PhD courses offered at The University of Nairobi (UON)

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A hand passing a blister pack of medications to another hand

Centring underrepresented populations in pharmacy research

Waterloo phd candidate, mira maximos, investigates sex, gender and the regulation of prescription drugs.

Underrepresented populations have been historically excluded from clinical trials including women, racial and ethnic minority groups, and pregnant, lactating, pediatric and geriatric populations. While the importance of including these groups in clinical trials are slowly being recognized and remedied, there are still questions in how currently prescribed drugs affect these populations, including the safety and efficacy of the medications.

“We know that even though we have more policies and regulations suggesting the inclusion of these underrepresented groups, that isn’t always translated to what we see as clinicians and who makes it into clinical trials and there’s a gap between policy and implementation,” says Mira Maximos, PhD candidate in the University of Waterloo’s School of Pharmacy. With how significant the gaps are, the need for informed inclusion of minority groups in research is highly important.

Maximos’ work, in concert with the Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health and Health Canada, is fundamental in theoretical research which highlights where limitations are and how to close these gaps in research. Some of this work created a foundation for Maximos’ current work with her PhD supervisor, JM Gamble, a clinical associate professor in the School of Pharmacy, centering around penicillin allergy risk stratification and de-labelling with consideration for sex and gender.

By understanding how sex and gender impact a drug’s life cycle, clinicians can optimize dosages and monitoring for better therapeutic outcomes. To improve health and gender equity in research and clinical studies, product monograph and consumer information for medications must be transparent to improve and support sex and gender science, and a clear commitment must be made in data transparency and the gaps regarding underrepresented groups and prescription drugs should be recognized to improve regulations.

Read more on Waterloo News .

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Pharmacy MPharm

University Park Campus, Nottingham, UK

Qualification Entry Requirements Start Date UCAS code Duration Fees
MPharm AAB September 2025 B230 4 years full-time £9,250 per year
Qualification Entry Requirements Start Date UCAS code Duration Fees
MPharm AAB September 2025 B230 4 years full-time £9,250 per year

Course information

Qualification : Master of Pharmacy with Honours Master of Pharmacy with Honours

General Pharmaceutical Council

This course is accredited by the  General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC) . This means that you can apply for registration with them once you've completed your degree and pre-registration training.

  • Start date : September 2025 September 2025

Entry requirements : 34 AAB

34 with 6,6,5 in three Higher Level subjects including 6 in Higher Level chemistry and 6 or 5 in one of Higher Level maths, biology, or physics

7.0 (no less than 6.0 in any element)

English language requirements

As well as IELTS (listed above), we also accept other English language qualifications. This includes TOEFL iBT, Pearson PTE, GCSE, IB and O level English. Check our  English language policies and equivalencies  for further details.

For presessional English or one-year foundation courses, you must take IELTS for UKVI to meet visa regulations.

If you need support to meet the required level, you may be able to attend a  Presessional English for Academic Purposes (PEAP) course . Our Centre for English Language Education is accredited by the British Council for the teaching of English in the UK.

If you successfully complete your presessional course to the required level, you can then progress to your degree course. This means that you won't need to retake IELTS or equivalent.

Check our  country-specific information  for guidance on qualifications from your country.

  • AAB, including chemistry and at least one further science A level from biology, maths or physics
  • A pass in the practical element of science subjects is required if assessed separately
  • The third A level can be any subject apart from general studies, critical thinking, citizenship studies, global perspectives and research or thinking skills which are not accepted
  • Maths 5 (B) or above
  • English 5 (B) or above

General studies, critical thinking, citizenship studies, global perspectives and research, thinking skills

All candidates are considered on an individual basis and we accept a broad range of qualifications. The entrance requirements below apply to 2025 entry.

Please note: Applicants whose backgrounds or personal circumstances have impacted their academic performance may receive a reduced offer. Please see our  contextual admissions policy  for more information.

All applications must include a personal statement and it should have a clear pharmacy focus.  We welcome applications from those applying for other healthcare profession courses, such as medicine, but you might be asked to submit another statement if interest in and motivation to study pharmacy is not clearly defined.

Alternative qualifications

We recognise that applicants have a wealth of different experiences and follow a variety of pathways into higher education.

Consequently we treat all applicants with alternative qualifications (besides A levels and the International Baccalaureate) on an individual basis, and we gladly accept students with a whole range of less conventional qualifications including:

  • RQF Level 3 BTEC National Extended Diploma Applied Science DDD
  • RQF Level 3 BTEC National Extended Diploma Applied Science (Biomedical Science) DDD
  • Other applications are assessed on an individual basis to ensure sufficient science content has been studied

We will consider the following:

  • RQF Level 3 BTEC National Extended Diploma DDD
  • RQF Level 3 BTEC National Diploma DD + A level grade A
  • RQF Level 3 BTEC National Extended Certificate D + A level grades AB
  • The required A levels for mixed BTEC and A level grade profiles depends on the science content studied in the BTEC

Applications are assessed on an individual basis. Where an offer is made, our standard requirements are:

  • Access to HE Diploma 30 graded Level 3 credits at Distinction (including 15 credits from acceptable chemistry units* plus 15 credits from maths, biology or physics units), plus 15 graded Level 3 credits at Merit

* Organic chemistry is an essential Access to HE Diploma unit.

This list is not exhaustive. The entry requirements for alternative qualifications can be quite specific; for example you may need to take certain modules and achieve a specified grade in those modules. Please contact us to discuss the transferability of your qualification. Please see the  alternative qualifications page  for more information.

Visa restrictions

International students must have valid UK immigration permissions for any courses or study period where teaching takes place in the UK.  Student route visas  can be issued for eligible students studying full-time courses. The University of Nottingham does not sponsor a student visa for students studying part-time courses.  The Standard Visitor visa  route is not appropriate in all cases. Please contact the university’s  Visa and Immigration team  if you need advice about your visa options.

Re-sits and previously achieved results

For A levels, these must be no lower than grades BCC. Similarly, for the International Baccalaureate (IB) these must be no lower than 544. For any other qualifications these will be reviewed on a case basis. These minimum grades also apply if you are looking to take an alternative qualification such as a foundation year or Access to HE.

Please note if you have received Centre/Teacher assessed grades in 2020 or 2021, you will not be required to meet this resit policy.

We will consider all extenuating circumstances that might have affected performance and will do this on a case-by-case basis. Please  contact us  for further support on this.

We initially shortlist based on your UCAS application and grades. The next step is an interview. We use a multi-mini interview (MMI) format. The MMI is a series of short interviews, each around five minutes that explore and engage your communication skills, interest in pharmacy and scenario based discussion on ethics and professional values and general understanding of how medicines work. It is an interactive process that gives you further insight into being a pharmacist. Further information about the  interview process is on our website .

RQF BTEC Nationals

Other applications are assessed on an individual basis to ensure sufficient science content has been studied. We will consider the following:

The required A levels for mixed BTEC and A level grade profiles depends on the science content studied in the BTEC.

Access to HE Diploma

Age requirement

You must be at least 18 years old by the end of the calendar year you start your MPharm degree to meet the requirements of the placements within your course.

Standards for pharmacy professionals

Pharmacy is one of the registered healthcare professions and carries both privileges and responsibilities. You are expected to conduct yourself professionally at all times. The  Standards for Pharmacy Professionals  apply to all pharmacy students from the first day of the course to the day of graduation and applies both on and off campus.

The school has fitness to practise procedures in place for pharmacy students and you will be given more information about these when you join the course.

The  Standards for Pharmacy Professionals  and the requirement for fitness to practise procedures are issued by the  General Pharmaceutical Council  (GPhC). However, you should note that the GPhC is not an adjudicator or appeal body, and will not be able to offer prospective registration advice.

The GPhC is the final decision maker in relation to an individual's eligibility to:

  • enter pharmacist Foundation training
  • register as a pharmacist

The GPhC reserves the right to set aside a school's fitness to practise decision, if there are grounds for doing so, when making either of these decisions.

The GPhC has its own requirements for registration as a pharmacist, including making its own health and good character checks. It also has its own fitness to practise procedures for registered pharmacists. The GPhC can refuse to register a student as a Foundation or pharmacist if a check is failed, even if previous checks have been passed.

As a member of the Pharmacy Schools Council, the school makes use of the Excluded Students Database to identify applicants who have been excluded from a professional degree programme on grounds of fitness to practice. Applications from applicants who appear on the Database will be considered on an individual basis.

Health questionnaire

When you accept your offer, the school will send out a health questionnaire with further instructions before you join us. The vaccinations required for the MPharm are Varicella, BCG (Tuberculosis), Hepatitis B and MMR. You will be asked for documentary evidence of these at your occupational health check at the start of year one.

Character checks

UK-based applicants will be asked to complete a criminal records check. The University of Nottingham use KnowYourPeople and you will be sent details of how to complete this when you meet your offer.

We encourage students to discuss any problems or concerns with us as soon as possible so that we can support and advise you appropriately. If you have any questions or concerns regarding any of the above, then please contact us on [email protected]

Notes for applicants

We are looking for strong academic qualifications as well as a commitment to a career as a healthcare professional. Your personal statement is your opportunity to make yourself stand out from the crowd. We want to know what interests you about being a healthcare professional so it is worth reflecting on any related reading that you have done, any work experience and/or any extracurricular activities that you do. For additional information regarding writing your personal statement, please see the  UCAS website .

Entry to our MPharm is always into year one, with no exceptions.

We do not accept lower grade A levels alongside an incomplete or partial degree.

We welcome applications from candidates who would like to defer entry until the following academic year.

For candidates who are re-sitting a full year, the standard offer will remain as AAB.

Foundation progression options

If you don't meet our entry requirements there is the option to study the science foundation programme. If you successfully pass the year, you can progress to the Master of Pharmacy or Pharmaceutical Sciences courses. There is a course for  UK students  and one for  EU/international students .

Mature students

At the University of Nottingham, we have a valuable community of mature students and we appreciate their contribution to the wider student population. You can find lots of useful information on the  mature students webpage .

To comply with General Pharmaceutical Council fitness to practice requirements, all students will undergo health and good character checks as part of the admissions process. International students whose first language is not English are required to have the listedEnglish language qualifications (IELTS) before they can register on an academic programme.

Contextual offers

We make contextual offers to students who may have experienced barriers that have restricted progress at school or college. Our standard contextual offer is usually one grade lower than the advertised entry requirements, and our enhanced contextual offer is usually two grades lower than the advertised entry requirements. To qualify for a contextual offer, you must have Home/UK fee status and meet specific criteria –  check if you're eligible .

Pharmacy is one of the registered healthcare professions and carries both privileges and responsibilities. You are expected to conduct yourself professionally at all times. The Standards for Pharmacy Professionals apply to all pharmacy students from the first day of the course to the day of graduation and applies both on and off campus.

  • UCAS Code : B230 B230

Duration : 4 years full-time 4 years full-time

Study abroad

On this course, you can apply to study abroad at one of our partner institutions or at University of Nottingham China or University of Nottingham Malaysia. If you are successful in applying to study abroad, you will get the opportunity to broaden your horizons and enhance your CV by experiencing another culture. Teaching is typically in English, but there may be opportunities to study in another language if you are sufficiently fluent.  You can choose to study similar modules to your counterparts in the UK or expand your knowledge by taking other options.  The school you are joining may also have additional study abroad options available. Please visit the school website for more information.  

Please note:  In order to study abroad you will need to achieve the relevant academic requirements as set by the university and meet the selection criteria of both the university and the partner institution. The partner institution is under no obligation to accept you even if you do meet the relevant criteria. 

In each year of the course you will go on professional placements. These could include community pharmacies and hospitals. You'll also go on insight visits that provide interprofessional experiences. The majority of placements are in Nottinghamshire. You may also be allocated to placements in Derbyshire and Leicestershire. All placements are accessible by public transport.

Study abroad and the year in industry are subject to students meeting minimum academic requirements. Opportunities may change at any time for a number of reasons, including curriculum developments, changes to arrangements with partner universities, travel restrictions or other circumstances outside of the university’s control. Every effort will be made to update information as quickly as possible should a change occur.

Key information

Please be aware  that study abroad, compulsory year abroad, optional placements/internships and integrated year in industry opportunities may change at any time for a number of reasons, including curriculum developments, changes to arrangements with partner universities or placement/industry hosts, travel restrictions or other circumstances outside of the university’s control. Every effort will be made to update this information as quickly as possible should a change occur.  

Please note: In order to study abroad you will need to achieve the relevant academic requirements as set by the university and meet the selection criteria of both the university and the partner institution. The partner institution is under no obligation to accept you even if you do meet the relevant criteria. 

Fees : £30,750 per year £9,250 per year

*  For full details including fees for part-time students and reduced fees during your time studying abroad or on placement (where applicable),  see our fees page .

If you are a student from the EU, EEA or Switzerland, you may be asked to complete a fee status questionnaire and your answers will be assessed using  guidance issued by the UK Council for International Student Affairs (UKCISA)  .

Additional costs

All students will need at least one device to approve security access requests via Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA). We also recommend students have a suitable laptop to work both on and off-campus. For more information, please check the  equipment advice .

As a student on this course, you should factor some additional costs into your budget, alongside your tuition fees and living expenses, including a DBS check.  See a full list of additional costs for this course.  If you study abroad, you will need to consider the costs of travel and living expenses in the country that you choose.

You should be able to access most of the books you’ll need through our libraries, though you may wish to purchase your own copies.

Due to our commitment to sustainability, we don’t print lecture notes but these are available digitally. You will be given £5 worth of printer credits a year. You are welcome to buy more credits if you need them. It costs 4p to print one black and white page.

Scholarships and bursaries

International students

We offer a range of  international undergraduate scholarships  for high-achieving international scholars who can put their Nottingham degree to great use in their careers.

Home students*

Over one third of our UK students receive our means-tested core bursary, worth up to £1,000 a year. Full details can be found on our  financial support pages .

* A 'home' student is one who meets certain UK residence criteria. These are the same criteria as apply to eligibility for home funding from Student Finance.

Course overview

Start your pharmacy career with a world top 10 school*. Our teaching, learning materials and student support back this incredible ranking.

Current students have co-designed our teaching to shape the future of your lessons. We integrate professional practice, drug prescribing and patient skills across therapeutic themes.

Learn how to assess, speak to and treat a patient (with actors). Role-play how to speak to different professionals in our very own Professional Development Suite.

Gain clinical interaction experience through placements in the community, GP and hospital pharmacies. You will develop your skills to advise patients and healthcare professionals on the safe and effective use of medicines.

You will run your own simulated pharmacy. This will be in a fully immersive commercial and patient-centred clinical environment. Practise patient counselling, drug dispensing and medicine prescribing.

You have the opportunity to fly to multiple places like Malaysia, Canada and Australia for your study abroad and research project. MPharm student Nora went to our Malaysia campus. "There was nicer weather. It was quite diverse. Different cultures to see around you, and different forms of treatments."

We will prepare you for the new one year Foundation Training employment. You will need to complete this following graduation to become a registered Pharmacist.

* QS World University Rankings by Subject 2023 .

Why choose this course?

  • Top 10 course in the world for pharmacy and pharmacology in QS World University Rankings by Subject 2023
  • Top 20 in the UK for pharmacy and pharmacology (Guardian University Guide 2024)
  • Opportunity to travel in your third year to places like Australia, Italy or Canada
  • Opportunity to fly to our Malaysia campus for all or part of your second year
  • Accredited   by the General Pharmaceutical Council 
  • Dedicated  Personal Tutor, who will remain with you through the course
  • Opportunities  to attend pharmacy conferences

Important information

This online prospectus has been drafted in advance of the academic year to which it applies. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information is accurate at the time of publishing, but changes (for example to course content) are likely to occur given the interval between publishing and commencement of the course. It is therefore very important to check this website for any updates before you apply for the course where there has been an interval between you reading this website and applying.

Indicative modules

Fundamentals of Pharmacy

Human Life Cycle

Digestive System

Infections 1

Infections 2

Autoimmune Disease




Central Nervous System (CNS)

Pharmacy Research Project

Pharmaceutical Care and Prescribing (PCAP)

Advancing Therapies, Practice and Care 1

Advancing Therapies, Practice and Care 2

About modules

The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer, but is not intended to be construed or relied on as a definitive list of what might be available in any given year. This content was last updated on Thursday 13 June 2024. Due to timetabling availability, there may be restrictions on some module combinations.

You will learn the core skills needed as a pharmacist. You'll understand the role of a pharmacist in healthcare. This is covered through three main areas:

  • Fundamental concepts in science relating to drugs
  • Medicine design
  • Professional and clinical pharmacy

You will be taught how to handle with accuracy and precision the dispensing of medicines, calculations and laboratory skills.

Future responsibilities of a healthcare professional will be introduced. Such as, protection of the public, ensuring the quality, safety and efficacy of medicines, and being an expert in drugs and medicines.

You will learn the different roles of pharmacists in hospitals, primary care organisations, community pharmacies and the pharmaceutical industry. You'll be shown ways of working in interdisciplinary teams to optimise the treatment of patients.

The role of the pharmacist in the treatment and prescribing for patients at different stages of the Human Life Cycle.

The topics covered in this teaching block include:

  • Evolutionary basis of sex
  • The physiological basis of sexual attraction
  • Physiological and pharmacokinetic changes during stages of the Human Life Cycle, and their impact on medicines use
  • Conception, contraception and infertility, including ethical and moral considerations
  • Pregnancy - testing and prescribing in
  • Embryo development, sexual differentiation, foetal physiology and nutrition
  • Breast-feeding, nursing, and prescribing for it
  • Children medicines development and prescribing for it
  • Older patients - prescribing and the concept of deprescribing
  • End of life care and prescribing for it
  • The use of off-label and unlicensed medicines
  • Anatomy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and structure and function of the liver
  • How a pharmacist treats and prescribes drugs to patients with GI and liver diseases
  • Influences on absorption of drugs and nutrients within the GI
  • Intestinal and hepatic metabolic pathways 
  • The role of normal GI bacteria
  • Absorption of drugs and the role of dosage form properties that control absorption
  • Identification and evaluation of appropriate methods to optimize oral delivery
  • Identification of potential limits to oral delivery
  • Identification of appropriate types of dosage forms for specific drugs
  • Importance of nutritional therapy in these diseases

Antibiotics and antifungals are among the most commonly prescribed drugs used to treat infection. Therefore, it is important that pharmacists understand the underlying principles of these classes of drugs. Antibiotics are amongst the most commonly overprescribed drug by medical professionals. With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, resulting in a serious threat to global public health.

You will have an appreciation of microbiology and infectious diseases, a deep understanding of the key classes of antimicrobial drugs, and detailed knowledge regarding antibiotic prescribing from a clinical pharmacy perspective.

On completion of the teaching block you should have a clear understanding of these key concepts and your role as pharmacists, as part of the healthcare team, in infection control and tackling global infection health issues.

This teaching block will provide a basic grounding in microbiology, common infectious diseases, mode of action and spectrum of antimicrobial agents, and how these drugs are delivered to and dealt with by the body. The teaching block will also cover antibiotic prescribing and dispensing, and infection control. Examples of topics within the module include:

  • Common bacterial and fungal infections and current treatment regimes.
  • Targeted antimicrobial chemotherapy.
  • Emerging resistance of microorganisms and future directions for antimicrobial strategies.
  • Tuberculosis infection as a global infection health issue.

The teaching block also uses examples of antibiotics and antifungals to highlight key scientific concepts in the pharmacology, chemistry, ADME and pharmaceuticals of important classes of drugs.

Viruses and Parasites present special challenges for Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Scientists. There are far less antiviral than anti-bacterial drugs; the same can be said for anthelminthics.

You will learn the basics on biology of viruses, protozan and metazoan parasites.

Pharmacies in the UK sell vaccinations against viral diseases (e.g. HepA, HepB, HPV) as well as prophylactic agents against malaria. You will gain a sound understanding of these pathogens and the drugs or vaccinations available for treatment. Key concepts will be reinforced in practicals and workshops in which you will learn how to design anti-viral drugs in silico and about the role of pharmacists during flu pandemics.

This teaching block aims to get you thinking about the available treatments for important viral and parasitic diseases. It will introduce tools and concepts enabling the quantitative assessment of socioeconomic impact of diseases.

On completion of this teaching block, you will be able to:

  • understand the biological mechanisms employed by parasites to infect their hosts
  • understand how such mechanisms are targeted by drugs
  • understand the mechanisms of action and pharmacological properties of antiviral, antiprotozoan and anti-helminthic drugs
  • describe the therapeutic usefulness of numerous classes of medicine in clinical use
  • advise patients regarding travel medicines and immunisation
  • provide advice on the management and prevention of sexually transmitted infections
  • describe the therapeutic uses of the main antiviral and antiparasitic veterinary medicines.

Learn breakthrough research in biology and pharmaceutical sciences underpinning current and future strategies for treating inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.

You'll learn of the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with inflammatory disorders.

Optimising and advising about therapies, correct uses of devices and disease self-management will be highlighted to you as a frontline pharmacist. You will be able to assess appropriate management of these disorders in both mechanistic and clinical terms.

Treatment of inflammatory diseases will be illustrated by consideration of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. We aim to illustrate molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these pathological states; how therapeutic intervention is designed to treat these states and how better medicines can be generated for these conditions.

Examples of topics within this teaching block include:

  • The role of inflammatory cells.
  • Current and future pharmacotherapies to treat inflammatory conditions; molecular and cellular targets.
  • Delivery systems for pharmacotherapies and their appropriate usage and supply.
  • The role of the pharmacist in the treatment and management of patients with autoimmune disease .

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are amongst the most common disorders encountered by pharmacists which affect the respiratory system. Two other very common disorders both atopy and eczema will be highlighted in this teaching block too.

You'll be able to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these pathological states; how therapeutic intervention is designed to treat these states and how better medicines can be generated for these conditions.

  • The regulation of smooth muscle tone and mucus production; the role of inflammatory cells.
  • Current and future pharmacotherapies to treat respiratory and inflammatory conditions; molecular and cellular targets.
  • Delivery systems (inhalers, etc.) for pharmacotherapies and their appropriate usage and supply.
  • The role of the pharmacist in the treatment and management of patients with respiratory diseases.
  • biology of renal function
  • symptoms of renal diseases
  • Advanced renal pharmacokinetics
  • presentation and management of symptoms relating to renal disease
  • law and ethics relating to renal and endocrine topics - e.g. living organ donors
  • role of the pharmacist in the treatment and management of patients with renal disease

You will know about the symptoms and management of renal diseases and will have a sound knowledge of the underlying, biology, pharmacology and chemistry, including the design of dosing devices and important ethical considerations.

You will be taught about the:

  • biology of endocrine function
  • symptoms of endocrine diseases
  • chemistry and mechanism of action of peptide-based drugs (insulin as a key example)
  • Physical and chemical properties of proteins relevant to formulation and manufacture of insulin products
  • recombinant DNA technology
  • presentation and management of symptoms relating to diabetes disease
  • law and ethics relating to renal and endocrine topics - e.g. performance-enhancing drugs
  • The role of the pharmacist in the treatment and management of patients with endocrine diseases

You will learn a comprehensive coverage of pharmacy-relevant topics relating to endocrine diseases. Will understand how the key biological systems can malfunction to cause disease and how these diseases may be treatable by specific drug therapies. 

Pharmacists are often the first point of contact for patients with mild skin problems. You will learn how to assist, diagnosis and treat patients with skin problems over the counter. You'll learn how to support patients with long term dermatological conditions.

Example of teaching content includes:

  • Detailed patient history taking
  • The formulation science underpinning the use of topical treatments
  • Common skin conditions and infections
  • The use of non-topical treatments for dermatological conditions
  • The role of the pharmacist in the treatment and management of dermatological conditions

Upon completion you will be able to advise patients on self-care of skin conditions, refer patients for specialist investigation, and be able to consider how skin conditions vary according to skin tone.

Learn about health and diseases within the cardiovascular system. It includes key drug classes, from their fundamental science through to clinical usage.

Understand the evidence-based medicines which underpins therapeutics for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. As a pharmacist in training, you'll learn evidence-based treatments and support treatments by appropriate patient counselling and lifestyle advice.

There will be case studies based on key problem questions that you will learn and investigate. The emphasis is on you to become self-seeking independent learners, with high level enquiry and critical skills.

Everybody experiences pain at some time and a pharmacist, irrespective of the patient facing setting, encounters patients with pain several times each day. You will be provided with scientific background information to be able to understand and describe the clinical use of commonly used analgesics and targets for novel analgesics. 

You'll discuss legal and ethical issues that contribute to appropriate and illicit analgesic use.

We will cover key aspects of the Interprofessional Pain Curriculum Outline as proposed by the International Association for the Study of Pain.

You'll learn areas such as:

  • Mechanisms of pain transduction and transmission
  • Relevant medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology and therapeutics of commonly used analgesics including paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • local anaesthetics, opioids, adjuvant analgesics and 5-HT1-receptor agonists (triptans)
  • Epidemiology and presentation of commonly encountered types of pain
  • Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and ethical issues that you will face when practising as a pharmacist
  • The role of pharmacist in the treatment and prescribing to patients with pain

Many of the most common and difficult to treat medical conditions affect the CNS and knowledge of how drugs can be used to alleviate these problems is required by all pharmacists.

You will build on these foundations to apply medicine use in complex ethical and therapeutic cases. By learning the key methods and philosophies of healthcare coaching, you will be equipped to conduct difficult mental health conversations.

We will teach you to understand and describe the pathophysiology of CNS disorders, different treatment pathways and the medicines used to treat them in a rational manner.

You'll cover areas such as:

  • the basic anatomy and function of the CNS
  • the signs, symptoms and origins of disorders of emotion and thinking
  • neurodegenerative diseases and epilepsy
  • the mechanisms of action and clinical pharmacology of the drugs used in their treatment
  • drugs of abuse and associated approaches to treatment
  • strategies employed to deliver drugs through the blood/brain barrier
  • complex ethical challenges within patients suffering from Mental Health problems, incorporating the Mental Health capacity Act and Pharmacy professional standards
  • advanced consultation skills required for patients suffering from Mental Health problems

Address issues relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of cancers, and the professional and ethical issues concerning palliative care and the end of life.

In particular, you will be encouraged to think of cancers as a diverse group of genetic diseases which pose unique problems in their diagnosis and management.

Examples of a small number of cancer types will be used to illustrate key points which have broader relevance to cancer therapy and beyond.

You will cover areas such as:

  • The biological hallmarks of cancer
  • Classes of anti-cancer drug
  • Cancer treatments and formulations
  • Patient management and palliative care
  • Epidemiology and Health Economics
  • The role of the pharmacist in the treatment and management of patients with cancer, and patients at the end-of-life stage

Experience contemporary research methods by engaging yourself to design a research programme and perform experiments, surveys, or other research activities aimed at solving a specific pharmacy-related or biomedical problem.

The practical component of the project will provide an opportunity for you to carry out scientific research, and to relate the outcomes to scientific concepts and knowledge of the field. You will collect, analyse and interpret data, read and collate previous results relevant to their problem, presenting their research as a clear and concise report.

The form of project may vary and it may be based on laboratory work, clinical audit, or patient studies.

Academic supervisors will provide the topic of study and guidance on the project. You will be able to develop the theme of the dissertation in your own way.

You will be provided with an opportunity to use your initiative and knowledge in undertaking an original research study. With the aim to provide you with first-hand research experience and insights into scientific methodology, through the undertaking of a review of published work and experimental and/or computer-based work to investigate a selected topic, culminating in a written dissertation.

Practical projects are likely to involve the utilization of state-of-the-art instrumentation available in the Schools of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, whereas students undertaking clinical projects may be required to visit practice based settings.

You will learn practices to prescribe, this will also consider diagnostics, deprescribing, medicines optimisation, medicines adherence, and transfer of care.

  • Law, accountability and ethics of prescribing
  • Prescribing in a public health context
  • Psychology of, and influences on, prescribing
  • Prescribing in a team context
  • Consultation, decision making and therapy including referral
  • Pharmacology and therapeutics
  • Organisational leadership in relation to prescribing
  • Continuing professional development

We will prepare and support you on your journey to being able to prescribe safely and knowledgeably using the British National Formulary and other evidence-based medicines resources, following prescribing competency frameworks. The course will prepare you for future prescribing authority.

You'll join a small team with fellow pharmacy students to understand two core areas:

Step in to a simulated environment of a pharmacist. confronted with routine activities, long lasting projects and incidents relating to a fully fledged pharmacy. It takes a:

  • patient-focussed approach to medicine optimisation
  • follow patients through several care pathways
  • prescribe multiple medicines to manage coexisting problems
  • (paid) actors will participate as patients, customers, prescribers and other health care staff, pharmaceutical company representatives, inspectors and so on
  • practice patient care either face-to-face, over a phone or through virtual interactions

You will learn advancement of the knowledge of disease management and conditions covered previously and introduction of new diseases and conditions. You will develop and be supported in  problem-solving skills and your abilities in application of therapeutics to these complex patients.

Hone in on your critical thinking and decision-making, team-working, and teaching skills.

We have a team culture that you will join, learning leadership, management and appraisal from peers and staff to support your future professional roles.

Patient treatment changing over the years

Your career within the pharmacy sector could span over 40 years. During this time there will be major changes in your roles and the types of medicines available to treat patients. In this teaching block, you will be challenged to think about how patient treatment could change over the course of your career and we will help to prepare you for changes by developing  your critical thinking. This is with respect to how new medicines are introduced and how healthcare professionals and scientists can keep their personal knowledge up-to-date. Examples of new medicines that may be considered are:

  • The application of gene therapy and RNA therapeutics to medicine, including examples of successful approaches in clinical trials.
  • New developments in antibody technologies and biosimilars for therapeutics.
  • The potential of stem cell therapies to transform medicine.
  • The application of drug delivery to create targeted therapies for inflammatory diseases, cancer chemotherapy and needle-free vaccine delivery.

You will further enhance your knowledge from semester one, continuing to work as a team. Focusing on simulation and being challenged to think about how patient treatment could change over the years. 

You will learn to:

  • advance your skills and knowledge in disease management and medicine optimisation
  • capitalise on experiences gained outside the teaching block such as vocational experiences both within the course and outside
  • enable assessment of new scientific breakthroughs in terms of their clinical potential
  • enable students to deliver patient care, essential, advanced and bespoke services
  • further develop students’ skills in leadership, management, marketing, communication, problem-solving abilities critical thinking, teaching and learning, and team-working
  • provide an appreciation of the research breakthroughs in biology and pharmaceutical sciences that are driving the invention of future medicines

How you will learn

The course is structured into defined teaching blocks with a core theme of drug - medicine - patient. Each teaching block integrates key topics, including chemistry, pharmaceutics, biology and physiology, pharmacology, professionalism and leadership and pharmacy practice.

You will experience and interactively engage in a progressive spiral curriculum that combines the science with the professional and clinical skills to progressively attain detailed understanding and to shape your role as a highly trained healthcare professional and an expert on the safe and effective use of medicines.

Your teaching and learning experience will integrate you, working as an individual, small group and team working and a range of teaching formats, including experiential learning to consolidate your understanding.

Teaching methods

  • Lab sessions
  • Problem classes
  • Case studies
  • Problem based learning

How you will be assessed

Guidance will be given on how your work is assessed. Through workshops, on-line forums and Q&A sessions, we will work together to prepare you for all assessments. Your work will be marked in a timely manner and you will receive regular feedback.

All teaching blocks must be passed for progression to the next year and overall final mark and degree classification. Pass marks vary according to the teaching block and can range from a minimum of 40% through to 100%, which is required for the continuing professional development teaching block.

Your final degree classification will be based on marks gained for your second and subsequent years of study. Year two is worth 20% with years three and four worth 40% each.

Assessment methods

  • Group project
  • Lab reports
  • Presentation
  • Poster presentation
  • Research project
  • Written exam

Contact time and study hours

As a guide, one credit equals approximately 10 hours of work. You will spend around half of your time in lectures, tutorials, workshops, case-studies, practical classes and placements. The remaining time will be completed as independent study.

Tutorial sessions are built into the timetable and there are several group and individual meetings timetabled throughout the year. You can also arrange additional meetings with your tutor.

Core modules are typically delivered by professors, assistant and associate professors or teaching practitioners (practising pharmacists who also teach). Practical and laboratory skills teaching blocks may be supported by postgraduate teaching assistant.

For each teaching block there are feedback sessions and workshops with teaching block conveners, year heads, the Course Director and the Head of School.

Careers overview

Foundation training in employment (previously pre-registration).

To complete your training and qualify as a registered, practising pharmacist you will need to complete the new GPhC Foundation training programme. This replaces the pre-registration placement year and has been designed as a universal programme to evidence skills across five key areas of professional practice, communication and collaborative working, leadership and management, education and research.

It brings pharmacists more in line with other healthcare professionals like medics and dentists. At the end of the year, you'll sit the General Pharmaceutical Council’s exam to become a qualified pharmacist. For the first time this also includes registration to become a Prescribing Pharmacist.

Our progressive and responsive course and teaching will help prepare you for the next stages in your training and career. Targeted support is given by a highly experienced specialised team of academic and professional staff, many of whom who are involved in shaping and advising the pharmacy profession at a national level.

We also have the MPharm Pharmacy (with Integrated Pre registration Scheme) course. This is the same as the MPharm course but includes equivalent training to the Foundation year as part of the course, and hence directly supported by and managed by the University.

Being a professional pharmacist

You could work as a pharmacist in the community, at a GP surgery or in a hospital. On the course, you'll experience the different types of pharmacy work so you can see what you enjoy the most.

Industrial pharmacy

If you are interested in the research and development of new drugs, you may consider industrial pharmacy. Industrial pharmacists work with scientists in other areas to discover safe and effective drugs.

Other roles

Your skills can be used in roles such as:

  • pharmacy research
  • veterinary pharmacy
  • regulatory pharmacy
  • drug discovery
  • medicines manufacture

Job prospects

Average starting salary and career progression.

94.30% of undergraduates from the School of Pharmacy secured employment or further study within 15 months of graduation. The average annual salary for these graduates was £32,808.

HESA Graduate Outcomes (2017-2021 cohorts). The Graduate Outcomes % is calculated using The Guardian University Guide methodology. The average annual salary is based on graduates working full-time within the UK.

Careers advice

Studying for a degree at the University of Nottingham will provide you with the type of skills and experiences that will prove invaluable in any career, whichever direction you decide to take.

Throughout your time with us, our Careers and Employability Service can work with you to improve your employability skills even further; assisting with job or course applications, searching for appropriate work experience placements and hosting events to bring you closer to a wide range of prospective employers.

Have a look at our careers page for an overview of all the employability support and opportunities that we provide to current students.

The University of Nottingham is consistently named as one of the most targeted universities by Britain’s leading graduate employers (Ranked in the top ten in The Graduate Market in 2013-2020, High Fliers Research).

Your Campus - University Park

University Park Campus covers 300 acres, with green spaces, wildlife, period buildings and modern facilities. It is one of the UK's most beautiful and sustainable campuses, winning a national Green Flag award every year since 2003.

University undergraduate student Cole Pearce studying in Nightingale Hall accommodation's library, University Park. November 5th 2021.

The School of Pharmacy has excellent connections to the industry, which helped me secure a summer placement with Boots.

MPharm Pharmacy

Course data

Related courses.

pharmacy phd uon

Faculty of Science

4 years full-time

Pharmaceutical Sciences (with a Year in Industry) MSci Hons

Qualification MSci Hons

Entry requirements AAB

UCAS code B23B

5 years full-time

Pharmacy (with Integrated Foundation Training) MPharm

Qualification MPharm

UCAS code B236

pharmacy phd uon

3 years full-time

Pharmaceutical Sciences BSc Hons

Qualification BSc Hons

Entry requirements ABB

UCAS code B313

pharmacy phd uon

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences

Pharmacology BSc Hons

UCAS code B211

Ask us anything

Our student enquiry centre can assist you in finding the information you need. If you’re still struggling, head to our help page where you can find details of how to make an enquiry, contact us in-person or online.

Open Day June 2022


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Elektrostal Localisation : Country Russia , Oblast Moscow Oblast . Available Information : Geographical coordinates , Population, Area, Altitude, Weather and Hotel . Nearby cities and villages : Noginsk , Pavlovsky Posad and Staraya Kupavna .


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Elektrostal Demography

Information on the people and the population of Elektrostal.

Elektrostal Population157,409 inhabitants
Elektrostal Population Density3,179.3 /km² (8,234.4 /sq mi)

Elektrostal Geography

Geographic Information regarding City of Elektrostal .

Elektrostal Geographical coordinatesLatitude: , Longitude:
55° 48′ 0″ North, 38° 27′ 0″ East
Elektrostal Area4,951 hectares
49.51 km² (19.12 sq mi)
Elektrostal Altitude164 m (538 ft)
Elektrostal ClimateHumid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb)

Elektrostal Distance

Distance (in kilometers) between Elektrostal and the biggest cities of Russia.

Elektrostal Map

Locate simply the city of Elektrostal through the card, map and satellite image of the city.

Elektrostal Nearby cities and villages

Elektrostal Weather

Weather forecast for the next coming days and current time of Elektrostal.

Elektrostal Sunrise and sunset

Find below the times of sunrise and sunset calculated 7 days to Elektrostal.

DaySunrise and sunsetTwilightNautical twilightAstronomical twilight
23 June02:41 - 11:28 - 20:1501:40 - 21:1701:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
24 June02:41 - 11:28 - 20:1501:40 - 21:1601:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
25 June02:42 - 11:28 - 20:1501:41 - 21:1601:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
26 June02:42 - 11:29 - 20:1501:41 - 21:1601:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
27 June02:43 - 11:29 - 20:1501:42 - 21:1601:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
28 June02:44 - 11:29 - 20:1401:43 - 21:1501:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
29 June02:44 - 11:29 - 20:1401:44 - 21:1501:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00

Elektrostal Hotel

Our team has selected for you a list of hotel in Elektrostal classified by value for money. Book your hotel room at the best price.

Located next to Noginskoye Highway in Electrostal, Apelsin Hotel offers comfortable rooms with free Wi-Fi. Free parking is available. The elegant rooms are air conditioned and feature a flat-screen satellite TV and fridge...

Located in the green area Yamskiye Woods, 5 km from Elektrostal city centre, this hotel features a sauna and a restaurant. It offers rooms with a kitchen...

Ekotel Bogorodsk Hotel is located in a picturesque park near Chernogolovsky Pond. It features an indoor swimming pool and a wellness centre. Free Wi-Fi and private parking are provided...

Surrounded by 420,000 m² of parkland and overlooking Kovershi Lake, this hotel outside Moscow offers spa and fitness facilities, and a private beach area with volleyball court and loungers...

Surrounded by green parklands, this hotel in the Moscow region features 2 restaurants, a bowling alley with bar, and several spa and fitness facilities. Moscow Ring Road is 17 km away...

Elektrostal Nearby

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State Housing Inspectorate of the Moscow Region

Phone 8 (496) 575-02-20 8 (496) 575-02-20

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Public administration near State Housing Inspectorate of the Moscow Region


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    In 1938, it was granted town status. [citation needed]Administrative and municipal status. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Elektrostal City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Elektrostal City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Elektrostal Urban Okrug.

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    Elektrostal Geography. Geographic Information regarding City of Elektrostal. Elektrostal Geographical coordinates. Latitude: 55.8, Longitude: 38.45. 55° 48′ 0″ North, 38° 27′ 0″ East. Elektrostal Area. 4,951 hectares. 49.51 km² (19.12 sq mi) Elektrostal Altitude.


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  25. State Housing Inspectorate of the Moscow Region

    State Housing Inspectorate of the Moscow Region Elektrostal postal code 144009. See Google profile, Hours, Phone, Website and more for this business. 2.0 Cybo Score. Review on Cybo.