Factors Fuelling the Persistence of Child Labour: Evidence from Pakistan

  • Published: 16 May 2024

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research proposal on child labour in pakistan

  • Shahla Akram   ORCID: 1 ,
  • Mehboob Ul Hassan   ORCID: 2 &
  • Muhammad Farrukh Shahzad   ORCID: 3  

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The persistence of child labour globally can be attributed to a complex interplay of multifaceted factors. This study examines the relationship between these diverse factors of child labour, such as economic activities, working hours, hazardous conditions and overall prevalence. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using data from Pakistan’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS sixth wave). According to the data, poor quality education worsens child labour, while parental education and wealth protect against it. Gender differences, child disabilities, regional differences and non-violent behaviour all have significant impacts on labour force participation. This study highlights the complex interactions between socioeconomic and regional factors in determining child labour. It fills gaps in the existing literature by focusing on previously overlooked elements such as nonviolent behaviour and comprehensive disability interactions, as well as conducting a comprehensive examination of socioeconomic determinants. Understanding these dynamics is critical to targeted initiatives to eliminate child labour and ensure the well-being of children.

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Akram, S., Hassan, M.U. & Shahzad, M.F. Factors Fuelling the Persistence of Child Labour: Evidence from Pakistan. Child Ind Res (2024).

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The Impact of Child Labour Laws in Pakistan

  • Syed Qarrar Hussain Shah LL.M. Scholar, Department of Law, The Times Institute, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Shaukat Hussain Bhatti Assistant Professor, Department of Law, The Times Institute, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Vagiha Naz Lecturer, Department of Education, Govt. Zainab Associate College Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend school regularly, and is dangerous mentally, physically, socially or morally is harmful. This process is considered exploitative by many international organizations. Legislation around the world prohibits child labour. These laws do not consider all child labour to be child labour. The research in hand deals with the new amendment in child labour Act and its impact on the minors in Pakistan. How the international organizations work for the betterment of children all over the world, including the work of UNICEF, ILO. UNICEF and ILO have differentiated between child work and child labour. According to them if a child helps in the house chores or family business but it doesn’t affect his health or schooling it doesn’t fall in the category of child labour but if it does affect a child’s physical health, psychological health and schooling, it falls in the category of child labour.

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Child labour is one of the biggest threats to the rights of children worldwide. It is an even more pressing issue in developing countries like Pakistan where an estimated 12 million children are victims of child labour. This article will analyse how Pakistan’s socioeconomic problems have led to the prevalence of child labour by highlighting the complex interplay between poverty, limited opportunities, poor infrastructure, and societal challenges. It will further examine these root causes, explore the consequences of child labour, and provide some potential solutions to this critical issue.

Causes of Child Labour

  • Poverty as a Driver of Child Labour

Poverty is Pakistan’s primary driver of child labour. The result of a cross-sectional study conducted in Karachi, between April and June 2008, which correlated poverty and child labour, showed that poverty was the reason for the employment of around 83% of the country’s children. Poverty is on the rise as the World Bank predicted that by the end of 2023, 37.2% of people will live in poverty ($3.65/day). The figure is a little lower than the most recent estimate in 2018, which was 39.8%. Nevertheless, when population growth is accounted for, there are almost 3 million more poor people in the country compared to 2018. The lack of financial resources and limited access to social welfare programs forces families to prioritise immediate economic survival over their children’s education.

Many poverty-stricken families rely on their children for an extra source of income, often sending them to work as domestic workers. Currently, an estimated 264,000 children across Pakistan are employed as domestic workers.  Cultural norms and traditional gender roles often restrict girls’ access to education, pushing them into household chores or early marriages. This restricts their education opportunities, which perpetuates the cycle of poverty for their family.

The case of Zohra Shah sparked much controversy. Zohra was an eight-year-old girl who was sent to work as a maid to provide income for her family. She was brutally assaulted by her employers, which eventually led to her passing. The girl’s mother, Samina Abbas said that the choice to send her to work was the “biggest regret” of her life. The girl’s father had lost his job, and his sons refused to work, leaving Zohra behind. The father wanted his children to study but could not afford to pay for their tuition, books and uniforms. The nearest school to their village was about 10 kilometres away, making it even more difficult to facilitate their education.

Pakistan’s high adult unemployment and underemployment rates are a factor in the country’s high child labour rates. In 2020-2021, Pakistan’s unemployment rate was 6.3%. However, this is lower than the unemployment rate of 6.9 % in 2018-2019. Unskilled workers, which make up the majority of the lower socio-economic strata, are forced to accept abusive working circumstances due to a lack of job prospects and low earnings. These include working overtime without compensation, the denial of wages, benefits and leaves, and unsanitary working conditions . In return, they are then forced to use their children as labourers to help support the family. This perpetuates the cycle of child labour, as children are relied upon as a source of income for several families.

  • Inadequate Education Infrastructure

Pakistan’s inadequate education infrastructure often restricts access to compulsory education which is a significant cause of child labour. The link between education and reducing child labour is well-established and widely recognized by researchers, policymakers, and international organisations .  By giving children the chance to learn new things and gain knowledge, education contributes to preventing child labour by giving kids the resources and skills they need to end the cycle of exploitation and poverty. According to the World Bank , the net enrollment rate for primary education in 2018 was reported at 65.3%, indicating that a majority of children between the ages of five and sixteen were not attending school.

Children find it challenging to pursue education in poverty-stricken communities since there are no nearby schools, classrooms, or easily-accessible basic educational supplies. For families who are struggling financially, the costs of resources associated with sending their children to school, such as uniforms, books, and transportation, prevent them from being able to enroll their children in these schools.

Throughout the years, various cases and petitions in Pakistan have highlighted the significance of the right to education. In Syed Nazeer Agha vs Government of Balochistan (PLD 2014 Balochistan 86), the Balochistan Government held to have neglected its responsibility to provide books to students in government schools in violation of the right to free and compulsory primary education under Article 25-A of the Constitution. The Quetta High Court recognised that simply constructing schools and offering free textbooks was insufficient to ensure children attended school; rather, an environment conducive to learning was also essential.

Another important case is the Human Rights Case 19360-P (2013 SCMR 54), where the Supreme Court’s intervention led to positive changes in the school, including improved staff salaries, increased funding for infrastructure development, and resolution of administrative problems. These actions demonstrate the court’s commitment to safeguarding the right to education as enshrined in Article 25-A of the Constitution and holding the authorities accountable for ensuring its implementation. These cases highlight the main issue with the educational infrastructure: only providing free education is insufficient to provide for the right enshrined under Article 25-A.

  • Lack of resources and funds

Pakistan’s lack of funds and resources invested in the education sector also proves to be a hindrance in combating child labour. The problem with academic institutions is that appropriate funding is necessary for sufficient and high-quality education. However,  Pakistan’s budget is highly volatile due to the country’s mounting international debts, which leaves a lesser portion of its budget for important sectors such as education. Pakistan’s public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP is estimated at 1.7% in the fiscal year 2022-23 against 1.4% for the last fiscal year, which is the lowest in the region . In 2016, Pakistan’s public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP saw an all-time high at 3% but since then it has been going down to the current 1.7%. As a result, schools are forced to raise funds through the parents of enrolled students, which inevitably makes the actual cost of education quite significant, and far from ‘free’.

  • Weak Law Enforcement

Weak law enforcement contributes to the persistence of child labour in Pakistan. Despite legislation prohibiting child labour, weak implementation, corruption, and lack of awareness about existing laws allow employers to exploit children for cheap labour. This lack of enforcement perpetuates the cycle of child labour and inhibits children’s access to education. For example, the Employment of Children Act was passed in 1991 which made it illegal for children under 14 to work. Still, the percentage of children aged ten to fourteen employed in the labour force is 8.2%, which is approximately 2.05 million children. Child labour is also prohibited indirectly by legislation providing for free and compulsory primary education; these statutes exist at the provincial level, with a federal statute applying to the Islamabad Capital Territory. However, the limited finance dispersed to all the provinces from the allocated federal budget means that schools are significantly underfunded and unable to prevent children from being employed.

The Ministry of Human Rights in Pakistan has been actively involved in addressing the issue of child labour in the country. The Ministry plays a crucial role in formulating policies, implementing programs, and coordinating efforts to combat child labour and protect the rights of children. The Ministry is responsible for a lot of tasks regarding safeguarding human rights, a few vital tasks are policy formulation and enforcement.

Despite existing laws and regulations, enforcement mechanisms are often weak, and child labour persists due to various socio-economic factors, including poverty and limited access to education. Challenges persist in implementation and enforcement, and further efforts are needed to curb child labour effectively .

  • Strengthening Legislation and Enforcing Laws

The creation and execution of effective legal and policy frameworks is an important step in the fight against child labour. Although Pakistan has passed specific laws and policies regarding child labour, the lack of implementation is the main cause for its continued prevalence.

There has been an increase of different provincial legislation passed by the four provincial assemblies in the nation. Several laws have been passed in an effort to stop the occurrence of child labour. For example, in Punjab, the Punjab Destitute and Neglected Children Act 2004 imposes a positive duty on the provincial government to establish child protection instiutitons for ‘destitute and neglected children’, and to ensure their welfare if their parents or guardians are unable to do so, or if they are orphaned children. This classification covers several children at risk of abuse, including those subject to child labour.

According to section 14 of the Employment of Children Act, anyone who employs a child or enables a child to work in the mentioned jobs and processes in the Act is subject to a term of imprisonment that can last up to a year, and a fine that can be up to PKR 20,000. But this is not enforced like it should be, which eventually does not accomplish their goal of combatting child labour. This is because there is no clear vision or strategy for the implementation of the Act, as statutes alone have little impact without other policy and institutional mechanisms in place.

Pakistan should follow the footsteps of other countries such as Egypt , which has implemented a National Action Plan to end child labour by 2025. Pakistan should adopt a similar approach. Egypt also held an awareness-raising event for more than 40 families from various migrant populations in Cairo, including 87 children. This was organised by the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) in Egypt to commemorate the World Day Against Child Labour, and sought to increase awareness of children’s rights while exploring ways to prevent exploitation, ensure environmental sustainability, and promote the value of mental health and wellbeing for parents as well as children. Such strategies could be implemented in Pakistan to raise awareness about the harmful effects of child labour, as well as develop an effective strategy (beyond legislative drafting) to combat its prevalence.

  • Ensuring Accessible and High-Quality Education

By ensuring accessible and high-quality education, Pakistan can significantly reduce the number of children entrapped in child labour by ensuring they complete their primary education. This will require a major readjustment of the portion of the state budget allocated to education. The provision of free and required education for all children, including those from marginalised groups, should be a top priority for Pakistan. This necessitates spending on curriculum development, teacher training, and educational infrastructure. With the currently low priority that is afforded to public sector education, Pakistan must reconsider and reprioritise its budgetary expenditure if it is serious about curbing child labour.

  • Role of NGOs and International Organisations

Because of the state’s lack of prioritisation of education, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and international organisations have had to step in. Their assistance and support must continue to be utilised through engagement by the state. For example, the Society for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (SPARC) is Pakistan’s leading organisation defending children rights at a local level, which includes combating child labour. SPARC works alongside International Labour Organisation (ILO) to provide children protection services across Pakistan.

The ILO promotes social justice and internationally recognised human and labour rights. Since its creation, Pakistan has been an important and active member of ILO, and has ratified 36 ILO conventions, which include eight fundamental conventions. Two of these fundamental conventions are the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention ( No. 182 ) and the Minimum Age Convention ( No. 138 ), which are crucial resources for states to create efficient legal frameworks. Regarding the Minimum Age Convention, in its 2018 report , the ILO Committee of Experts expressed satisfaction regarding certain legislative changes in Pakistan. The government had indicated that it proposed draft laws in the Islamabad Capital Territory, Balochistan, and Sindh provinces, aimed at setting a minimum working age of at least 14 years and identifying hazardous working activities. The Committee urged the government to take the necessary steps to ensure the adoption of these draft laws in all remaining provinces of Pakistan.

Additionally, the Committee urged the government to ensure the effective implementation of these laws and to take appropriate measures to eradicate child labour throughout the country. If law enforcement agencies work efficiently, then this issue of child labour can easily be combated. NGOs are working towards educating children and are working against child labour. Thus, compliance with the ILO’s recommendations as well as continued commitment to the ILO’s central causes can allow Pakistan to develop a robust legal and policy framework to combat child labour. Engaging assistance from NGOs and international organisations can serve to significantly improve Pakistan’s capacity in minimising its prevalence.

  • Social Welfare Programs

To prevent parents from resorting to making their children work, the government can offer income support programs for poverty-stricken families. An example of this is through the introduction of social protection programmes. Pakistan should invest in and create adult skill development programmes, employment creation, and income support. Providing people with unemployment benefits, vocational training and other similar facilities would provide a means to families to eventually lift themselves out of poverty by easing financial strains on families and lessen their reliance on child employment. This will also require significant budgetary reallocation and a development of a social protection strategy.

  • Capacity-Building

Mechanisms for enforcement and monitoring must be strengthened in Pakistan to eliminate child labour successfully. To identify and remedy child labour breaches, the government should invest in the training and capacity-building of labour inspectors. The efficiency of monitoring activities can be increased by cooperation between law enforcement authorities, civil society organisations, and communities. Campaigns for public awareness can be quite effective in informing the public about the negative effects of child work and encouraging social responsibility.

Pakistan can implement laws, train labour inspectors, and follow up with monitoring and enforcing mechanisms, among other initiatives. Pakistan, like other developing countries such as Nigeria, Fiji, Mali and Sri Lanka can take an Action Pledge like they did in 2021. All of these countries’ action pledges aimed towards increasing and strengthening the legal framework regarding child labour. In Sri Lanka, the government also increased working age to 16 and in Mali, the government planned to recruit new labour inspectors, provide technical support to NGOs, and end the worst forms of child labour in the country. This is followed up by a publication of an annual report on the efforts made throughout the year .

Child labour has been and continues to be a monumental issue that Pakistan struggles to surmount. Addressing this issue requires comprehensive solutions such as strengthening the legislation, enforcing laws, ensuring high-quality education, better monitoring, engaging NGOs and international organisations and incorporating best practices from other countries. It also requires a proper understanding of the underlying socio-economic problems that the country is facing that inevitably lead to child labour. By developing and implementing the aforementioned solutions, Pakistan can work towards eradicating child labour. Nevertheless, one must acknowledge the difficulty of implementing these solutions in the short-term future. Thus, Pakistan must work to develop a long-term strategy to curb child labour, as it involves a variety of decisions to be made at different levels of the state bureaucracy.

Centre for Human Rights (CHR) blog

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Author:  Muhammad Abdul Rehman

Muhammad Abdul Rehman is a student at Universal College Lahore, which is affiliated with the University of London. His main areas of interest are human rights law. He has honed his interest through various internships at different law firms and human rights clinics.

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Child labour in domestic work remains a widespread, but hidden, phenomenon worldwide. The qualitative study assessed the current situation of child labour in domestic work, elaborated the major push and pull factors, working conditions, effects on children's health, safety, and education, and recommended the priority areas for combatting child labour in domestic work in Pakistan.

14 July 2022

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Pakistaniaat a Journal of Pakistan Studies

Munir Hussain

research proposal on child labour in pakistan

Global Political Review

Isra Sarwar

Child labor is the growing curse in the world particularly in the developing countries and Pakistan is also the victim of this growing global phenomenon because of multiple reasons behind which encourage intentionally or unintentionally the dilemma of child labor. Child labor had multiple side effects that disturb the social fabric of the society and its growing statistics alarms the government of Pakistan to take the most possible and appropriate measures to combat this curse. This paper attempts to highlight the socioeconomic and political causes of child labor and had the objective to investigate the problem by applying mix methods of research using the convergent technique to get the real essence of the study with the multi-perspective lens. The study also provides recommendations along with the statistics to the policymakers for legislation.

Pirbhu Satyani

In Pakistan, child labor is a serious human rights issue with millions of children working to support their families. These children are deprived of their basic right to education. This essay aims to highlight the seriousness of the child labor issue, showing its links to poverty, lack of access to education, and ineffective government laws and policies. Pakistan is an economically developing country where poverty and inflation are high; these factors ultimately promote child labor. This paper suggests various ways to resolve the issue of child labor with an integrated long-term approach based on community needs and requirements, including initiating poverty eradication programs, providing income generation opportunities to poor families, implementing of free primary and compulsory education, vocational training for children, awareness programs, and enforcing laws and policies by the state. Many of the reflections on which this paper is based for resolving child labor are based on five years of practical experience in the field of human rights particularly focused on child protection, child labor, non-formal education, and creating livelihood opportunities for poor families in Pakistan.


Child labor is an important area when it comes to the rights of the children. Similarly, South Asian countries are also suffering from this phenomenon. SAARC has taken many initiatives like SACG (South Asian Coordinating Group on Action) and SAAGN (South Asian Alliance of Grassroots NGOs) to eradicate this problem. Child labor is a major social issue that is encountering the social fabric of Pakistan as well. Child labor at brick kilns is most common in Pakistan along with child labor at minor workshops. However, it is yet to be determined which form of child labor is most threatening and has bad effects for the children and society. The current study explores to what extent and to what sectors the menace of child labor is rooted in Pakistan. The study is based on the secondary data collected by the Labor and Human Resource Department Government of the Punjab from district Jhang in connection with the project of eliminating worst forms of the child labor. The study concluded that child labor is present in four major sectors namely mechanical, agricultural, industry and general labor. The working hours and conditions vary a lot. Power looms and agricultural sector is the worst and most affected sector of child labor. The study implies that unawareness regarding the legality of child labor is a major issue in controlling the child labor. The government and local organizations should take up the challenge and work to eradicate this social evil.

Khizar Hayat

Child labor is a serious social issue of the present era especially in the developing countries like Pakistan. Majority of the children in Pakistan are still working at hotels, tea-stalls, factories and brick-kilns and they are forced to earn money in order to fulfill the needs of the family or add to the income of the family. They are living in a miserable plight and pity condition. They have to work for long hours which affect their health. The number of child laborers in our country is about 12 million. The present study was carried out in two districts (Mandi Bahauddin& Faisalabad) of Punjab. The main objective of the study was to explore various socioeconomic factors paving the way for child labor in society. The universe of the present study was the city areas and suburbs of district Faisalabad & Mandi Bahauddin consisting hotels, workshops, tea-stalls and brick-kilns. Multistage sampling technique was used for the present study. At first stage, two districts (Faisalabad & Mandi Bahauddin) of Punjab province were randomly selected. At the second stage, city areas of these two districts were selected randomly for the selection of sample. At the third stage, a sample of 200 respondents (100 from each district) who were doing labor and working at hotels, workshops, tea-stalls and brick-kilns of the city areas was taken through convenient sampling. The data were collected by designing a well-structured interview schedule. The collected data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results of the study showed that majority of the respondents were doing labor due to poverty and to support the family income. The other major reason of their labor was parents' illiteracy. Their main problem was long working hours and continue work schedule which had bad and serious physical and metal effects on their health.

Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention

casestudies journal , Erum Khushnood Zahid Shaikh

Child labor has been recognized as a serious and challenging issue in the civilized societies all over the world as well as in Pakistan. In Pakistan, children as labor force providing their services in various formal and informal sectors of economy. Therefore, this research paper aims at analyzing the socioeconomic factors of child labor and to assess the working condition of child labor in Hyderabad District of Sindh, Pakistan. This research also analyzes the kinds of problems faced by children at working place. A sample of 80 children was interviewed at their working place from Hyderabad district. The data was collected by using pre-designed questionnaire. Study found that the poverty and lack of government attention towards socio-economical issues are the major reasons of existing child labor in Pakistan. It is suggested that government have take effective initiatives to control the child labor in Pakistan.

sadaf Nazir

Umer Khalid

The problem of child labour persists even in the presence of trade sanctions and legislation. In fact, trade restrictions and laws are only demand side factors, and they can intensify the problem, which could result in children being diverted to less desirable or more ...

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  1. (PDF) Child Labour in Pakistan -Project Report

    research proposal on child labour in pakistan

  2. Child Labor in Pakistan Essay

    research proposal on child labour in pakistan

  3. Introductory Paragraph

    research proposal on child labour in pakistan


    research proposal on child labour in pakistan

  5. (PDF) Child labor in Pakistan

    research proposal on child labour in pakistan

  6. Child Labour in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis of Legislation and

    research proposal on child labour in pakistan


  1. FRONTLINE _ Interview, New Minimum Wage: Organised Labour Reject FG Proposal

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  1. PDF Child Labor in Pakistan: Causes, Consequences and Prevention

    an result in the persistence of class and income inequities in the country. The various consequences which the children incur during the process o. the child labor is translated in stagnation in terms of class improvement. Pakistan is the country where yawning class inequalities exist, the issue of child labor only.

  2. Factors Fuelling the Persistence of Child Labour: Evidence from Pakistan

    The persistence of child labour globally can be attributed to a complex interplay of multifaceted factors. This study examines the relationship between these diverse factors of child labour, such as economic activities, working hours, hazardous conditions and overall prevalence. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using data from Pakistan's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS ...

  3. PDF Child Labour in Pakistan: Including the Excluded

    1.1 Background of the Research 'Child labour has serious consequences that stay with the individual and with society for far longer than the years of childhood. Young workers ... Organization (2008) estimates of Child Labour Survey of Pakistan 1996, 3.3 million (8.3 percent of the total children) out of 40 million children (in the 5-14 ...

  4. Child labour in Pakistan: consequences on children's health

    children engaged in child l abour. Likewise, according to the st udy of Mohamed et al. (2009), child labourers generally experience several health problems due to their labour. work such as ...

  5. (PDF) Child Labor in Pakistan: Estimates and Determinants

    determinants of child labor. Sixthly, the annual Labor Force Surveys provide the data about child. labor in the age group of 10-14 years, though researchers [Jafri and Raishad 1997; Burki an d ...

  6. PDF Help to Helpers: A Quantitative Study on Child Labor in Pakistan and

    there are 3.3 million children in Pakistan who are victims of child labor. Human Right Commission Pakistan estimated in 2005 that there are 10 million underage children linked to labor in Pakistan. In addition, one more report by Federal Bureau of Statistics under the Labor Force Survey 2007-2008 shows more eye-opening facts according to which ...

  7. Child labour in Pakistan: Addressing supply and demand side labour

    This article uses empirical evidence, based on labour market indicators, to analyse the factors influencing the incidence of child labour in Pakistan, from both supply and demand sides. The level of demand for child labour is shown to be linked mainly to adult wage levels, the adult unemployment rate in an area, and the size of the informal and ...

  8. PDF Analyzing the Impact of Legislation on Child Labor in Pakistan

    general over the years until the 1980s, and considered child labor to be negligibly small. However, after ratifying the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989, the Government of Pakistan, in April 1991 implemented its most comprehensive nationwide law against child labor yet, in the form of the Employment of Children Act 1991.

  9. PDF Child Labour in Pakistan- a Tip of An Iceberg

    Key Words: Child labour, Millennium goals, Pakistani population. This article may be cited as: Zaidi N, Javed N, Khan MS. Child labour in Pakistan- a tip of an iceberg. J Postgrad Med Inst 2013; 27(3):285-9. 1 Department of Community Medicine, Founda-tion Medical University, Islamabad - Pakistan. 2 Pakistan Medical Research Council, Islamabad ...

  10. PDF 2021 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Pakistan

    In 2021, Pakistan made minimal advancement because it continued to implement practices that delay advancement to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. During the reporting period, the Pakistani federal government and some provincial governments enacted legislation to address the worst forms of child labor, including bills prohibiting ...

  11. PDF An Empirical Analysis of Child Labor: Evidence From Pakistan

    DENCE FROM PAKISTANAmtul Hafeez and Sadam Hussain1AbstractThe study inv. stigates the impact of education on child labor in Pakistan. The study is based on Pakistan Labor Force Survey (2014-15) nd logit and probit models are used for estimation purposes. The present study finds a significant n. gative relationship between child education and ...

  12. (PDF) Child Labor in Pakistan: Investigating the Role of Pakistani

    Based on these arguments, this study is aimed to investigate and analyse child labor, child abuse, and denial of children's rights in Pakistan. Discover the world's research 25+ million members

  13. The Impact of Child Labour Laws in Pakistan

    These laws do not consider all child labour to be child labour. The research in hand deals with the new amendment in child labour Act and its impact on the minors in Pakistan. ... Hussain Bhatti, S., & Naz, V. (2022). The Impact of Child Labour Laws in Pakistan. Pakistan Social Sciences Review, 6(2), 840-848. Retrieved from https://ojs.pssr ...

  14. Pakistan's Socioeconomic Problems and Child Labour

    Pakistan's high adult unemployment and underemployment rates are a factor in the country's high child labour rates. In 2020-2021, Pakistan's unemployment rate was 6.3%. However, this is lower than the unemployment rate of 6.9 % in 2018-2019. Unskilled workers, which make up the majority of the lower socio-economic strata, are forced to ...

  15. PDF 2020 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Pakistan

    Children in Pakistan are subjected to the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in forced labor in brick kilns and agriculture. The federal government and Balochistan Province have not established a minimum age for ...

  16. Child Labour in domestic work in Pakistan: A scoping study

    The qualitative study assessed the current situation of child labour in domestic work, elaborated the major push and pull factors, working conditions, effects on children's health, safety, and education, and recommended the priority areas for combatting child labour in domestic work in Pakistan. Publication details. Date.

  17. Child labour in Pakistan: consequences on children's health

    Bangladesh has a good national survey dated 2013, showing a 4% child labour rate among children age 5-14. Myanmar's rate is much higher at 9%. The rate of child labour for children aged 5-14 in Bhutan is 3%. The rate in Sri Lanka is 3%, excepting the far north Jaffna region which is omitted from official figures. 4.

  18. Child labour in Pakistan: Addressing supply and demand side labour

    Abstract. This article uses empirical evidence, based on labour market indicators, to analyse the factors influencing the incidence of child labour in Pakistan, from both supply and demand sides ...

  19. PDF Scoping study relating to child labour in domestic work in Pakistan

    The proposed research will have the following objectives: 1. Provide rigorous evidence on the existence and possible magnitude of child labour in domestic work, its ... the operational definition of child labour in Pakistan and specific provisions relative to domestic work. The comments of the ILO Committee Experts (CEACR) will offer a valuable ...

  20. Research Brief: Child labour in domestic work in Pakistan

    The qualitative study assessed the current situation of child labour in domestic work, elaborated the major push and pull factors, working conditions, effects on children's health, safety, and education, and recommended the priority areas for combatting child labour in domestic work in Pakistan. Publication details. Date.

  21. Child labour

    NEW YORK/GENEVA, 12 June 2020 - Millions more children risk being pushed into child labour as a result of the COVID-19 crisis, which could lead to the first rise in child labour after 20 years of progress, according to a new brief from the International Labour Organization (ILO) and UNICEF. According to COVID-19 and child labour: A time of….

  22. Child Labour in Pakistan -Project Report

    In Pakistan, child labor is a serious human rights issue with millions of children working to support their families. These children are deprived of their basic right to education. This essay aims to highlight the seriousness of the child labor issue, showing its links to poverty, lack of access to education, and ineffective government laws and ...

  23. Child labour in Pakistan- A tip of an iceberg

    nation of Child Labour). According to the findings, 3.8 million children of age group 5-14 years were. working in Pakistan out of total 40 million children. in this age group; fifty percent of ...

  24. Child Labour in Pakistan

    Despite constitutional protections, child labour remains a pervasive and troubling issue in Pakistan. Article 11 of the Pakistani Constitution strictly prohibits forced labour, while Article 24 ...

  25. Better Cotton in Pakistan

    As of the 2021-22 season, Pakistan is the third-largest producer of Better Cotton globally. We launched a Better Cotton programme in Pakistan in 2009 to help the country's rapidly developing cotton industry grow cotton more sustainably and improve the livelihoods of the approximately 1.5 million smallholder farmers who rely on cotton for a living.