot in the final.

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‘Longlegs’ Review: Nicolas Cage Worms His Way Into Your Nightmares With Dread-Filled Serial Killer Thriller

Osgood Perkins' ’90s-set horror movie disturbs more over time than it does in the moment, getting scary once its singularly Satanic boogeyman embeds in your head.

By Peter Debruge

Peter Debruge

Chief Film Critic

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SPOILER ALERT: The following review contains mild spoilers.

Now here’s a first: Apart from the pale-faced freak show of the film’s title, the experience of watching “ Longlegs ” didn’t strike me as all that frightening. At first. In the moment, it’s considerably less scary than the ecstatic early buzz — ginned up by Neon via whisper campaigns and strategic advance screenings — would have you believe. Less than 12 hours after seeing it, however, the demented Nicolas Cage character resurfaced in my nightmares, popping up out of nowhere to screech, “Hail Satan!” in that unnerving, high-pitched voice of his.

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That nickname applies to an instantly iconic Nicolas Cage creation, no less disturbing than Max Schreck’s hunchbacked Nosferatu, a performance that has been a career-long inspiration for Cage. Like that early screen vampire, Longlegs puts us on edge with his twisted body language and exaggerated gestures — that, plus odd framing that crops him off at the head, explains how the character manages to worm his way into our brains.

Visually, audiences can scarcely tell it’s Cage beneath all that makeup: With his stringy white hair, pasty foundation and faded pink uniform, he looks less like a man than an androgynous cross between Bette Davis in “What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?” and kindly character actor Celia Weston, who played the mom in “Junebug.” These are hardly your typical horror archetypes, and yet, once the film’s ultimate scheme is revealed, it leaves a more unsettling imprint.

We first see Longlegs driving up to an innocent girl’s white country house in a station wagon — easily the least threatening of cars, rendered ominous by DP Andres Arochi’s framing. The opening sequence is stylized to suggest a grainy home movie, with its vintage Kodak colors and rounded corners. Later, the frame expands to full anamorphic widescreen, creating a coffin-like shape that tends to isolate characters in threatening environments. As Cage interacts with what he calls “the almost birthday girl,” playing a twisted game of peekaboo, his demeanor suggests an incompetent clown or a bachelor uncle — one of those maladroit adults who grossly misjudge how to interact with kids. He’s the kind of sinister stranger little girls are well advised not to approach.

From this prologue, the film jumps forward from the ’70s to the Clinton administration to find Lee participating in an FBI search. She shows an almost psychic intuition as to the culprit’s whereabouts, but that isn’t enough to spare her partner, whose abrupt exit establishes how shocking the film’s violence can be. There’s a certain laziness to the storytelling, as Perkins relies on tired serial-killer tropes to skip over the film’s more egregious contrivances. (Lee’s personal connection to Longlegs is a coincidence too far, and the never-explained demonic orbs are more hokey than horrific.)

Rather than recycling the genre’s boilerplate elements, Perkins strips away most of the procedural bits and concentrates on distinguishing details: the eccentric mental hospital chief who dresses like a pimp, or the girl at the hardware store who might have been a victim in another movie, but instead deflates Longlegs’ menace when she quips, “Dad, that gross guy’s here again!”

Reviewed at Wilshire Screening Room, Los Angeles, July 1, 2024. MPA Rating: R. Running time: 101 MIN.

  • Production: A Neon release and presentation, in association with C2, of a Traffic., Range, Oddfellows, Saturn Films production. Producers: Dan Kagan, Brian Kavanaugh-Jones, Nicolas Cage, Dave Caplan, Chris Ferguson. Executive producers: Jason Cloth, Andrea Bucko, Ronnie Exley, Lawrence Minicone, Sean Krajewski, David Gendron, Liz Destro, Tom Quinn, Jason Wald, Christian Parkes, Teddy Schwarzman, John Friedberg, Laura Austin-Little, Jesse Savath, Fred Berger.
  • Crew: Director, writer: Osgood Perkins. Camera: Andrés Arochi Tinajero. Editors: Greg Ng, Graham Fortin. Musci: Zilgi.
  • With: Maika Monroe, Blair Underwood, Alicia Witt, Nicolas Cage, Michelle Choi-Lee, Dakota Daulby.

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