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Role of mitochondria

Tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation.

glycolysis; cellular respiration

cellular respiration

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  • Table Of Contents

glycolysis; cellular respiration

cellular respiration , the process by which organisms combine oxygen with foodstuff molecules , diverting the chemical energy in these substances into life-sustaining activities and discarding, as waste products, carbon dioxide and water. Organisms that do not depend on oxygen degrade foodstuffs in a process called fermentation . (For longer treatments of various aspects of cellular respiration, see tricarboxylic acid cycle and metabolism .)

my cellular respiration essay

One objective of the degradation of foodstuffs is to convert the energy contained in chemical bonds into the energy-rich compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which captures the chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of food molecules and releases it to fuel other cellular processes. In eukaryotic cells (that is, any cells or organisms that possess a clearly defined nucleus and membrane-bound organelles) the enzymes that catalyze the individual steps involved in respiration and energy conservation are located in highly organized rod-shaped compartments called mitochondria . In microorganisms the enzymes occur as components of the cell membrane . A liver cell has about 1,000 mitochondria; large egg cells of some vertebrates have up to 200,000.

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Main metabolic processes

Discover how cellular respiration transforms your food into energy usable by your cells

Biologists differ somewhat with respect to the names, descriptions, and the number of stages of cellular respiration . The overall process, however, can be distilled into three main metabolic stages or steps: glycolysis , the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation (respiratory-chain phosphorylation).

my cellular respiration essay

Glycolysis (which is also known as the glycolytic pathway or the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway) is a sequence of 10 chemical reactions taking place in most cells that breaks down a glucose molecule into two pyruvate (pyruvic acid) molecules. Energy released during the breakdown of glucose and other organic fuel molecules from carbohydrates , fats , and proteins during glycolysis is captured and stored in ATP. In addition, the compound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) is converted to NADH during this step ( see below ). Pyruvate molecules produced during glycolysis then enter the mitochondria, where they are each converted into a compound known as acetyl coenzyme A, which then enters the TCA cycle. (Some sources consider the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl coenzyme A as a distinct step, called pyruvate oxidation or the transition reaction, in the process of cellular respiration.)

my cellular respiration essay

The TCA cycle (which is also known as the Krebs, or citric acid , cycle) plays a central role in the breakdown, or catabolism , of organic fuel molecules. The cycle is made up of eight steps catalyzed by eight different enzymes that produce energy at several different stages. Most of the energy obtained from the TCA cycle, however, is captured by the compounds NAD + and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and converted later to ATP. The products of a single turn of the TCA cycle consist of three NAD + molecules, which are reduced (through the process of adding hydrogen , H + ) to the same number of NADH molecules, and one FAD molecule, which is similarly reduced to a single FADH 2 molecule. These molecules go on to fuel the third stage of cellular respiration, whereas carbon dioxide, which is also produced by the TCA cycle, is released as a waste product.

In the oxidative phosphorylation stage, each pair of hydrogen atoms removed from NADH and FADH 2 provides a pair of electrons that—through the action of a series of iron -containing hemoproteins, the cytochromes —eventually reduces one atom of oxygen to form water . In 1951 it was discovered that the transfer of one pair of electrons to oxygen results in the formation of three molecules of ATP .

my cellular respiration essay

Oxidative phosphorylation is the major mechanism by which the large amounts of energy in foodstuffs are conserved and made available to the cell . The series of steps by which electrons flow to oxygen permits a gradual lowering of the energy of the electrons. This part of the oxidative phosphorylation stage is sometimes called the electron transport chain . Some descriptions of cellular respiration that focus on the importance of the electron transport chain have changed the name of the oxidative phosphorylation stage to the electron transport chain.

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Cellular Respiration - Free Essay Examples and Topic Ideas

Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert nutrients into a usable form of energy called ATP. It is made up of three main stages: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. During these stages, glucose is broken down into smaller molecules, which undergo various chemical reactions to produce ATP molecules. Cellular respiration occurs in both plants and animals, and is essential for the survival of all living organisms.

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The Need for Cellular Respiration ( OCR A Level Biology )

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Biology Lead

The Need for Cellular Respiration

  • Living organisms are composed of cells, and within each cell, many activities and processes are constantly being carried out to maintain life
  • Work in a living organism requires energy and usable carbon compounds

Essential Work Within Organisms Table

Essential Work Within Organisms Table, downloadable AS & A Level Biology revision notes

As the metal ions are both moving against their concentration gradient, they cannot move by simple diffusion. They require a carrier protein and ATP to activate the carrier protein.

The source of energy & materials

  • For nearly all organisms the sun is the primary source of energy
  • Light energy from the sun is transformed into chemical potential energy in the synthesis of carbohydrates
  • The carbohydrates formed are then used in the synthesis of ATP (from their breakdown) or are combined and modified to form all the usable organic molecules that are essential for all metabolic processes within the plant
  • Photosynthesis is carried out by the first organism in a food chain, such as plants and some other small organisms
  • Respiration in all living cells releases energy from the breakdown of organic molecules
  • Respiration involves the transfer of chemical potential energy from nutrient molecules (such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins) into a usable energy form (through the synthesis of ATP ) that can be used for work within an organism

Glucose equations

glucose + oxygen →  carbon dioxide + water + energy

  • Autotrophs are organisms that are able to synthesise their own usable carbon compounds from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through photosynthesis
  • Heterotrophs don’t have this ability. They require a supply of pre-made usable carbon compounds which they get from their food

Energy cycle, downloadable AS & A Level Biology revision notes

Transfer of energy and materials between autotrophs and heterotrophs through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration

  • The sodium-potassium pump that is found on many cell membranes is a great example of active transport. Three sodium ions are taken out of the cell while two potassium ions are taken in, both against their respective concentration gradients
  • The movement and contraction of muscles also requires substantial amounts of energy

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Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Essay

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Photosynthesis is one of the primary sources of energy for living organisms. The fossilized photosynthetic fuels account for almost 90% of the energy in the world (Johnson, 2016). Cellular respiration is a process that takes place in the living organism and converts nutrients into energy. This essay will examine photosynthesis and cellular respiration separately and identify similarities, differences, and interconnectedness between two processes. Two processes are similar in that they both deals with energy, but they are different because one process involves catabolic reactions and another anabolic one.

The purpose of photosynthesis is to convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into carbohydrates using light energy. The light splits one of the reactants, water in the mesophyll of the leaf into oxygen, electrons, and protons during the light-dependent phase (Johnson, 2016). Then carbon dioxide enters the mesophyll of the leaf through openings, stomata, during the light-independent phase. These two reactions differ in light utilization and molecules production. The first reaction products are oxygen, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) that are used as energy storages, while by the end of the second reaction, the carbohydrate is obtained, and molecules mentioned above are used (Flügge et al., 2016). Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast with the light-dependent reaction taking place in the thylakoid membrane, and light-independent reaction in the stroma. The energy produced in the light reaction is used to fix carbon dioxide and produce carbohydrates while oxygen is released outside. According to the following equation of the photosynthesis, C → O2 + 2H20 + photons (CH2O)n + electrons + O2 carbon monoxide and water are transferred into carbohydrates under the light with the release of atmospheric oxygen.

The purpose of cellular respiration is to convert nutrients into energy. The reactants of the respiration are glucose circulating in the blood and oxygen obtained from breathing, while the product is ATP. Cellular respiration starts from glycolysis in the mitochondria’s stroma, where the glucose is broken down into pyruvate (Bentley & Connaughton, 2017). Then it continues with the citric acid cycle that generates ATP, NADH, and FADH2. In the final stage, the electron transport chain uses these molecules to generate more ATP. The energy produced is then used for metabolic processes in the organism, while carbon dioxide is released with breathing (BBC Bitesize, n.d.). According to the following equation of the cellular respiration, C → 6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O the glucose is broken down into carbon dioxide and water with the presence of oxygen.

There are two main differences between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. The first one is the anabolic process, during which complex compounds are synthesized, while the second one is catabolic, which involves breaking down the compounds (Panawala, 2017). The second crucial difference is that photosynthesis is found only in chloroplasts, while cellular respiration is found in any living cell, making it a universal process. There are also two main similarities between photosynthesis and respiration. The first similarity is that both processes involve the production of ATP (Stauffer et al., 2018). The second similarity is that both processes utilize ATP but for different purposes.

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are connected in such a way that they allow to perform metabolic functions normally. Moreover, these processes help to regulate the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. If photosynthesis stopped occurring, the level of oxygen would drop dramatically This would lead to deaths of all living organisms whose lives depend on this molecule. Whereas if cellular respiration stopped happening, living creatures would not be able to generate energy and sustain life.

To conclude, photosynthesis plays a crucial role in maintaining life on Earth. Photosynthesis uses light energy to produce oxygen, while cellular respiration uses oxygen to break down complex molecules and provide energy. These processes are different in their metabolic nature, but similar in terms of energy storage. If photosynthesis did not exist, the life for oxygen-dependent creatures would become extinct. Similarly, in the case of cellular respiration disappearing, living organisms would not be able to produce energy.

BBC Bitesize . (n.d.). Respiration. 2020. Web.

Bentley, M., & Connaughton, V, P. (2017). A simple way for students to visualize cellular respiration: Adapting the board game MousetrapTM to model complexity . CourseSource. 4, 1-6. Web.

Flügge, W., Westhoff, P., & Leister, D. (2016). Recent advances in understanding photosynthesis. F1000 Research, 5, 1-10.

Johnson, M. P. (2016). Photosynthesis. Essays Biochemistry , 60 (3), 255-273.

Panawala, L. (2017). Difference between photosynthesis and respiration. IE PEDIAA. Web.

Stauffer S., Gardner A., Ungu D.A.K., López-Córdoba A., & Heim M. (2018). Cellular respiration. In Labster virtual lab experiments: Basic biology (pp. 43-55). Springer.

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Cellular Respiration - Essay Examples And Topic Ideas For Free

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Essays might delve into the process of cellular respiration, its stages, its importance for living organisms, and how it is studied. We have collected a large number of free essay examples about Cellular Respiration you can find at PapersOwl Website. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

Photosynthesis Vs. Cellular Respiration the Major Processess in a Global Balance

There are two key processes that occur in nature to obtain energy, they are photosynthesis and cellular respiration. The derivative of the word photosynthesis is the process in which energy of sunlight is converted by plants to store chemical energy in carbohydrate bonds. Photosynthesis is known to be performed by plants, as is cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is organisms obtaining energy from a conversation that releases energy when oxygen is present. These two processes work together hand in hand as […]

The Symphony of Cells: Understanding Cellular Respiration

The miracle of life is a sophisticated dance of countless cellular processes working in harmony. One such process, indispensable and universal, is cellular respiration. This process sees our cells acting like mini power plants, generating the energy required for everything from flexing a muscle to contemplating the universe. By delving into the intricate steps of cellular respiration, we can appreciate the profound complexity and elegance of life on a microscopic scale. At its core, cellular respiration is the process by […]

What is Photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is the process that transforms organisms from light energy into chemical energy. In order for photosynthesis to take place, it needs these three things: Water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. As humans, in order to live plants, must take in gases. Plants are known as ""autotrophs, which means organisms that can make their own food. The process of photosynthesis was created and developed Jan Ingenhousz, a British physician and scientist. Joseph Priestley was another scientist who contributed to the discovery […]

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Effect of Exercise on the Rate of Respiration and the Heart Rate

How does increase the number of jumping jacks affect the rate of respiration and the heart rate per minute in teenagers aged 17-18? Background Information: Different types of activity will have a different effect on the rate of respiration as well as the heart rate because of certain factors. These include the level of intensity and difficulty of the exercise, as well as determining whether it is an aerobic or anaerobic activity. Aerobic respiration requires the presence of oxygen. (Haldane, […]

Idea of Photosynthesis by Jan Ingenhousz

To begin, the idea of photosynthesis was created by, according to Encyclopaedia Britannica, ""A Dutch scientist, Jan Ingenhousz. (Ingenhousz 1.) He was born in the Netherlands on December 8, 1730. Ingenhousz, is most known for his discovery of photosynthesis. According, to Encyclopedia Britannica, ""Ingenhousz discovered that light is necessary for photosynthesis, only the green parts of the plant perform photosynthesis, and all living parts of the plant can potentially damage the air."" (Ingenhousz 1.) Photosynthesis occurs in two steps inside […]

The Significance of the Cell Respiration Equation in Biological Systems

Cellular respiration, the metabolic engine that powers life's myriad processes, is encapsulated within a deceptively simple equation, yet its implications reverberate throughout the vast tapestry of biological complexity: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP This equation, more than a mere chemical formula, represents the alchemy of energy transformation within cells, where the conversion of glucose and oxygen fuels the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the molecular currency of vitality. But within this seemingly straightforward equation lies a […]

Unlocking Energy: the Essential Formula for Cellular Respiration

In the rich mosaic of existence, energy acts as a dynamic thread interlacing every creature, breathing vigor into life itself. From towering sequoias in age-old woods to minuscule beings in hidden worlds, energy pulses across life’s spectrum. Central to this dynamic is cellular respiration—a remarkable process that transforms the potential within organic molecules into usable energy that powers life's manifold forms. Picture a lively marketplace where simple goods are skillfully turned into prized items through detailed exchanges. Similarly, in the […]

Cellular Respiration: the Enigmatic Ballet of Energy Within Cells

Embarking on a mesmerizing journey into the microscopic realm, cellular respiration unfurls as a breathtaking performance, an intricate ballet of molecules that converges to transform nutrients into the lifeblood of energy within cells. This choreography, far from a mundane metabolic routine, is a captivating spectacle, where molecules pirouette and electrons waltz, weaving the intricate tapestry of life. Picture the cellular stage set with the spotlight on glycolysis, the rhythmic initiation of this metabolic symphony. In the cytoplasm, glucose takes center […]

The Powerhouse Formula: Cracking the Code of Cellular Respiration

Let's talk about something that's happening right now in every cell of your body, something so fundamental that life as we know it hinges on it. It's cellular respiration, the process that keeps the lights on and the engines running in the complex vehicle that is life. This isn't just biology textbook material; it's the very essence of energy transformation in living beings, from humans to the humblest of bacteria. Here's the lowdown: C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O […]

From Air to Energy: the Astonishing Saga of Cellular Respiration Explored

In the depths of every living cell lies a grand narrative, a saga that unfolds quietly yet relentlessly, shaping the very essence of life itself. This saga begins with a humble molecule, oxygen, drawn from the surrounding air. But what follows is a tale of transformation, a journey through the intricate pathways of cellular respiration, where molecules dance and react in a choreography of astonishing complexity. At the heart of this saga lies the mitochondrion, a tiny powerhouse within the […]

Breathing Life into Cells: a Deep Dive into the Mechanics of Cellular Respiration

In the realm of biology, the dance of life unfolds within the microscopic confines of our cells, where the intricate machinery of cellular respiration orchestrates the transformation of molecules into energy. As a biologist, I find myself captivated by the intricate choreography that unfolds within the cellular landscape, where every breath taken and molecule moved contributes to the symphony of life. At the heart of cellular respiration lies a delicate balance between chaos and order, where molecules collide and react […]

Breath of Life: the Awesome Outputs of Cellular Respiration

Let's talk about cellular respiration – it's like the unsung hero of our bodies, quietly working behind the scenes to keep us going. It's not just about breathing in oxygen and out carbon dioxide; it's an intricate dance of chemistry that powers every cell in our body. This process is as essential as your morning coffee, and trust me, it's way more interesting than it sounds. Picture this: cellular respiration is a three-act play, happening inside our cells. First up, […]

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Home — Essay Samples — Science — Photosynthesis — Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration


Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

  • Categories: Photosynthesis

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Words: 573 |

Published: Feb 12, 2019

Words: 573 | Page: 1 | 3 min read

Table of contents

Prompt examples for the "photosynthesis" essays, photosynthesis essay example.

  • The Process of Photosynthesis: Breaking It Down Explain the process of photosynthesis in detail, breaking down each step, the key resources involved (light energy, carbon dioxide, water), and the outcomes (glucose and oxygen). How does photosynthesis enable plants to create their own food?
  • Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration: Understanding the Differences Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration. What are the key distinctions between these two processes? How do plants use these processes differently, and why is it essential for plants to perform photosynthesis during the day and cellular respiration at night?
  • The Importance of Photosynthesis for Plant Survival Discuss the critical role of photosynthesis in a plant's survival. How does it provide plants with the necessary energy and nutrients? Explore the potential consequences if a plant were unable to perform photosynthesis.
  • Common Misconceptions About Photosynthesis Address common misconceptions or incorrect claims about photosynthesis, such as those mentioned by Mika in the essay. Provide clear explanations to refute these misconceptions and offer accurate information about when photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in plant cells.
  • The Energy Acquisition Strategies of Plants and Animals Compare how plants and animals acquire and utilize energy. Explain the fundamental differences in their energy sources and processes. Why do plants rely on photosynthesis, while animals need to consume other organisms for energy?

Works Cited

  • Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., & Walter, P. (2014). Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Science.
  • Campbell, N. A., & Reece, J. B. (2017). Biology. Pearson.
  • Cox, M. M., & Doudna, J. A. (2017). Principles of Molecular Biology. W. H. Freeman.
  • Freeman, S., Quillin, K., Allison, L., Black, M., Taylor, E., & Podgorski, G. (2017). Biological Science. Pearson.
  • Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S. L., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D., & Darnell, J. (2016). Molecular Cell Biology. W. H. Freeman.
  • National Science Teachers Association. (2016). Photosynthesis and cellular respiration. NSTA.
  • Raven, P. H., Evert, R. F., & Eichhorn, S. E. (2017). Biology of Plants. W. H. Freeman.
  • Reece, J. B., Urry, L. A., Cain, M. L., Wasserman, S. A., Minorsky, P. V., & Jackson, R. B. (2014). Campbell Biology. Pearson.
  • Sadava, D. E., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C., & Berenbaum, M. R. (2014). Life: The Science of Biology. W. H. Freeman.
  • Taiz, L., & Zeiger, E. (2013). Plant Physiology. Sinauer Associates.

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Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

C ellular respiration commonly refers to a four-fold biochemical process through which the cells break down organic glucose molecules to form energy carriers in the form of ATP. This process aids in the conservation of energy for activities requiring ATP influxes, such as physical exercises. The process involves four critical processes: glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate, the electron transport chain, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Glycolysis primarily facilitates the breakdown of two glucose molecules forming pyruvic acid. Afterward, the acid is oxidized to form acetyl CoA, a precursor for the Krebs cycle. The citric acid cycle completes the division of glucose forming carbon (II) oxide and electron carriers. The enzymes used exist in the mitochondrial matrix. These initial phases yield minimal ATP molecules. However, the eventual electron transport chain converts electron carriers (NADH and FADH 2 ) to 34 ATP molecules. This stage comprises numerous protein complexes embedded in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. 

my cellular respiration essay

Glycolysis Cytoplasm 2 NADH 2
Pyruvate Oxidation Mitochondrial matrix 2 NADH 0
Tricarboxylic Acid  Cycle Mitochondrial matrix 6 NADH


Electron Transport Chain Intermebrane space of Mitochondria 10 NADH




Subtract electron carriers and ATP used in transportation

Table 1 : Four processes involved in energy production during cellular respiration.

Glycolysis is the first pathway involved in the harnessing of electron carriers and ATP molecules. The pathway occurs in the cytosol in two different set-ups (Chaudhry & Varacallo, 2020, p. 1). The initial phase, investment, incorporates the use of two ATP molecules. This stage is followed by a payoff phase during which the metabolites are broken down, forming precursors of the next cycle. Notably, glycolysis occurs in aerobic and anaerobic environments. In aerobic reactions, the pyruvate joins the Krebs cycle and undergoes oxidative phosphorylation to yield 32 ATPs. In anaerobic conditions, the pyruvate is converted to lactate, given a total yield of 2 ATPs. This process commences with the uptake of glucose in the diet.

The glucose undergoes phosphorylation, forming glucose-6-phosphate by a glucokinase enzyme. Chaudhry & Varacallo (2020) postulate that glucokinase solely exists in the pancreas of human beings whereas hexokinase is available in plants. The resultant compound then undergoes isomerization forming fructose-6-phosphate. A phosphoglucose isomerase enzyme catalyzes the reaction. Afterward, the second ATP molecule assists in creating a fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate molecule, under the help of a kinase enzyme. The resultant compound dissociates into two sugars, a step catalyzed by a bisphosphate aldolase enzyme. The dihydroxyacetone phosphate is further isomerized into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate yielding two similar molecules. 

The two G-3-P molecules undergo oxidation yielding 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate following the reduction of an NAD+ molecule. Chaudhry & Varacallo (2020) assert that this compound undergoes further reaction forming 3-phosphoglycerate under the influence of a kinase enzyme. This reaction facilitates the production of the first ATP molecule in the payoff phase. The resultant molecule is further reduced into 2-phosphoglycerate, which eventually forms phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) under the influence of an enolase enzyme. The resultant PEP is relatively unstable. Hence, it loses a phosphate group in the form of a second ATP molecule forming pyruvate. 

Pre-Krebs Cycle

The Krebs cycle commences with an acetyl CoA molecule. Hence, to bridge the two processes, the pyruvate formed in glycolysis is oxidized, forming acetyl CoA. Next, the pyruvate undergoes decarboxylation reactions yielding carbon (II) oxide under the influence of a pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme (Minikel, 2013). Afterward, an acetyl group is added, forming acetyl CoA. Finally, the carbon (II) oxide formed is released as waste. Notably, the oxidation process releases electrons in the form of NADH. However, these electron carriers do not form ATP at this stage.

Krebs Cycle

The cyclic series is commonly identified as the tricarboxylic acid cycle or the citric acid system. This phase commences and ends within the same media. The process serves as the central hub in biosynthetic pathways by providing metabolites to build essential molecules such as amino acids (Minikel, 2013). The eight-step cycle commences by the addition of the acetyl group to oxaloacetate. Notably, the sophisticated reaction provides the electrons driving the oxidative phosphorylation reactions in the mitochondria. The electron carriers yielded are directly channeled to complex I in the electron transport chain. 

The initial step involves the formation of citrate by combining acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate. This step is facilitated by a citrate synthase in the presence of a water molecule. Afterward, the aconitase converts the citrate to isocitrate. In this step, a water molecule is lost from the citric acid at the 3’ position and replaced at the 4’ position (Minikel, 2013). The resultant compound undergoes oxidative decarboxylation forming an alpha-ketoglutarate molecule. The step results in the formation of an NADH molecule under the influence of an isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme. In the fourth step, the ketoglutarate is oxidized by an alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme in a reaction characterized by the addition of coenzyme A and removal of carbon (II) oxide to form succinyl CoA. In this reaction, NADH + H + results from the NAD + .

The sequential reaction involves succinate from succinyl CoA by removing the coenzyme A by a synthetase enzyme. This step leads to the release of energy in the form of GTP from a phosphorylated GDP molecule. The succinate is then converted to fumarate by a dehydrogenase enzyme leading to the formation of FADH 2 . Step seven involves the addition of oxygen and hydrogen to fumarate, forming malate. Lastly, the malate is oxidized to oxaloacetate, the initial compound of the cycle. This reaction is catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, facilitating the reduction of NAD + to NADH + H + .

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Electron Transport Chain

This phase of cellular respiration gives rise to the greatest proportion of ATPs. The pathway consists of four protein complexes that facilitate redox reactions creating an electrochemical difference (Ahmad et al., 2020, p. 1). Subsequently, ATP molecules are formed in a complete oxidative phosphorylation cycle. The pathway occurs in the mitochondria. The external membrane is primarily porous, making the intermediate space share an ionic concentration with the cytosol. Thus, the path establishes an H + gradient within the internal membrane. 

The pathway commences by a transfer of reducing intermediates from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrion through the malate-aspartate shunt. Minikel (2013) asserts that the adenine nucleotide translocase can similarly move ATP from the matrix, depositing ADP instead. Next, the electrons flow through variable complexes including complexes I to IV, cytochrome C, and complex Q. This protein complex chain exchanges the electrons by allowing an upward migration to a more significant reduction potential. Finally the redox reaction involving oxygen to form water ensues. Notably, the generation of energy within some complexes releases protons into the intermembrane chamber. Ahmad et al. (2020) affirm that each NADH molecule transported upwards yields 3 ATP molecules while an FADH 2 carrier gives 2 ATPs. Thus, at least 10 NADH and 2 FADH molecules are traded in, giving rise to about 32 to 34 ATP molecules.


The interplay between the four cycles depicts a perfect theme of biochemical system interaction aimed at maintaining homeostasis and metabolism. The cell makes at least 32 ATPs per molecule of glucose ingested. This number varies depending on the organism and molecules involved. Both glycolysis and citric acid cycles yield two ATPs. The majority of ATP molecules formed facilitate the transport of intermediates within the electron transport chain. This last phase produces the most ATP molecules with the help of the ATP synthetase in a ‘fall of electrons’ model. Each NADH molecule yields 3 ATPs, while an FADH 2 molecule gives 2 ATPs. Conclusively, energy flows from glucose to electron carrier molecules and eventually ATP. 

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Essays on Cellular respiration

We found 16 free papers on cellular respiration, essay examples, energy systems – atp/ce, lactic acid & aerobic.

Cellular respiration

Energy Systems The ATP – CP system is primarily used for short duration exercises (about ten to twelve seconds) which involve a high intensity or explosive movements. Energy is stored within the chemical bonds between the Adenosine and the three phosphate molecules. Water is added in the chemical reaction, causing one of the bonds to…

Respiration in Invertebrates


INTRODUCTION Respiration is essential for all organisms and can be simplified as “breathing”. However, the exact definition of respiration varies depending on the specific type being discussed. The exchange of gases, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, that is vital for the body’s functioning is referred to as “Respiration”. Oxygen is necessary for sustaining life….

Cell respiration for energy

All organisms, including plants and animals, oxidize glucose for energy. Often, this energy is used to convert ADAPT and phosphate into TAP. It is known that meal worms undergo cell respiration during germination. Do meal worms undergo cell respiration before germination? Using your collected data, you will be able to answer this question concerning respiration…

Effects of Different Substrates on Cellular Respiration

In this lab the effects of different substrates on the rate of cellular respiration is being put to a test which is a very interesting experiment. The three major substrate solutions being used for this experiment are glucose, maltose, and alanine. The issues this experiment addresses are cellular respiration occur in different stages which are…

Cellular Respiration Research

Cellular respiration is a catabolic reaction that refers to the process of converting chemical energy of organic molecules into a simplify form so it can be used immediately by organism. Glucose may be oxidized completely if sufficient oxygen is available, by the following equation: C6H12O6 + 36 ADP + 36Pi + 6O2(g) 6 H2O +…

What Factors Influence the Body’s Use of Glucose During Physical Activity

Physical Activity

What factors influence the body’s use of glucose during physical activity? How? The factors that influence the body’s use of glucose during physical activity are: diet, activity intensity level, and activity duration. (Whitney and Rolfes 466-468) First of all you must have a carbohydrate rich diet in order to store glycogen. Abundant glycogen stores enables…

Energy Exercise and Coordination

Recall the way in which muscles, tendons, the skeleton and ligaments interact to enable movement including antagonistic muscle pairs, extensors and flexors. Cartilage: a tissue made from collagen, which protects bone ends A muscle: an organ that produces movement by contraction A joint: the junction between two bones A tendon: joins muscle to bone A…

Cellular Respiration in Peas (Germinating and Non-Germinating)

Part A: Abstract: This report examines the role of Cellular Respiration in germinating and non-germinating peas. Cellular Respiration is a complex set of chemical reactions that starts with Glucose oxidation, transferring energy to ATP molecules and providing cellular energy. This process also produces Water and Carbon dioxide as byproducts. The objective was to determine if…

The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Yeast Respiration

Abstraction Carbon dioxide is a waste merchandise of yeast respiration. A series of experiment was conducted to reply the inquiry ; does temperature hold an consequence on barm respiration? If the sum of C dioxide is straight related to temperature. so changing grades of temperature will ensue in different rates of respiration in barm. The…

Meal Worm Cellular Respiration Experiment

IntroductionCellular respiration provides energy to all living organisms by collecting energy from food molecules. The cell then rearranges complex molecules to simpler molecules and uses that energy to make a molecule that stores energy called adenosine triphosphate also known as ATP. Cellular respiration can occur with or without oxygen. When it occurs without oxygen, it…

Frequently Asked Questions about Cellular respiration

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  1. Summary of Cellular Respiration (article)

    Cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is a biochemical process of breaking down food, usually glucose, into simpler substances. The energy released in this process is tapped by the cell to drive various energy-requiring processes. Cellular respiration can occur both aerobically (using oxygen), or anaerobically (without oxygen).

  2. Cellular Respiration: What Is It, Its Purpose, and More

    Cellular respiration is a series of chemical reactions that break down glucose to produce ATP, which may be used as energy to power many reactions throughout the body. There are three main steps of cellular respiration: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol, the citric acid cycle ...

  3. Cellular respiration

    Cellular respiration, the process by which organisms combine oxygen with foodstuff molecules, diverting the chemical energy in these substances into life-sustaining activities and discarding, as waste products, carbon dioxide and water. It includes glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.

  4. Cellular respiration review (article)

    Meaning. Cellular respiration. The process by which organisms break down glucose into a form that the cell can use as energy. ATP. Adenosine triphosphate, the primary energy carrier in living things. Mitochondria. The eukaryotic cell structure where cellular respiration occurs. Cytoplasm. The contents of a cell between the plasma membrane and ...

  5. An Explanation of the Process of Cellular Respiration: [Essay Example

    Cellular respiration is the process by which individual cells break down food molecules, such as glucose and release energy. This is because cellular respiration slowly releases the energy of glucose in a few small steps. It uses the energy released to form ATP molecules, which are the energy-carrying molecules that cells use to power ...

  6. Cellular respiration (article)

    Cellular respiration is a process that happens inside an organism's cells. This process releases energy that can be used by the organism to live and grow. Many food molecules are broken down into glucose, a simple sugar. Glucose is used in cellular respiration. Glucose and oxygen are inputs of cellular respiration.

  7. Cellular Respiration

    Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert nutrients into a usable form of energy called ATP. It is made up of three main stages: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. During these stages, glucose is broken down into smaller molecules, which undergo various chemical reactions to produce ATP molecules.

  8. Analysis of The Four Steps of Cellular Respiration

    The four steps of cellular respiration are Glycolysis, Acetyl CoA Formation, The Krebs Cycle, and The Electron Transport Chain. By following the electrons in cellular respiration we can understand how Gerald's apple, in part, gives him the energy to survive. ... An Explanation of the Process of Cellular Respiration Essay. Respiration is the ...

  9. 5.7.1 The Need for Cellular Respiration

    Photosynthesis is carried out by the first organism in a food chain, such as plants and some other small organisms. Respiration in all living cells releases energy from the breakdown of organic molecules. Respiration involves the transfer of chemical potential energy from nutrient molecules (such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins) into a ...

  10. My cellular respiration essay Flashcards

    When one is talking about Cellular respiration, one must make sure that the know that Cellular Respiration can be broken down into four stages. Main body: The first stage/step is Glycolysis or "the spliting of sugar", also this step happens in the cytoplasm. The process of Glycolysis happens when One Glucose (C6H12O6) is broken down to 2 ...

  11. Essay About Cellular Respiration

    1. Define the following terms: a. Cellular respiration (aerobic respiration) (2 points) - the process of oxidizing food molecules to carbon dioxide and water. Glucose is an example. b. Fermentation (anaerobic respiration) (2 points)- metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gas, or alcohol. 2.

  12. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

    According to the following equation of the photosynthesis, C → O2 + 2H20 + photons (CH2O)n + electrons + O2 carbon monoxide and water are transferred into carbohydrates under the light with the release of atmospheric oxygen. The purpose of cellular respiration is to convert nutrients into energy. The reactants of the respiration are glucose ...

  13. Cellular Respiration

    12 essay samples found. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Essays might delve into the process of cellular respiration, its stages, its importance for living organisms, and how it is studied.

  14. Essays on Cellular Respiration

    An Explanation of The Process of Cellular Respiration. 2 pages / 1021 words. Respiration is the chemical process by which organic compounds release energy. The compounds change into different ones by exergonic reactions. There are two types of respiration: Made-to-order essay as fast as you need it Each essay is customized to cater to your ...

  15. IB Bio

    Step 3 - The five carbon compound undergoes decarboxylation and oxidation (hydrogen is removed) again to form a four carbon compound. The hydrogen is accepted by NAD+ and forms NADH + H+. Step 4 - The four carbon compound then undergoes substrate-level phosphorylation and during this reaction it produces ATP.

  16. Cellular respiration

    Connections between cellular respiration and other pathways (Opens a modal) Regulation of cellular respiration (Opens a modal) Practice. Fermentation and anaerobic respiration Get 3 of 4 questions to level up! Quiz 2. Level up on the above skills and collect up to 240 Mastery points Start quiz.

  17. My Lab on Cellular Respiration Essay

    Cellular Respiration is the combination of metabolic cells and processes that occur within the organisms cells. This process coverts biochemical energy into ATP and results in the removal of waste products. There are four main steps of Cellular Respiration. Glycolysis, Transport Reaction, Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation.

  18. We All Need Some Cellular Respiration Essay

    Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. This process happens through three distinct operations which are glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Throughout these cycles, our bodies turn oxygen and glucose into carbon dioxide ...

  19. Cellular Respiration

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Converts energy in food into ATP which powers a cell's metabolism, Takes place in the mitochondrion, Returns carbon dioxide to the atmosphere (fuels carbon cycle) and more.

  20. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: [Essay Example], 573 words

    The photosynthesis equation is CO2 (carbon dioxide)+H2O (water)+light energy=C6H12O6 (glucose) & O2 (oxygen). Cellular respiration is a process plants use at night for energy. This happens in the mitochondria's of plant cells. The resources needed for this are energy, carbon dioxide, water, and heat. Cellular respiration is the inverse of ...

  21. Cellular Respiration Essay Questions

    Cellular Respiration Essay Questions - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Cellular respiration involves three main stages - glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis breaks down glucose to begin generating ATP. The Krebs cycle further oxidizes molecules to produce more ATP, CO2, and electron carriers.

  22. Cellular Respiration

    Cellular respiration commonly refers to a four-fold biochemical process through which the cells break down organic glucose molecules to form energy carriers in the form of ATP. This process aids in the conservation of energy for activities requiring ATP influxes, such as physical exercises. ... My Essay Writer was started by an award-winning ...

  23. Essays on Cellular respiration

    Respiration. Words: 820 (4 pages) IntroductionCellular respiration provides energy to all living organisms by collecting energy from food molecules. The cell then rearranges complex molecules to simpler molecules and uses that energy to make a molecule that stores energy called adenosine triphosphate also known as ATP.