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Geologist Cover Letter Sample

Land your dream job & learn to perfect your own cover letter with this expertly drafted Geologist cover letter sample. Use this cover letter sample free of charge or modify it in any way using our HR-approved cover letter maker.

Milan Šaržík — Certified Professional Résumé Writer

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Geologist Cover Letter Sample (Full Text Version)

Dear Hiring Manager,

As a qualified Geologist with 12 years of experience working in field and advisory settings, I apply with great interest for this opportunity.

I am currently a Geologist with BetaOil, where I direct pre-project geological assessments. Mirroring your requirements, I evaluate and interpret subsurface field and sampling data including soil and groundwater to develop conclusions about geologic site and environmental conditions. I test soils including boring investigations and soil type classifications, interpret soil, bedrock and groundwater elevation/quality data, and prepare reports to help determine project feasibility.

This builds upon my previous role as a Geologist with the State of Alaska, where I provided geotechnical expertise to forest personnel and state agencies in response to technical service requests and project development, design, and review. 

In addition to my professional experience, I hold a Bachelor of Geology (Hydrogeology) and am a Licensed Professional Geologist through the American Institute of Professional Geologists (AIPG).

As BetaOil is cutting back on projects for the next year due to the global pandemic, I am now seeking a new opportunity closer to home.

Please find attached my résumé for your consideration. Thank you very much for your time. I look forward to hearing from you once you have had the opportunity to review my application.

Yours sincerely,

Milan Šaržík — Certified Professional Résumé Writer

Milan Šaržík, CPRW

Milan’s work-life has been centered around job search for the past three years. He is a Certified Professional Résumé Writer (CPRW™) as well as an active member of the Professional Association of Résumé Writers & Careers Coaches (PARWCC™). Milan holds a record for creating the most career document samples for our help center – until today, he has written more than 500 resumes and cover letters for positions across various industries. On top of that, Milan has completed studies at multiple well-known institutions, including Harvard University, University of Glasgow, and Frankfurt School of Finance and Management.

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Geologist Cover Letter

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How to create a good cover letter for a geologist: free tips and tricks

You’re looking for a job, right? You want to land a job interview, true? Then craft a winning letter! Today it’s the only way to set your foot into the job hunting market. For all of you who are looking for tips and tricks to land a great job, refer to the writing tips we pulled up for you and check out the geologist cover letter example to get a general idea of it.

Every detail matters. Make sure that you capture the recruiter’s attention with the email subject line. Don’t leave it blank. Spend some time and find the recruiter’s name so that your text starts in a more personalized way. Opt for a simple layout to make it easier for the reader to concentrate on the content.

Avoid anything generic. If you understand that hundreds of applicants start their messages with ‘I’m applying for,’ try to come up with something different. If you can avoid saying ‘excellent communication skills,’ do it and show it instead of saying it.

Relevance is the key. Ask yourself ‘Is it relevant?’ about each detail you’re about to put into your document. In this type of correspondence, you’re expected to provide relevant information and exclude irrelevant. Don’t confuse the two.

Don’t exclude requested information. It goes alongside the previous recommendation. For example, the employer requests you to indicate your salary requirements. Please do, as requested, even if you don’t think it is appropriate.

Use the job posting. In fact, it contains a lot of useful information for you. For example, you can use the keywords you spot there to include. Thus, you increase your chances to land an interview because most hiring specialists use special software to screen applicants beforehand.

Don’t go flat on the conclusion. By the end of your text you may feel you pumped the text enough and wrap it up with a blank ‘Thank you for your time.’ However, hiring experts quip that you should end strong with a call to action or indicate your willingness to meet more specifically.

Sample cover letter for a geologist position

The most effective way to digest the tips is to see their practical application. We have used all the important tips of the above units into a single a geologist cover letter sample to demonstrate a winning document that can be created in GetCoverLetter editor.

Rong Zhang Geologist 175 Marshall Avenue 8765-876-987 / [email protected] Sarah Oh Recruiter of Unique Human Company

Dear Sarah, On the basis on my Master’s in Geology and two-year hands-on experience in civil engineering, I am confidently offering your company to hire me as a geologist into the new real estate development project ‘Eco-Habitat Agora.’

My background in geology includes a summer practice in Natural Museum of New York in 2017 and one-year internship as an engineering geologist at a local private construction company. My duties included analysis and evaluation of the ground rock for the construction to be safe and sustainable to build on. I am equally skilled to carry out geological works in the field and reflecting my foundings in writing. Due to my current work at a construction company, I have learned to measure rock and land characteristics by using relevant equipment. Such as seismographs, magnetometers, gravimeters, etc.

Confident about my qualifications and abilities, I can contribute to the success of the company in an effective and sustainable manner.

Looking forward to meeting in person, I have attached my resume for your review. Feel free to contact me anytime via email [email protected] or phone 7569847694.

Sincerely, Rong.

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Why the Get Cover Letter is the best solution

The GetCoverLetter editor is open to any goals of applicants. Whether it be a presentation of a craft professional with a great list of achievements or even a geologist without experience. Rest assured, the opportunities are equal for all the candidates.

Terminology matters and is the true mark of a serious professional and we use that style in your letter.

With us, you have the possibility to edit your details to cater to the specifics of the job.

We apply what we know by concentrating on your skills when writing your geologist letter.

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Templates of the best a geologist cover letter designs

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cover letter examples for geologist

Frequently Asked Questions

The more unique the knowledge you get, the more space for new questions. Do not be affraid to miss some aspects of creating your excellent cover letter. Here we took into account the most popular doubts to save your time and arm you with basic information.

  • What should my a geologist cover letter contain? The main purpose of a cover letter is to introduce yourself, mention the job you’re applying for, show that your skills and experience match the needed skills and experience for the job.
  • How to properly introduce yourself in a cover letter? Greet the correct person to which your cover is intended for. Introduce yourself with enthusiasm.
  • How many pages should my cover letter be? Your cover letter should only be a half a page to one full page. Your cover letter should be divided into three or four short paragraphs.
  • Don't focus on yourself too much
  • Don't share all the details of every job you've had
  • Don't write a novel

You have finished your acquaintance with valuable tips and tricks. Now is the time to create your own perfect cover letter.

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Geologist Cover Letter Example (Free Guide)

Create an geologist cover letter that lands you the interview with our free examples and writing tips. use and customize our template and land an interview today..

Geologist Cover Letter Example

Are you looking for a job as a geologist but feel lost when it comes to writing your cover letter? You've come to the right place! Our Geologist Cover Letter Guide provides you with all the tips and tricks you need to craft an impressive cover letter that will help you land that job.

We will cover:

  • How to write a cover letter, no matter your industry or job title.
  • What to put on a cover letter to stand out.
  • The top skills employers from every industry want to see.
  • How to build a cover letter fast with our professional Cover Letter Builder .
  • What a cover letter template is, and why you should use it.

Related Cover Letter Examples

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Geologist Cover Letter Sample

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Dear Hiring Manager,

I am writing to apply for the Geologist position at your company as advertised. I have a strong background in geology, with a Bachelor of Science in Geology from [University] and six years of field experience.

My most recent experience was as a Geologist for [Company], where I worked on oil and gas exploration projects in the [region]. I was responsible for conducting field investigations and collecting data to inform the assessment of potential drilling sites. I was also responsible for preparing reports and presentations outlining the findings and recommendations.

In addition to my field experience, I have excellent research and communication skills. I have conducted research on various geological topics and presented my findings at conferences and seminars. I have also worked with a variety of software programs, including ArcGIS, Autocad, and Schlumberger.

I am confident that my skills, experience, and knowledge make me an ideal candidate for the position. I am eager to join a team of professionals and I am excited to contribute to the success of your company.

I have attached my resume and I look forward to discussing my qualifications further. Thank you for your time and consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely, [Your Name]

Why Do you Need a Geologist Cover Letter?

  • A Geologist cover letter is an important part of the job application process, as it allows you to express your interest in the job and highlight your relevant skills and experience.
  • It is also an opportunity to demonstrate your enthusiasm and commitment to the job and how you would be a great fit for the role.
  • A Geologist cover letter allows you to showcase your knowledge of the field and the types of projects you are interested in working on.
  • It also provides an opportunity to explain why you are uniquely qualified for the job and how your skills and experience can benefit the company.
  • A Geologist cover letter is also an opportunity to establish a connection with the hiring manager and demonstrate that you have taken the time to research the company and understand the position you are applying for.
  • Overall, a Geologist cover letter is a great way to make a positive first impression and stand out from the competition.

A Few Important Rules To Keep In Mind

  • Start with a professional greeting. Address your letter to the correct person such as the hiring manager or the company’s human resources department.
  • Include your contact information in the header of the letter. This includes your name, address, phone number, and email address.
  • Start the body of the letter with a brief introduction that includes your years of experience as a geologist.
  • Explain why you’re interested in the job and why you’re the best candidate for the position.
  • Detail your qualifications, such as your knowledge of geological processes, sedimentary rocks, and structural geology.
  • Outline your experience in working with a variety of geological instruments, such as microscopes and mapping software.
  • Describe any research or fieldwork you’ve conducted and the results of your findings.
  • Conclude your letter with a call to action. Request a meeting or telephone conversation to discuss the job and your qualifications in more detail.
  • Include a professional closing, such as “Sincerely” or “Respectfully.”
  • Sign your name in the space below the closing. If you’re sending a hard copy, sign the signature above your typed name.

What's The Best Structure For Geologist Cover Letters?

After creating an impressive Geologist resume , the next step is crafting a compelling cover letter to accompany your job applications. It's essential to remember that your cover letter should maintain a formal tone and follow a recommended structure. But what exactly does this structure entail, and what key elements should be included in a Geologist cover letter? Let's explore the guidelines and components that will make your cover letter stand out.

Key Components For Geologist Cover Letters:

  • Your contact information, including the date of writing
  • The recipient's details, such as the company's name and the name of the addressee
  • A professional greeting or salutation, like "Dear Mr. Levi,"
  • An attention-grabbing opening statement to captivate the reader's interest
  • A concise paragraph explaining why you are an excellent fit for the role
  • Another paragraph highlighting why the position aligns with your career goals and aspirations
  • A closing statement that reinforces your enthusiasm and suitability for the role
  • A complimentary closing, such as "Regards" or "Sincerely," followed by your name
  • An optional postscript (P.S.) to add a brief, impactful note or mention any additional relevant information.

Cover Letter Header

A header in a cover letter should typically include the following information:

  • Your Full Name: Begin with your first and last name, written in a clear and legible format.
  • Contact Information: Include your phone number, email address, and optionally, your mailing address. Providing multiple methods of contact ensures that the hiring manager can reach you easily.
  • Date: Add the date on which you are writing the cover letter. This helps establish the timeline of your application.

It's important to place the header at the top of the cover letter, aligning it to the left or center of the page. This ensures that the reader can quickly identify your contact details and know when the cover letter was written.

Cover Letter Greeting / Salutation

A greeting in a cover letter should contain the following elements:

  • Personalized Salutation: Address the hiring manager or the specific recipient of the cover letter by their name. If the name is not mentioned in the job posting or you are unsure about the recipient's name, it's acceptable to use a general salutation such as "Dear Hiring Manager" or "Dear [Company Name] Recruiting Team."
  • Professional Tone: Maintain a formal and respectful tone throughout the greeting. Avoid using overly casual language or informal expressions.
  • Correct Spelling and Title: Double-check the spelling of the recipient's name and ensure that you use the appropriate title (e.g., Mr., Ms., Dr., or Professor) if applicable. This shows attention to detail and professionalism.

For example, a suitable greeting could be "Dear Ms. Johnson," or "Dear Hiring Manager," depending on the information available. It's important to tailor the greeting to the specific recipient to create a personalized and professional tone for your cover letter.

Cover Letter Introduction

An introduction for a cover letter should capture the reader's attention and provide a brief overview of your background and interest in the position. Here's how an effective introduction should look:

  • Opening Statement: Start with a strong opening sentence that immediately grabs the reader's attention. Consider mentioning your enthusiasm for the job opportunity or any specific aspect of the company or organization that sparked your interest.
  • Brief Introduction: Provide a concise introduction of yourself and mention the specific position you are applying for. Include any relevant background information, such as your current role, educational background, or notable achievements that are directly related to the position.
  • Connection to the Company: Demonstrate your knowledge of the company or organization and establish a connection between your skills and experiences with their mission, values, or industry. Showcasing your understanding and alignment with their goals helps to emphasize your fit for the role.
  • Engaging Hook: Consider including a compelling sentence or two that highlights your unique selling points or key qualifications that make you stand out from other candidates. This can be a specific accomplishment, a relevant skill, or an experience that demonstrates your value as a potential employee.
  • Transition to the Body: Conclude the introduction by smoothly transitioning to the main body of the cover letter, where you will provide more detailed information about your qualifications, experiences, and how they align with the requirements of the position.

By following these guidelines, your cover letter introduction will make a strong first impression and set the stage for the rest of your application.

Cover Letter Body

Dear [Hiring Manager],

I am writing to apply for the position of Geologist, as advertised in [publication name]. With my experience in geological research, I am confident that I am the ideal candidate for the role.

I have a degree in Geology from [university name], and have been actively involved in the field for the past [number] years. During this time, I have gained a wealth of knowledge and expertise in a range of areas, including geological mapping, soil and rock sampling, and sedimentary analysis. I have also had the opportunity to present my research at a number of conferences, demonstrating my ability to communicate effectively with colleagues and other professionals.

In addition, I am highly proficient in using a range of computer programs and mapping software to carry out my work. I am also experienced in using a variety of field instruments and equipment for both research and sampling purposes.

I am a highly motivated and enthusiastic individual who is passionate about geology and the environment. I am confident that my skills and experience make me an ideal candidate for the role and I am looking forward to the opportunity to discuss my application further.

Thank you for your time and consideration.

[Your name]

Complimentary Close

The conclusion and signature of a cover letter provide a final opportunity to leave a positive impression and invite further action. Here's how the conclusion and signature of a cover letter should look:

  • Summary of Interest: In the conclusion paragraph, summarize your interest in the position and reiterate your enthusiasm for the opportunity to contribute to the organization or school. Emphasize the value you can bring to the role and briefly mention your key qualifications or unique selling points.
  • Appreciation and Gratitude: Express appreciation for the reader's time and consideration in reviewing your application. Thank them for the opportunity to be considered for the position and acknowledge any additional materials or documents you have included, such as references or a portfolio.
  • Call to Action: Conclude the cover letter with a clear call to action. Indicate your availability for an interview or express your interest in discussing the opportunity further. Encourage the reader to contact you to schedule a meeting or provide any additional information they may require.
  • Complimentary Closing: Choose a professional and appropriate complimentary closing to end your cover letter, such as "Sincerely," "Best Regards," or "Thank you." Ensure the closing reflects the overall tone and formality of the letter.
  • Signature: Below the complimentary closing, leave space for your handwritten signature. Sign your name in ink using a legible and professional style. If you are submitting a digital or typed cover letter, you can simply type your full name.
  • Typed Name: Beneath your signature, type your full name in a clear and readable font. This allows for easy identification and ensures clarity in case the handwritten signature is not clear.

Common Mistakes to Avoid When Writing a Geologist Cover Letter

When crafting a cover letter, it's essential to present yourself in the best possible light to potential employers. However, there are common mistakes that can hinder your chances of making a strong impression. By being aware of these pitfalls and avoiding them, you can ensure that your cover letter effectively highlights your qualifications and stands out from the competition. In this article, we will explore some of the most common mistakes to avoid when writing a cover letter, providing you with valuable insights and practical tips to help you create a compelling and impactful introduction that captures the attention of hiring managers. Whether you're a seasoned professional or just starting your career journey, understanding these mistakes will greatly enhance your chances of success in the job application process. So, let's dive in and discover how to steer clear of these common missteps and create a standout cover letter that gets you noticed by potential employers.

  • Not customizing the cover letter for the job position
  • Not including relevant work experience
  • Using generic language or clichés
  • Making spelling and grammar errors
  • Exceeding the recommended length
  • Not following the employer’s instructions
  • Failing to highlight relevant skills and qualifications
  • Not using a professional tone
  • Focusing too much on your personal interests
  • Not including contact information

Key Takeaways For a Geologist Cover Letter

  • Highlight your expertise in the geology field and your understanding of the latest developments in the industry.
  • Showcase your knowledge of geologic principles, methods, and techniques.
  • Demonstrate your ability to interpret geologic data and draw meaningful conclusions.
  • Demonstrate your ability to work independently or as part of a team.
  • Explain any relevant experience with data collection, sampling, mapping, analysis, and report writing.
  • Detail any experience with GIS and GPS technology.
  • Discuss any relevant research experience or fieldwork.
  • Mention any safety or operational certifications.
  • Highlight any awards or accolades you have received.
  • Make sure to proofread your cover letter for errors.

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Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Examples & Writing Tips

Use these Petroleum Geologist cover letter examples and writing tips to help you write a powerful cover letter that will separate you from the competition.

cover letter examples for geologist

Table Of Contents

  • Petroleum Geologist Example 1
  • Petroleum Geologist Example 2
  • Petroleum Geologist Example 3
  • Cover Letter Writing Tips

Petroleum geologists study the physical and chemical properties of rocks and fluids to locate and extract oil and gas reserves. They need to be able to think critically and have a strong understanding of geology.

When you apply for a petroleum geologist position, you’ll need to write a cover letter that showcases your skills and experience. Check out the examples and tips below to learn how to write a cover letter that will get you the job.

Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example 1

I am excited to be applying for the Petroleum Geologist position at Topdown Energy. I have a Master’s degree in Petroleum Geology and more than five years of experience working in the oil and gas industry. I am confident that I have the skills and experience you are looking for in a candidate and I am eager to use my knowledge and abilities to help Topdown Energy reach its goals.

In my previous role at ABC Oil, I was responsible for conducting geological and geophysical surveys, analyzing data, and making recommendations for drilling and production operations. I also have experience working in the field, conducting on-site surveys and managing drilling projects. I am confident that I have the skills and experience you are looking for in a candidate and I am eager to use my knowledge and abilities to help Topdown Energy reach its goals.

I am a motivated and results-oriented individual who is excited to be a part of a team that is dedicated to innovation and excellence. I am confident that I can contribute to Topdown Energy’s success and I look forward to discussing this opportunity further with you. Thank you for your time and consideration.

Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example 2

I am writing to apply for the Petroleum Geologist position that was recently advertised on your website. I am confident that I have the skills and experience that you are looking for, and I believe that I would be a valuable asset to your team.

I have been working in the petroleum industry for the past three years, and during that time I have gained extensive experience in all aspects of the field. I have experience in both upstream and downstream operations, and I am familiar with all the latest technologies and methods. I am also well-versed in the latest geological research and theories.

I am a highly motivated and results-oriented individual, and I am confident that I can deliver on the goals and objectives of the position. I have a proven track record of success in the industry, and I am confident that I can bring value to your company.

I would like to thank you for your time and consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example 3

I am writing to express my interest in the Petroleum Geologist position that you have posted. I believe that my education and experience make me an excellent candidate for this position.

I have a Master of Science degree in Geology from the University of Texas at Austin, where I graduated with honors. My coursework focused on sedimentary geology, stratigraphy, structural geology, and petroleum geology. I also completed a minor in Earth Science Education. During my time as a student, I was awarded the Outstanding Graduate Student Award by the Department of Geological Sciences.

My professional experience includes working as a Petroleum Geologist for ExxonMobil Exploration Company in Houston, Texas. In this role, I performed geological assessments of prospective exploration areas, evaluated well logs and core samples, and interpreted seismic data to determine the presence or absence of oil and gas reservoirs. I also worked as a consultant for the State of Texas, evaluating potential sites for new wells and recommending changes to existing well locations based on new information about subsurface conditions.

I am confident that my education and experience make me an excellent candidate for this position. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss my qualifications with you in person.

Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Writing Tips

1. show your experience.

When applying for a job as a petroleum geologist, you need to show employers that you have the experience and skills necessary to do the job. One way to do this is by providing a brief overview of your experience in the field. You can do this by describing a past project (or similar projects) that you worked on.

In addition, you can also mention any awards or recognition you’ve received for your work in the field. This will show employers that you’re a highly qualified candidate and that you’re capable of producing results.

2. Customize your cover letter

Just like with any other job, it’s important to customize your cover letter to match the company you’re applying to. In your cover letter, you’ll want to highlight how your skills and experience make you a perfect fit for the job.

For example, if the company is looking for someone who has experience working with seismic data, be sure to mention any projects you’ve worked on where you used seismic data. You can also talk about how you stay up-to-date with the latest industry trends by reading trade journals and attending industry conferences.

3. Show your passion for the job

One of the best ways to show employers that you’re passionate about the job is by talking about your goals and how you plan to achieve them. For example, you can mention how you’re excited to learn more about the latest technology used in the field or how you’re looking forward to working on new projects.

4. Proofread your cover letter

Just like with any other job, it’s important to proofread your cover letter before submitting it. This will help ensure that there are no errors in your cover letter, which could potentially disqualify you from getting the job.

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Exploration Geologist Cover Letter

15 exploration geologist cover letter templates.

Exploration Geologist Cover Letter Sample

How to Write the Exploration Geologist Cover Letter

Please consider me for the exploration geologist opportunity. I am including my resume that lists my qualifications and experience.

In my previous role, I was responsible for the Superintendent Geology with local and regional scale geoscience expertise, with a focus on copper mineral systems in South Australia and/or Northern Territory.

Please consider my qualifications and experience:

  • Enhanced utilization and application of laboratory analysis of samples, side wall cores, and whole cores
  • Enhanced knowledge of qualitative 2D and 3D seismic interpretation and seismic acquisition
  • Enhanced knowledge of lease acquisitions, division of interest, and separation of surface and subsurface rights
  • Experience and proficiency across onshore and offshore frontier growth evaluations, international experience
  • Experience in the full exploration project lifecycle, from prospect identification through appraisal
  • Strong operational background and experience
  • Experience with 2D and 3D seismic interpretation and integration with geologic datasets
  • Experience with integrating potential fields data into regional petroleum systems evaluations

Thank you in advance for taking the time to read my cover letter and to review my resume.

Story Zulauf

  • Microsoft Word (.docx) .DOCX
  • PDF Document (.pdf) .PDF
  • Image File (.png) .PNG

Responsibilities for Exploration Geologist Cover Letter

Exploration geologist responsible for coaching to the team members to build technical and skills in area of structural geology.

Exploration Geologist Examples

Example of exploration geologist cover letter.

I would like to submit my application for the exploration geologist opening. Please accept this letter and the attached resume.

Previously, I was responsible for input to the Manager Exploration (Project/Region) and/or Superintendent Exploration (Generative and/or Project/Region) on the identification, evaluation, prioritisation and selection of discovery opportunities for pursuit.

My experience is an excellent fit for the list of requirements in this job:

  • Experience with applying and interpreting petroleum systems model (basin modeling) outputs in a play fairway analysis framework
  • Skill level for geologic risk and uncertainty analysis and volumetrics
  • Experience in portfolio development and ranking, based on economic metrics, coupled with commercial analysis with a clear link to value
  • Strong interest in structurally complex geological environments
  • Previous experience using Vulcan, Datamine and/or ArcGIS would be an asset
  • Leadership qualities to assist in directing day-to-day production requirements for the operations
  • Providing technical leadership and oversight of regional greenfield copper programs and projects
  • Strengthening the exploration portfolio through target generation, identification and evaluation of the highest priority third party opportunities and rigorous portfolio prioritization

I really appreciate you taking the time to review my application for the position of exploration geologist.

Baylor Waelchi

I submit this application to express my sincere interest in the exploration geologist position.

Previously, I was responsible for reliable geophysical interpretation in close co-operation with the team and other NV & AME entities, the main objective being to identify drillable prospects and/or relevant NV evaluations (volumes and risks).

  • Knowledge of stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of the Arabian Peninsula
  • As the project language is English, excellent communication and writing skills in English
  • Bachelor of Science in Geosciences or related field knowledge of geological, geochemical, and/or geophysical principles
  • Able to generate and integrate large, multi-vintage, diverse data sets including detailed carbonate core descriptions and interpretations tied to logs
  • Multi-basin experience describing and developing predictive models in carbonate systems
  • Solid technical foundation in geotechnical and petroleum system concepts
  • Tertiary Qualification – minimum of a B.Sc
  • Extensive Post Graduate experience in gold exploration

Thank you for considering me to become a member of your team.

Skyler Weimann

In my previous role, I was responsible for leadership through coaching, mentoring, and support for professional development activities, to members of the team, to ensure ongoing professional development and the achievement of a safe and positive workplace culture that reflects Newmont’s Core Values.

Please consider my experience and qualifications for this position:

  • Raising technical standards and embedding industry best practice
  • Supporting brownfield exploration, advanced project work and business development initiatives
  • Experience working in international exploration projects
  • Experience in resource models and evaluation and near-mine exploration and familiarity with exploration and/or deposit economic evaluations are considered important
  • Strongly self motivated and discovery focussed
  • Demonstrated good GIS skills
  • Expert manipulating large amounts of data using geologic software, Kingdom preferred
  • Tertiary Qualification – minimum of B.Sc

Lennox Rice

In the previous role, I was responsible for technical leadership in structural geology and tectonics.

I reviewed the requirements of the job opening and I believe my candidacy is an excellent fit for this position. Some of the key requirements that I have extensive experience with include:

  • Strong PC skills and computer literacy
  • Experience using exploration software technical packages
  • Knowledge and understanding of relevant Mining Act and Regulations
  • Master or PhD in Geology, Earth Sciences or equivalent
  • Excellent interpersonal and technical level in key exploration techniques especially the seismic interpretation
  • Full understanding of the Exploration process and cycle
  • Experience in drilling, borehole geophysics, surface geophysics with respect to groundwater exploration
  • Experience in hydraulic testing and interpretation of reservoirs

Morgan Kerluke

In the previous role, I was responsible for functional leadership to the operation of an in-country office and team, where established by the Head of Region.

  • Strong PC skills and computer literacy & some exposure to exploration software technical packages
  • Full understanding of EXPLO organization and entities functioning
  • Internship or summer employment in regional or mine-based exploration would be desirable
  • Basic knowledge of the geology and gold deposits of Archean greenstone belts will be highly regarded
  • Strong communication, planning and problem-solving skills
  • Commitment to safety, community and environment
  • Working knowledge of relevant software, including Microsoft Office, ArcGIS and Leapfrog
  • Providing necessary support to the Exploration team in order to identify and undertake new opportunity generation and assessment

Thank you for your time and consideration.

Frankie Hirthe

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Graduate geologist cover letter

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[date] Leo Kenny HR Manager GLD Mine Resources 10 Prospector’s Lane Slatesville NSW 2100 Re: Junior exploration geologist position Dear Mr Kenny, I am writing to apply for the position of junior exploration geologist as advertised on As a recent Bachelor of GeoScience graduate, I am looking forward to applying my skills in a practical setting. I have enjoyed the fieldwork component of my degree immensely and am keen to work in diverse and remote locations. Having completed a variety of exploration projects in the field, I have developed a comprehensive understanding of geological mapping and the collection of field data, coupled with the ability to interpret this data and write detailed reports. This has fostered a keen interest in all aspects of mining and resources processes, including open pit and underground investigations, drilling and exploration design. My skills include a good working knowledge of programs such as AutoCAD, ArcGIS, MapInfo/Discover and the MS Office suite. I work well as a member of a team but am also confident in assuming responsibility for tasks autonomously. Through my previous work in hospitality, I have gained excellent communication and interpersonal skills, along with the ability to solve problems and handle challenging situations. I feel that I am a strong candidate for this position due to my extensive experience in team environments and physically demanding roles, and my genuine passion for geology. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss this application with you further, and look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, Andrew Stone

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Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Examples

A great petroleum geologist cover letter can help you stand out from the competition when applying for a job. Be sure to tailor your letter to the specific requirements listed in the job description, and highlight your most relevant or exceptional qualifications. The following petroleum geologist cover letter example can give you some ideas on how to write your own letter.

Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example

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Cover Letter Example (Text)

Jamena Zoltek

(210) 214-9921

[email protected]

Dear Donnise Mett,

I am writing to express my interest in the Petroleum Geologist position at ExxonMobil, as advertised on your company website. With a solid foundation in geology, bolstered by five years of hands-on experience at Chevron, I am excited about the opportunity to contribute to your team and further my career with an industry leader like ExxonMobil.

During my tenure at Chevron, I had the opportunity to work on a variety of projects that honed my skills in geological modeling, data analysis, and reservoir characterization. I have been instrumental in identifying potential drilling locations, optimizing extraction methods, and evaluating the economic viability of oil and gas deposits. My experience has not only equipped me with the technical skills necessary for success in this role but has also instilled in me a strong commitment to environmental stewardship and safety compliance.

I pride myself on being a collaborative team player who thrives in multi-disciplinary environments, consistently working towards common goals alongside engineers, environmental scientists, and other geologists. I am adept at employing advanced geological software and tools, and my ability to interpret seismic data has been pivotal in reducing uncertainties and directing exploratory efforts effectively.

Joining ExxonMobil would be a significant step in my career. I am particularly drawn to your company's commitment to technological innovation and its reputation for leading the industry in developing new methods for responsible and efficient energy production. I am eager to bring my background in basin analysis and sedimentology, along with my passion for advancing the field of petroleum geology, to your esteemed team.

Thank you for considering my application. I am looking forward to the opportunity to discuss how my experience and skills align with the needs of ExxonMobil. I am confident that my background will allow me to make a significant impact on your company's objectives and contribute to the continued success of your exploration and production endeavors.

Warm regards,

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Exploration Geologist Cover Letter Example

Exploration Geologists attempt to locate lucrative metals and minerals. They research potential locations for these materials on the earth’s surface, then they scour those areas for deposits that may be extracted or mined. To locate these deposits, Exploration Geologists employ a range of instruments and procedures. This could involve utilizing seismic instruments or other techniques to map out geological structures and locate prospective mineral sources.

You must demonstrate your qualifications for employment while you seek an Exploration Geologist role. Make use of our suggestions and word samples, for composing a cover letter that convinces recruiters that you are the ideal candidate for the position, or download the appropriate Exploration Geologist Cover Letter Sample upright.

Exploration Geologist Cover Letter example

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What to Include in a Exploration Geologist Cover Letter?

Roles and responsibilities.

  • Offering the general public geological services, for instance, recognizing fossils discovered on public lands.
  • Creating maps of mineral reserves using computer tools such as CAD (computer-aided design) or GIS (geographic information systems).
  • Analyzing rocks or minerals in a lab to determine their chemical composition.
  • Conducting fieldwork to gather information about the geology of a particular region.
  • Identifying possible minerals, oil, and gas resources by analyzing geological data.
  • Write reports describing the findings of your research.
  • Inform consumers, shareholders, and all other parties with an interest in your findings.
  • Work together to create drilling and mining operations with a group of geological experts, engineers, and other specialists.
  • Oversee the job assignments of junior technicians and geologists.
  • Keep abreast of recent advancements in the geological area.
  • To build your professional network, go to conferences and seminars.
  • To obtain financing for research projects, submit proposals.
  • Publish articles in scholarly journals.
  • Offer geology classes at an educational institution or university.
  • Operate as an advisor for both commercial businesses and governmental organizations.

Education & Skills

Exploration geologis skills:.

  • Familiarity with drilling operations, core logging, and geological mapping.
  • Proficient with the Microsoft Office suite, AutoCAD, and ArcGIS.
  • Outstanding verbal and written communication abilities.
  • Flexibility in one’s approach to teamwork and individual work.
  • Knowledge of 3D modeling applications.
  • Knowledge about environmental impact evaluations.
  • Excellent analytical and research capabilities.

Exploration Geologist Education Requirements:

  • A master’s degree or Ph.D. in an appropriate field, such as geological science.
  • 5-7 years of professional background as an Exploration Geologist.

Exploration Geologist Cover Letter Example (Text Version)

Dear Mr./Ms.,

I’m writing to let you know that I’m interested in the Exploration Geologist opening you’ve posted. Given my experience and training, I am confident that I am the best person for this position. I’ve been an Exploration Geologist for over four years, during which I’ve accumulated a wealth of experience. I am well-versed in the fundamentals of geology and have experience gathering data in the field and analyzing it. In addition, I am knowledgeable about current software and technologies. I am a committed, persistent person who is always looking for new challenges.

Here are some of my professional highlights:

  • I have experience working in a range of fields, such as mining, environmental consultancy, and oil and gas exploration.
  • I am accustomed to the most recent software and technology utilized in the field, and I am acquainted with a range of geological survey techniques.
  • Having written reports before, I am proficient at conveying difficult geological facts in a simple and concise way.
  • From tiny exploratory programs to big mine development projects, I have worked on a variety of enterprises.
  • My responsibilities have encompassed environmental assessment, mineral resource forecasting, and geographic mapping.
  • I have also served as an expert consultant for a number of businesses, notably the Minnesota Division of Energy and Natural Resources and the U.S. Forestry Services.
  • I recently obtained my Master’s in Geoscience from the University of Scotland with an 89% aggregate.
  • Most importantly, I have a strong enthusiasm for geological sciences and like teaching people about it.

I am eager to provide my expertise alongside my enthusiasm, commitment, and knowledge to your organization in order to aid in its expansion and goal-achieving. I’m excited about the chance to collaborate with a talented group of professionals and make a significant contribution using my expertise.

Thanks for your attention and time.

Sincerely, [Your Name]

It’s critical to emphasize your qualifications and expertise while creating a cover letter for an Exploration Geologist position. Below listed are the most efficient contexts for doing so:

  • Point out any fieldwork that you accomplished, research projects you have worked on, or lectures you have given on geological themes to give an instantaneous summary of your expertise in the field.
  • You may go over your fascination with minerals, rocks, and fossils to demonstrate your enthusiasm for the subject.
  • You might also discuss your interest in geology and the reasons you wish to work in the discipline.
  • Emphasize the abilities which make you the greatest applicant for the position.
  • Check the cover letter for errors.

Check our Exploration Geologist Resume Sample for additional assistance with your resumes.


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Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example

Writing a cover letter for a petroleum geologist role can be an important step in launching your career. You will have the opportunity to showcase your qualifications, skills, and experiences to the potential employer. To ensure your cover letter is well-crafted, it is important to consider the employer’s needs and expectations. This guide will provide you with tips on how to write an effective and persuasive cover letter for a petroleum geologist role. Additionally, an example cover letter is provided to help you get started.

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Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Sample

Dear [Hiring Manager],

I am writing to apply for the Petroleum Geologist position with [Company Name]. With more than five years of experience in the oil and gas industry, as well as my educational background from [School Name], I am confident I am an ideal candidate for the role.

As a geologist, I have been instrumental in the exploration of oil and gas reserves, the development of geological models, and the interpretation and analysis of seismic data. I have a comprehensive understanding of petroleum geology, reservoir engineering and petroleum systems analysis, and I am highly knowledgeable in 2D and 3D seismic interpretation. I also have experience coordinating with internal and external stakeholders on various projects, and I am capable of managing project timelines and objectives while meeting tight deadlines.

In addition, I have a strong record of developing and delivering presentations, reports, and recommendations to various stakeholders. My interpersonal and communication skills allow me to effectively collaborate with colleagues, supervisors, and clients. I am also confident in my ability to effectively coordinate with various teams and departments to ensure the successful completion of projects.

I am eager to bring my knowledge and expertise to the role and am confident I can be a valuable asset to your team. I am available for an interview at your convenience and would be happy to provide any additional information you may need. Thank you for your time and consideration.

Sincerely, [Your Name]

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What should a Petroleum Geologist cover letter include?

A petroleum geologist cover letter should include an introduction that highlights your experience and abilities as a petroleum geologist. You should also include professional accomplishments such as successful projects, notable contributions to the field, and any awards or recognition you have received.

The body of your cover letter should explain why you are interested in the petroleum geologist position you are applying for. Cite specific details about the job that you find attractive, such as the opportunity to travel to different locations, access to advanced technology, and the ability to solve complex geologic problems. Elaborate on how your experience and qualifications make you an ideal fit for the job.

Include a conclusion that reiterates your enthusiasm for the position and your qualifications. List any references you have, as well as any additional information you believe would be relevant. Express your willingness to provide additional information or material upon request. Finally, provide your contact information and thank the employer for their time and consideration.

Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Writing Tips

Writing a strong cover letter is an important part of a successful job application process. As a petroleum geologist, you may have a specialized skill set that you want to showcase in your cover letter. In this blog post, we will provide some tips on how to write an effective petroleum geologist cover letter.

  • Research the Company: Doing research on the company you are applying to will give you insights into their culture and mission statement, and allow you to tailor your cover letter to their needs.
  • Highlight Your Qualifications: You should carefully highlight your qualifications, experience and skills in the cover letter. Be sure to include any significant achievements that you have gained throughout your career.
  • Use Specific Examples: Using specific examples of your accomplishments will help to demonstrate your capabilities in a concrete way and make your cover letter stand out from the competition.
  • Showcase Your Passion: Make sure to showcase your passion for the oil and gas industry in your cover letter. Showing that you have a genuine interest in petroleum geology will help you to stand out from the other applicants.
  • Maintain a Professional Tone: Your cover letter should be professional in tone and avoid using too many jokes or slang terms.
  • Proofread and Edit: Before sending your cover letter, be sure to proofread and edit it for any typos or mistakes. This will ensure that your letter is error- free and looks professional.

By following these tips, you should be able to create an effective cover letter for your position as a petroleum geologist. Good luck with your job search!

Common mistakes to avoid when writing Petroleum Geologist Cover letter

Writing a cover letter for a Petroleum Geologist position is a critical part of the job search process. A cover letter is your opportunity to make a great first impression and provide an introduction to your qualifications, skills, and experience. To ensure you make the most of this opportunity, there are several common mistakes to avoid when writing your Petroleum Geologist cover letter.

  • Not Tailoring Your Letter: It is essential to customize your cover letter for every role you apply for. This means addressing the specific qualifications, skills, and experience required by the position.
  • Not Addressing the Employer: You should always address the employer directly in your cover letter. If you cannot find the employer’s name, use the company name or a generic salutation such as “Hiring Manager.”
  • Not Focusing on Your Qualifications: While it is important to discuss your relevant experience, focus the majority of the letter on your qualifications for the role. Provide concrete examples of how you meet the job requirements and how you can contribute to the company’s success.
  • Not Asking for an Interview: You should always make it clear that you are interested in an interview. End your letter by thanking the employer for considering you and asking to discuss the role further.
  • Not Proofreading: Proofreading is one of the most important steps in the cover letter writing process. Check for typos and grammar mistakes, and read the letter aloud to ensure it sounds natural.

By avoiding these common mistakes, you can ensure that your Petroleum Geologist cover letter is effective and professional. Taking the time to craft a well- written cover letter can make a difference in your job search and help you stand out from the competition.

Key takeaways

When it comes to creating a great cover letter for a Petroleum Geologist position, there are some key points to keep in mind. Here are some key takeaways for writing an impressive cover letter for a Petroleum Geologist position:

  • Make sure you include your top technical skills and qualifications for the job. Petroleum Geologists have a combination of science, geology, and engineering knowledge, so make sure you highlight any relevant areas of expertise.
  • Draw attention to any certifications or licenses you may have, as these show potential employers that you are serious about the position.
  • Showcase your knowledge of petroleum geology and the industry. Describe how your knowledge and experience can be an asset to the organization.
  • Demonstrate your ability to communicate with colleagues and customers. As a Petroleum Geologist, communication is a key skill, and you need to be able to effectively communicate with colleagues, customers, and other stakeholders.
  • Explain why you are passionate about working in the petroleum geology field. Show that you have a real enthusiasm for the work and that you’re committed to the position.
  • Include any research or publications that you’ve been involved with. This will show potential employers that you’re up- to- date on the latest developments in the field.
  • Be concise and to the point. Make sure to keep the letter short, clear, and focused on the key information.

Following these tips can help you create an impressive cover letter for a Petroleum Geologist position. Good luck!

Frequently Asked Questions do i write a cover letter for an petroleum geologist job with no experience.

Writing a cover letter for an entry- level position as a petroleum geologist can be intimidating, especially if you have no prior experience in the field. When you lack professional experience, it’s important to focus on the skills and knowledge you have obtained through your education and any relevant extracurricular activities or volunteer work you’ve done. Begin your letter by introducing yourself to the hiring manager and quickly summarizing your relevant qualifications. Next, provide examples of how you can contribute to the company and explain why you’re the ideal candidate for the job. Finally, close your letter with a call to action, such as a request for an interview.

2.How do I write a cover letter for an Petroleum Geologist job experience?

If you have previously worked in the petroleum geology field, you should use your cover letter to explain why you are an ideal candidate for the position. Focus on the skills, knowledge, and experience you have that make you a good fit for the job. Explain how you have previously successfully contributed to the industry and why you believe you can be an asset to the company. Be sure to provide specific examples whenever possible. Finally, close your letter with a call to action, such as a request for an interview.

3.How can I highlight my accomplishments in Petroleum Geologist cover letter?

When it comes to highlighting your accomplishments in your petroleum geologist cover letter, you should focus on both your academic and professional achievements. Explain how you have succeeded academically in your coursework or through relevant extracurricular activities. If you have some professional experience, be sure to explain how you have contributed to the industry and outline your successes. Finally, include any awards or accolades you have received that are relevant to the petroleum geology field.

4.What is a good cover letter for an Petroleum Geologist job?

A good cover letter for a petroleum geologist job should be tailored to the job you are applying for. Begin your letter by introducing yourself to the hiring manager and quickly summarizing your relevant qualifications. Include your academic achievements, professional experience, and any awards or accolades you have received in the field. Outline how you can contribute to the company and explain why you’re the ideal candidate for the job. Finally, close your letter with a call to action, such as a request for an interview.

In addition to this, be sure to check out our cover letter templates , cover letter formats ,  cover letter examples ,  job description , and  career advice  pages for more helpful tips and advice.

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How To Write a Cover Letter With Examples

Cover Letter Do's and Dont's

Cover letters can help differentiate you from other job applicants and be the determining factor of landing your dream job. By taking the time to craft a custom cover letter, a single sheet of paper can help communicate all the human elements that a resume may fall short of capturing about yourself. 

But what do employers and recruiters have to say about how to write a cover letter? What are the best tips they have to offer for graduate students who are writing a cover letter?

We asked 11 employers for their best cover letter tips. Here is what they had to share.

Let it Set the Stage

In many ways, cover letters should provide background information and context to your resume, while simultaneously addressing how that resume addresses the specific requirements of the job opportunity. The cover letter is your opportunity to "set the stage" and to convince the hiring manager why your specific set of skills, experiences and interests will provide value to their team and its objectives.

Andrew Horrigan '11 BSBA (Management Information Systems), Product Manager at Cisco

Research the Hiring Manager

If possible, find out who the hiring manager is and look them up on LinkedIn. Do your research on the company you're applying for. What's their mission statement and how do they portray their company culture? Hopefully what you're looking for in a job is reflected by those things. Make sure the hiring manager knows that and understands who you are and what drives you. A resume is often about as robotic as things can be. Make sure your cover letter is the opposite—personalize it and let yourself shine through.

Joshua Schlag ’05 BS (Computer Science) ’11 MBA, Digital Marketing Manager at Pyramid Analytics

Utilize Career Development Resources

The University of Arizona and Eller College of Management go to great lengths to make sure students are prepared for their impending career journey. Because cover letters are so important to getting your foot in the door, there are several career development resources online and on campus to take advantage of. The university’s cover letter builder serves as a nice template to get started. And of course, it never hurts to make an appointment with an Eller Career Coach through eSMS to have a professional review your letter before submission. 

Brett Farmiloe, ’06 BSBA (Accounting), Founder, Featured

Discover Past Samples of the Position

Do your research on the company and personalize your cover letter to the role for which you are applying. Don't be afraid to Google, "How to write a good cover letter for X position." Seriously, it helps! There is so much information out there from various perspectives—applicants, hiring managers, etc. Most importantly be yourself and let your personality come through. And don't forget to spell check!

Mariam Nikola '17 MS MIS, Consultant at Point B

Highlight Your Soft Skills

When writing a professional cover letter, there are a couple things you can do to set yourself apart from the pack. First, make sure you tailor your letter to the specific position you are applying for. This should not be a general, "one size fits all" letter—be sure to discuss specific details surrounding the role or the company itself. Secondly, this is an opportunity for you to show a little bit of your personality. Obviously, you want to remain professional, but this is a great time to highlight some of your soft skills that might not be fully conveyed through your resume.  

Brian Ellis ’17 BSBA (Management), Staffing Manager at Randstad Office and Administrative Professionals

Fill in the “Why” Gaps

As a talent advisor, I review a lot of applicants and agree that a cover letter can be a great way to stand apart, if it is done correctly. A great cover letter for me covers the ‘why’ that I cannot understand from just a resume alone. It should clearly state why you are interested in the role, what your goals are for utilizing your graduate degree (if recently graduated) and explain any career pivots reflected on your resume. If you answer those questions in a direct, concise manner it will add value to your application.

Monica Larson , ’11 BSBA (Marketing) ‘20 MBA, Talent Advisor

Tell Your Story

A cover letter is your opportunity to tell your story—tying your experience and personal interests into why you want a position and why you are the best candidate for it. Paint the picture of your journey and what about the position excites you personally and professionally. Similar to your resume, keep it short and sweet. No need to repeat what’s already on your resume. Recruiters and hiring managers don’t have time to comb through a novel, so you need to engage them with as few words as possible while also grabbing their attention.

Kelly Castoro, ’06 BA (Spanish, Portuguese), Project Manager at Squarespace

Tailor Each Cover Letter to the Position You Are Applying

Be sure to research the role and customize your cover letter for each position, relating your experience to the particular role you are applying for. Personalization is key—research who you are sending the cover letter to and address the letter to them directly. End your letter with a call to action, stating you will follow up by phone or email if you haven’t heard from anyone. Follow ups are very important! 

Jessica Rosenzweig, ’15 BSBA (Business Management), Account Manager at PeopleWare Staffing

Communicate Bankability and Personality 

Your cover letter answers two crucial questions; are you bankable and are you someone the company will enjoy working with? Communicate bankability with your knowledge of the company, industry and why your skills, capabilities and interests are a great fit. Share your passion for their mission, culture, brand—whatever excites you about becoming a member of their team.  

When conveyed through a concise, well-formulated, well-worded cover letter, you demonstrate the ability to write an effective business case—communicating that you are a ready professional and worthy teammate who will hit the ground running.

Theresa L Garcia, ’83 BSBA (Human Resources), Senior Change Management and Organization Capability Consultant at Boeing

Keep it Concise but Compelling

A cover letter is your chance to speak directly to the hiring team and tell them why you are not only the best match for the position for which you are applying but also give them additional insight into yourself as an individual that is less visible from your experience.

A great cover letter should be attention grabbing and touch upon the qualities that make you stand out from others in the applicant pool, highlight both your recent and most distinguished accomplishments and drive home why you are the right person for the job. Professionalism is always important, but don’t be hesitant to put your voice into the letter to let your personality shine through. Research the company, understand where they currently are, where they are going and show why you are the right person to get them from point A to point B. Recruiters spend a lot of time reviewing applicants and making yourself stand apart from the crowd is key. Keep it concise but compelling!

Matt Reineberg, ’14 BSBA (Marketing), Senior Talent Acquisition Sourcer at Cox Enterprises

Highlight the “Why”

Why are you applying to this company? Why do you want this position? Your cover letter should aim to answer the why behind applying for the job. Conveying an interest and excitement for working specifically for this job at this company, rather than a desire to get any job anywhere that will give you money, can go a long way. Show the company that they should hire you and your passion over someone that might have the skills needed for the job, but doesn’t care about the work as much as you do. 

Ryan Nouis, Trupath 

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Writing Cover Letters For A Career Change: Tips And Examples

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Embarking on a career change is a pivotal moment, fraught with uncertainty but brimming with potential. And especially in cases where your resume might not directly align with the job at hand, your cover letter becomes the narrative that connects the dots. A well-crafted cover can illuminate your strengths, align your past experiences with your future aspirations, and persuade potential employers to see the value you bring.

The Importance Of A Cover Letter In Career Changes

In career transitions, your cover letter is your storyteller. It explains the why and the how of your career change, showcasing your enthusiasm and demonstrating how your background equips you with unique perspectives and transferable skills. It addresses potential concerns about your career shift head-on, presenting your transition as an asset rather than a liability.

Tips For Writing A Career Change Cover Letter

1. Personalize Your Approach : Address the letter to a specific person whenever possible. Doing so demonstrates attention to detail and a genuine interest in the position. You want to show that you’re not conducting a generic job search, but that you’ve done your research. You’ve perused (not skimmed) the company website and you read that 20-page yearly report from the CEO. You’ve even read their blog and can quote freely from it. You’ve educated yourself.

2. Emphasize Transferable Skills : Highlight the skills and experiences from your previous roles that are relevant to the new position. Be specific and quantify achievements where possible.

3. Show Enthusiasm and Commitment : Employers want to know that you are genuinely interested in the new field. Express your passion for the career change and your eagerness to contribute.

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4. Tailor Your Narrative : Connect your past experiences to the job you're applying for, demonstrating how your unique background can bring a fresh perspective to the role.

5. Address Potential Concerns : Be upfront about your career change, framing it as a positive decision guided by clear motivation and a strong understanding of the new field.

6. End with a Strong Call to Action : Conclude by expressing your desire to discuss your application further in an interview, showing proactivity and determination.

7. Use Strategic Language : Avoid clichéd adjectives. Opt for vivid, specific language that paints a clear picture of your capabilities and achievements.

Example: General Career Change Cover Letter

Dear [Hiring Manager's Name],

I am excited to apply for the [Position] at [Company], transitioning from a career in [Current Industry] to [New Industry]. My experience in [Current Industry] has equipped me with valuable skills that I am eager to apply in [New Industry]. For instance, while working as [Previous Position], I developed a keen ability to [transferable skill], resulting in [specific achievement].

In [Current Industry], I honed my skills in [relevant skill] and demonstrated my ability to [relevant achievement], directly benefiting my team by [specific outcome]. I am particularly drawn to [New Industry] because [reason for interest], and I am enthusiastic about the opportunity to bring my [specific skill] and [another skill] to the [Position] at [Company].

[Your Name]

Tweaks For Various Career Stages

Whether you are making a change early in your career or transitioning later, your cover letter should reflect your rationale and excitement for this new path.

Example: Early Career Cover Letter

As someone at the early stages of my career, I am eager to leverage the foundational skills I gained in [Initial Field], such as [specific skill], in [New Field]. My recent role as [Previous Position] allowed me to develop [relevant skills or experiences], which align closely with the requirements of the [Position] at [Company].

Example: Late Career Cover Letter

Transitioning into [New Field] at this point in my career is a deliberate and enthusiastic choice, driven by my deep-seated interest in [aspect of New Field]. With extensive experience in [Previous Field], I bring a wealth of knowledge and a unique perspective that can contribute to innovative solutions and strategies at [Company].

Tweaks For White And Blue-Collar Roles

Transitioning between white and blue-collar roles offers a unique opportunity to highlight diverse skills and experiences.

Example: White To Blue Collar Cover Letter

I am eager to apply the strategic and managerial skills honed in my white-collar career to the hands-on, dynamic environment of [Blue Collar Field]. My experience in [White Collar Role], where I developed [specific skills], aligns well with the challenges and responsibilities of the [Blue Collar Position] at [Company].

Example: Blue To White Collar Cover Letter

Transitioning from [Blue Collar Field] to [White Collar Field], I bring practical, on-the-ground experience that can inform and enhance the strategic decisions in [White Collar Role]. My background in [Blue Collar Role], where I mastered [specific skills], equips me with a unique perspective beneficial for the [White Collar Position] at [Company].

Including A Career Change Statement On Your Resume/CV

While your cover letter is the ideal place to elaborate on your career change, your resume/CV should also reflect this transition. A brief career change statement, positioned at the beginning of your resume, can effectively set the context for your career narrative. This statement should succinctly convey your transition, emphasizing your commitment to the new field and highlighting any transferable skills or relevant experiences.

How To Craft A Career Change Statement For Your Resume

1. Objective Statement : Begin with a clear, concise objective that outlines your career goals and demonstrates your enthusiasm for your new field.

2. Summary of Qualifications : Follow your objective with a brief summary of your most relevant qualifications, focusing on skills and experiences that transition well into your new career.

3. Highlight Transferable Skills : Clearly identify and emphasize any skills from your previous career that are pertinent to your new path. This not only demonstrates your capability but also shows your proactive approach in aligning your skill set with the new role's requirements.

4. Tailor Your Experience : Adjust the descriptions of your past positions to highlight the responsibilities and achievements most relevant to your desired career path. Use quantifiable achievements to underscore your adaptability and impact.

5. Education and Training : If you have pursued any education or training relevant to your new field, highlight this prominently on your resume to illustrate your dedication and commitment to your career change.

Make Your Language Unique

To avoid sounding like everyone else, remember to use distinctive and precise adjectives in your cover letter and resume. For instance:

  • Instead of "experienced," try "seasoned" or "accomplished," providing specific examples that demonstrate this experience, like spearheading a successful project or leading a team to exceed its targets.
  • Replace "passionate" with "enthused" or "committed," detailing a project or initiative you pursued with zeal, which can resonate more authentically with hiring managers.
  • Substitute "results-driven" with "outcome-focused," illustrating this with a particular scenario where your focus on results led to tangible success for your organization.

Your cover letter and resume are your advocates, narrating your professional journey and articulating why you are not just seeking a new job, but embarking on a new career with purpose and passion. By carefully crafting these documents to reflect your individual story, you position yourself as a memorable and compelling candidate, someone who stands out from the crowd.

Mark Murphy

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I invest on behalf of my clients.

I consult or invest on behalf of a financial institution.

I want to learn more about BlackRock.

Photo of BlackRock’s Chairman and CEO, Larry Fink

Larry Fink’s 2024 Annual Chairman’s Letter to Investors

Time to rethink retirement.

When my mom passed away in 2012, my dad started to decline quickly, and my brother and I had to go through my parents’ bills and finances.

Both my mom and dad worked great jobs for 50 years, but they were never in the top tax bracket. My mom taught English at the local state college (Cal Northridge), and my dad owned a shoe store.

I don’t know exactly how much they made every year, but in today’s dollars, it was probably not more than $150,000 as a couple. So, my brother and I were surprised when we saw the size of our parents' retirement savings. It was an order of magnitude bigger than you’d expect for a couple making their income. And when we finished going over their estate, we learned why: My parents' investments.

My dad had always been an enthusiastic investor. He encouraged me to buy my first stock (the DuPont chemical company) as a teenager. My dad invested because he knew that whatever money he put in the bond or stock markets would likely grow faster than in the bank. And he was right.

I went back and did the math. If my parents had $1,000 to invest in 1960, and they put that money in the S&P 500, then by the time they’d reached retirement age in 1990, the $1,000 would be worth nearly $20,000. 1 That’s more than double what they would have earned if they’d just put the money in a bank account. My dad passed away a few months after my mom, in his late 80s. But both my parents could have lived beyond 100 and comfortably afforded it.

Why am I writing about my parents? Because going over their finances showed me something about my own career in finance. I had been working at BlackRock for almost 25 years by the time I lost my mom and dad, but the experience reminded me — in a new and very personal way — why my business partners and I founded BlackRock in the first place.

Obviously, we were ambitious entrepreneurs, and we wanted to build a big, successful company. But we also wanted to help people retire like my parents did. That’s why we started an asset manager — a company that helps people invest in the capital markets — because we believed participating in those markets was going to be crucial for people who wanted to retire comfortably and financially secure.

We also believed the capital markets would become a bigger and bigger part of the global economy. If more people could invest in the capital markets, it would create a virtuous economic cycle, fueling growth for companies and countries, which would, in turn, generate wealth for millions more people.

My parents lived their final years with dignity and financial freedom. Most people don’t have that chance. But they can. The same kinds of markets that helped my parents in their time can help others in our time.  Indeed, I think the growth- and prosperity-generating power of the   capital markets will remain a dominant economic trend through the rest of the 21 st  Century.

This letter attempts to explain why.

I had been working at BlackRock for almost 25 years by the time I lost my mom and dad, but the experience reminded me — in a new and very personal way — why my business partners and I founded BlackRock in the first place.

A brief (and admittedly incomplete) history of U.S. capital markets

In finance, there are two basic ways to get or grow money.

One is the bank, which is what most people historically relied on. They deposited their savings to earn interest or took out loans to buy a home or expand their business. But over time a second avenue for financing arose, particularly in the U.S., with the growth of the capital markets: Publicly traded stocks, bonds, and other securities.

I saw this firsthand in the late 1970s and early 1980s when I played a role in the creation of the securitization market for mortgages.

Before the 1970s, most people secured financing for their homes the same way they did in the Christmas classic It’s a Wonderful Life — through the Building & Loan (B&L). Customers deposited their savings into the B&L, which was essentially a bank. Then that bank would turn around and lend out those savings in the form of mortgages.

In the movie — and in real life — everything works fine until people start lining up at the bank’s front door asking for their deposits back. As Jimmy Stewart explained in the film, the bank didn’t have their money. It was tied up in somebody else’s house.

After the Great Depression, B&Ls morphed into savings & loans (S&Ls), which had their own crisis in the 1980s. Approximately half of the outstanding home mortgages in the U.S. were held by S&Ls in 1980, and poor risk management and loose lending practices led to a raft of failures costing U.S. taxpayers more than $100 billion dollars. 2

But the S&L crisis didn’t cause the American economy lasting damage. Why? Because at the same time the S&Ls were collapsing another method of financing was getting stronger. The capital markets were providing an avenue to channel capital back to challenged real estate markets.

This was mortgage securitization.

Securitization allowed banks not just to make mortgages but to sell them. By selling mortgages, banks could better manage risk on their balance sheets and have capital to lend to home buyers, which is why the S&L crisis didn’t severely impact American homeownership. 

Eventually, the excesses of mortgage securitization contributed to the crash in 2008, and unlike the S&L crisis, the Great Recession did harm home ownership in the U.S. The country still hasn’t fully recovered in that respect. But the broader underlying trend — the expansion of the capital markets — was still very helpful for the American economy.

In fact, it’s worth considering: Why did the U.S. rebound from 2008 faster than almost any other developed nation? 3

A big part of the answer is the country’s capital markets .

In Europe, where most assets were kept in banks, economies froze as banks were forced to shrink their balance sheets. Of course, U.S. banks had to tighten capital standards and pull back from lending as well. But because the U.S. had a more robust secondary pool of money – the capital markets — the nation was able to recover much more quickly.

Today public equities and bonds provide over 70% of financing for non-financial corporations in the U.S. – more than any other country in the world. In China, for example, the bank-to-capital market ratio is almost flipped. Chinese companies rely on bank loans for 65% of their financing. 4

In my opinion, this is the most important lesson in recent economic history:  Countries aiming for prosperity don’t just need strong banking systems — they also need strong capital markets.

That lesson is now spreading around the world.

Replicating the success of America’s capital markets

Last year, I spent a lot of days on the road, logging visits to 17 different countries. I met with clients and employees. I also met with many policymakers and heads of state, and during those meetings, the most frequent conversation I had was about the capital markets.

More and more countries recognize the power of American capital markets and want to build their own.

Of course, many countries do have capital markets already. There are something like 80 stock exchanges around the world, everywhere from Kuala Lumpur to Johannesburg. 5  But most of these are rather small, with little investment. They’re not as robust as the markets in the U.S., and that’s what other nations are increasingly looking for.

In Saudi Arabia, for example, the government is interested in building a market for mortgage securitization, while Japan and India want to give people new places to put their savings. Today, in Japan, it’s mostly the bank. In India, it’s often in gold.

When I visited India in November, I met policymakers who lamented their fellow citizens’ fondness for gold. The commodity has underperformed the Indian stock market, proving a subpar investment for individual investors. Nor has investing in gold helped the country’s economy.

Compare investing in gold with, let’s say, investing in a new house. When you buy a home, that creates an economic multiplier effect because you need to furnish and repair the house. Maybe you have a family and fill the house with children. All that generates economic activity. Even when someone puts their money in a bank, there’s a multiplier effect because the bank can use that money to fund a mortgage. But gold? It just sits in a safe. It can be a good store of value, but gold doesn’t generate economic growth.

This is a small illustration — but a good one — of what countries want to accomplish with robust capital markets. (Or rather, of what they  can’t accomplish without them.)

Despite the anti-capitalist strain in our modern politics, most world leaders still see the obvious: No other force can lift more people from poverty or improve quality of life quite like capitalism. No other economic model can help us achieve our highest hopes for financial freedom — whether we want it for ourselves or our country.

That’s why the capital markets will be key to addressing two of the mid-21 st Century’s biggest economic challenges.

  • The first is providing people what my parents built over time — a secure, well-earned retirement. This is a much harder proposition than it was 30 years ago. And it’ll be a much harder proposition 30 years from now . People are living longer lives. They’ll need more money. The capital markets can provide it — so long as governments and companies help people invest.
  • A second challenge is infrastructure. How are we going to build the massive amount the world needs? As countries decarbonize and digitize their economies, they’re supercharging demand for all sorts of infrastructure, from telecom networks to new ways to generate power. In fact, in my nearly 50 years in finance, I’ve never seen more demand for energy infrastructure. And that’s because many countries have twin aims: They want to transition to lower-carbon sources of power while also achieving energy security. The capital markets can help countries meet their energy goals, including decarbonization, in an affordable way.

[Retirement] is a much harder proposition than it was 30 years ago. And it’ll be a much harder proposition 30 years from now .

Asking the old age question: How do we afford longer lives?

Last year, Japan passed a demographic milestone. The country’s population has been aging since the early 1990s as the pool of working-age people has shrunk and the number of elderly has risen. But 2023 was the first time that 10% of their people exceeded 80 years old, 6 making Japan the “oldest country in the world” according to the United Nations. 7

This is part of the reason the Japanese government is making a push for retirement investment.

Most Japanese keep the bulk of their retirement savings in banks, earning a low interest rate. It wasn’t such a bad strategy when Japan was suffering from deflation, but now the country’s economy has turned around, with the NIKKEI surging past 40,000 for the first time this month (March 2024). 8

Most aspiring retirees are missing out on the upswing. The country didn’t have anything resembling a 401(k) program until 2001, but even then, the amount of income people could contribute was quite low. So a decade ago, the government launched the Nippon Individual Savings Accounts (NISA) to encourage people to invest even more in retirement. Now they’re trying to double NISA’s enrollment. The goal is 34 million Japanese investors before the end of the decade. 9 It will require the Japanese government to expand their capital markets, which historically had very little retail participation.

Japan isn’t alone in helping more of its citizens invest for retirement. BlackRock has a joint venture — Jio BlackRock — with Jio Financial Services, an affiliate of India’s Reliance Industries. Over the past 10 years, India has built a huge digital public infrastructure network that connects nearly one billion Indians to everything from healthcare to government payments via their smartphones. Jio BlackRock’s goal is to use the same infrastructure to deliver retirement investing (and more).

After all, India is aging, too. The whole world is, albeit at different speeds. Brazil will start seeing more people leave its workforce than enter it by 2035; Mexico will reach peak workforce by 2040; India sometime around 2050.

As populations age, building retirement savings has never been more urgent

Chart: Percentage of 2020 National working age population

Source: Working-age population (ages 15-64): UN “medium trend 10

By the mid-century mark, one-in-six people globally will be over the age of 65, up from one-in-11 in 2019. 11 To support them, governments are going to have to prioritize building out robust capital markets like the U.S. has.

But this isn’t to say the U.S. retirement system is perfect. I’m not sure anybody believes that. The retirement system in America needs modernizing, at the very least.

Rethinking retirement in the United States

This was particularly clear last year as the biotech industry pumped out a rush of new, life-extending drugs. Obesity, for example, can take more than 10 years off someone’s life expectancy, which is why some researchers think that new pharmaceuticals like Ozempic and Wegovy can be life-extending drugs, not just weight-loss drugs. 12 In fact, a recent study shows that semaglutide, the generic name for Ozempic, can give people with cardiovascular disease an extra two years of life where they don’t suffer a major condition like a heart attack. 13

We focus a tremendous amount of energy on helping people live longer lives. But not even a fraction of that effort is spent helping people afford those extra years.

These drugs are breakthroughs. But they underscore a frustrating irony: As a society, we focus a tremendous amount of energy on helping people live longer lives. But not even a fraction of that effort is spent helping people afford those extra years.

It wasn’t always this way. One reason my parents had a financially secure retirement was CalPERS, California’s state pension system. As a public university employee, my mom could enroll. But pension enrollment has been declining across the country since the 1980s. 14 Meanwhile the federal government has prioritized maintaining entitlement benefits for people my age (I’m 71) even though it might mean that Social Security will struggle to meet its full obligations when younger workers retire.

It’s no wonder younger generations, Millennials and Gen Z, are so economically anxious. They believe my generation — the Baby Boomers — have focused on their own financial well-being to the detriment of who comes next. And in the case of retirement, they’re right.

Today in America, the retirement message that the government and companies tell their workers is effectively: “You’re on your own.” And before my generation fully disappears from positions of corporate and political leadership, we have an obligation to change that.

Maybe once a decade, the U.S. faces a problem so big and urgent that government and corporate leaders stop business as usual. They step out of their silos and sit around the same table to find a solution. I participated in something like this after 2008, when the government needed to find a way to unwind the toxic assets from the mortgage crisis. More recently, tech CEOs and the federal government came together to address the fragility of America’s semiconductor supply chain. We need to do something similar for the retirement crisis. America needs an organized, high-level effort to ensure that future generations can live out their final years with dignity.

What should that national effort do? I don’t have all the answers. But what I do have is some data and the beginnings of a few ideas from BlackRock’s work. Because our core business is retirement.

More than half the assets BlackRock manages are for retirement. 15 We help about 35 million Americans invest for life after work, 16 which amounts to about a quarter of the country’s workers. 17 Many are educators like my mom was. BlackRock helps manage pension assets for roughly half of U.S. public school teachers. 18 And this work — and our similar work around the globe — has given us some insight into how a national initiative to modernize retirement might begin.

We think the conversation starts by looking at the challenge through three different lenses. 

  • What’s the issue from the perspective of a current worker , someone who’s still trying to save for retirement?
  • What about someone who has already retired? We have to look at the problem from the retiree’s point of view­­­­­­­­­­ — an individual who has already saved enough to stop working but is worried the money will run out.
  • But first it’s important to look at retirement in America like you’d look at a map of America — a high-level picture of the problem, the kind a national policymaker might look at. What’s the issue for the population as a whole? (It’s demographics.)

[Young people] believe my generation — the Baby Boomers — have focused on their own financial well-being to the detriment of who comes next. And in the case of retirement, they’re right.

The demographics don’t lie

There’s a popular saying in economics: “You just can’t fight demographics.” And yet, when it comes to retirement, the U.S. is trying anyway.

In wealthy countries, most retirement systems have three pillars. One is what people invest personally (my dad putting his money in the stock market). Another is the plans provided by employers (my mom’s CalPERS pension). A third component is what we hear politicians mostly talking about – the government safety net. In the U.S., this is Social Security.

You’re probably familiar with the economics behind Social Security. During your working years, the government takes a portion of your income, then after you retire, it sends you a check every month. The idea actually originates from pre-World War I Germany, and these “old-age insurance” programs gradually became popular over the 20 th Century largely because the demographics made sense.

Think about someone who was 65 years old in 1952, the year I was born. If he hadn’t retired already, that person was probably getting ready to stop working.

But now think about that person’s former colleagues, all the people around his age who he’d entered the workforce with back in the 1910s. The data shows that in 1952, most of those people were not preparing for retirement because they’d already passed away .

This is how the Social Security program functioned: More than half the people who worked and paid into the system never lived to retire and be paid from the system. 19

Today, these demographics have completely unraveled, and this unraveling is obviously a wonderful thing. We should want more people to live more years. But we can’t overlook the massive impact on the country’s retirement system.

It’s not just that more people are retiring in America; it’s also that their retirements are increasing in length. Today, if you’re married and both you and your spouse are over the age of 65, there’s a 50/50 chance at least one of you will be receiving a Social Security check until you’re 90. 20

All this is putting the U.S. retirement system under immense strain. The Social Security Administration itself says that by 2034, it won’t be able to pay people their full benefits. 21

What’s the solution here? No one should have to work longer than they want to. But I do think it’s a bit crazy that our anchor idea for the right retirement age — 65 years old — originates from the time of the Ottoman Empire.

Humanity has changed over the past 120 years. So must our conception of retirement.

One nation that’s rethought retirement is the Netherlands. In order to keep their state pension affordable, the Dutch decided more than 10 years ago to gradually raise the retirement age. It will now automatically adjust as the country’s life expectancy changes. 22

Obviously, implementing this policy elsewhere would be a massive political undertaking. But my point is that we should start having the conversation . When people are regularly living past 90, what should the average retirement age be?

Or rather than pushing back when people receive retirement benefits, perhaps there’s a more politically palatable idea: How do we encourage more people who wish to work longer with carrots rather than sticks? What if the government and the private sector treated 60-plus year-olds as late-career workers with much to offer rather than people who should retire?

One way Japan has managed its aging economy is by doing exactly this. They’ve found new ways to boost the labor force participation rate, a metric that has been declining in the U.S. since the early 2000s. 23 It’s worth asking: How can America stop (or at least, slow) that trend?

Again, I’m not pretending to have the answers. Despite BlackRock’s success helping millions retire, these questions are going to have to be posed to a broader range of investors, retirees, policymakers, and others. Over the next few months, BlackRock will be announcing a series of partnerships and initiatives to do just that, and I invite you to join us.

For workers, make investing (almost) automatic

When the U.S. Census Bureau released its regular survey of consumer finances in 2022, nearly half of Americans aged 55 to 65 reported not having a single dollar saved in personal retirement accounts. 24 Nothing in a pension. Zero in an IRA or 401(k).

Why? Well, the first barrier to retirement investing is affordability.

Four-in-10 Americans don’t have $400 to spare to cover an emergency like a car repair or hospital visit. 25 Who is going to invest money for a retirement 30 years away if they don’t have cash for today? No one. That’s why BlackRock’s foundation has worked with a group of nonprofits to set up an Emergency Savings Initiative. The program has helped mostly low-income Americans put away a total of $2 billion in new liquid savings. 26

Studies show that when people have emergency savings, they’re 70% more likely to invest for retirement. 27 But this is where workers run into another barrier: Investing is complex even if you can afford it.

No one is born a natural investor. It’s important to say that because sometimes in the financial services industry we imply the opposite. We make it seem like saving for retirement can be a simple task, something anyone can do with a bit of practice, like driving your car to work. Just grab your keys and hop in the driver’s seat. But financing retirement isn’t so intuitive. The better analogy is if someone dropped a bunch of engine and auto parts in your driveway and said, “Figure it out.”

At BlackRock, we’ve tried to make the investing process more intuitive by inventing simpler products like target date funds. They only require people to make one decision: What year do they expect to retire? Once people choose their “target date,” the fund automatically adjusts their portfolio, shifting from higher-return equities to less risky bonds as retirement approaches. 28

In 2023, BlackRock expanded the types of target date ETFs we offer so people can more easily buy them even if they don’t work for employers offering a retirement plan. There are 57 million people like this in America — farmers, gig workers, restaurant employees, independent contractors — who don’t have access to a defined contribution plan. 29 And while better investment products can help, there are limits to what something like a target date fund can do. Indeed, for most people, the data shows that the hardest part of retirement investing is just getting started.

Other nations make things simpler for their part-time and contract workers. In Australia, employers must contribute a portion of income for every worker between the ages of 18 and 70 into a retirement account, which then belongs to the employee. The Superannuation Guarantee was introduced in 1992 when the country seemed like it was on the path to a retirement crisis. Thirty-two years later, Australians likely have more retirement savings per capita than any other country. The nation has the world’s 54 th largest population, 30 but the 4 th largest retirement system. 31

Of course, every country is different, so every retirement system should be different. But Australia’s experience with Supers could be a good model for American policymakers to study and build on. Some already are. There are about 20 U.S. states — like Colorado and Virginia — that have instituted retirement systems to cover all workers like Australia does, even if they’re gig or part-time. 32

It’s a good thing that legislators are proposing different bills and states are becoming “laboratories of retirement.” More should consider it. The benefits could be enormous for individual retirees. These new programs could also help the U.S. ensure the long-term solvency of Social Security. That’s what Australia found — their Superannuation Guarantee relieved the financial tension in their country’s public pension program. 33

But what about workers who do have access to an employer retirement plan? They need support too.

Even among employees who have access to employer plans, 17% don’t enroll in them, and the hypothesis among retirement experts is this is not a conscious choice. People are just busy.

It sounds trivial, but even the hour or so it takes someone to look through their work email inbox for the correct link to their company’s retirement system, and then select the percentage of their income they want to contribute can be the unclearable hurdle. That’s why companies should make a conscious effort to look at what their default option is. Are people automatically enrolled in a plan or not? And how much are they auto-enrolled to contribute? Is it a minimum percentage of their income? Or the maximum?

In 2017, the University of Chicago economist Richard Thaler won the Nobel Prize, in part, for his pioneering work around “nudges” — small changes in policy that can have enormous impact in people’s financial lives. Auto-enrollment is one of them. Studies show that the simple step of making enrollment automatic increases retirement plan participation by nearly 50%. 34

As a nation, we should do everything we can to make retirement investing more automatic for workers. And there are already bright spots. Next year, a new federal law will kick in, requiring employers that set up new 401(k) plans to auto-enroll their new workers. Plus, there are hundreds of major companies (including BlackRock) that have already taken this step voluntarily.

But firms can do even more to improve their employee’s financial lives, such as providing some level of matching funds for retirement plans and offering more financial education on the tremendous long-term difference between contributing a small percentage of your income to retirement versus the maximum. I also think we should make it easier for workers to transfer their 401(k) savings when they switch jobs. There is a menu of options here, and we need to explore all of them.

For retirees, help them spend what they saved

In 2018, BlackRock commissioned a study of 1,150 American retirees. When we dug into the data, we found something unexpected — even paradoxical.

The survey showed that after nearly two decades of retirement, the average person still had 80% of their pre-retirement money saved. We’re talking about people who were probably between the ages of 75 and 95. If they had invested for retirement, they were likely sitting on more than enough money for the rest of their lives. And yet the data also showed that they were anxious about their finances. Only 32% reported feeling comfortable about spending what they saved. 35

This retirement paradox has a simple explanation: Even people who know how to save for retirement still don’t know how to spend for it.

In the U.S., this problem’s roots stretch back more than four decades when employers began switching from defined benefit plans — pensions — to defined contribution plans like 401(k)s.

In a lot of ways, pensions were much simpler than the 401(k). You had a job somewhere for 20 or 30 years. Then when you retired, your pension paid you a set amount — a defined benefit — every month.

When I entered the workforce in the 1970s, 38% of Americans had one of these defined benefit plans, but by 2008 the percentage had been cut almost in half. 36 Meanwhile, the fraction of Americans with defined contribution plans almost quadrupled. 37

This should have been a good thing. Beginning with the Baby Boomers, fewer and fewer workers spent their entire careers in one place, meaning they needed a retirement option that would follow them from job to job. In theory, 401(k)s did that. But in practice? Not really.

Anyone who’s switched jobs knows how unintuitive it is to transfer your retirement savings. In fact, studies show that about 40% of employees cash out their 401(k)s when they switch jobs, putting themselves back at the starting line for retirement savings. 38

The real drawback of defined contribution was that it removed most of the retirement responsibility from employers and put it squarely on the shoulders of the employees themselves. With pensions, companies had a very clear obligation to their workers. Their retirement money was a financial liability on the corporate balance sheet. Companies knew they’d have to write a check every month to each one of their retirees. But defined contribution plans ended that, forcing retirees to trade a steady stream of income for an impossible math problem.

Because most defined contribution accounts don’t come with instructions for how much you can take out every month, individual savers first must build up a nest-egg, then spend down at a rate that will last them the rest of their lives. But who really knows how long that will be?

Put simply, the shift from defined benefit to defined contribution has been, for most people, a shift from financial certainty to financial un certainty .

That’s why around the same time we saw the data that retirees were nervous about spending their savings, we started wondering: Was there something we can do about it? Could we develop an investment strategy that provided the flexibility of a 401(k) investment but also the potential for a predictable, paycheck-like income stream, similar to a pension?

It turns out, we could. That strategy is called LifePath Paycheck™, which will go live in April. As I write this, 14 retirement plan sponsors are planning to make LifePath Paycheck™ available to 500,000 employees. I believe it will one day be the most used investment strategy in defined contribution plans.

We’re talking about a revolution in retirement. And while it may happen in the U.S. first, eventually other countries will benefit from the innovation as well. At least, that is my hope. Because while retirement is mainly a saving challenge, the data is clear: It’s a spending one too.

Fear vs. hope

Before I conclude this section on retirement, I want to share a few words about one of the largest barriers to investing for the future. In my view, it’s not just affordability or complexity or the fact that people are too busy to enroll in their employer’s plan.

Arguably the biggest barrier to investing for retirement — or for anything — is fear.

In finance, we sometimes think of “fear” as a fuzzy, emotional concept — not as a hard economic data point. But that’s what it is. Fear is as important and actionable a metric as GDP. After all, investment (or lack thereof) is just a measure of fear because no one lets their money sit in a stock or a bond for 30 or 40 years if they’re afraid the future is going to be worse than the present. That’s when they put their money in a bank. Or underneath the mattress.

This is what happens in many countries. In China, where new surveys show consumer confidence has dropped to its lowest level in decades, household savings have reached their highest level on record — nearly $20 trillion — according to the central bank. 39 China has a savings rate of about 30%. Nearly a third of all money earned is socked away in cash in case it’s needed for harder times ahead. The U.S., by comparison, has a savings rate in the single digits. 40

America has rarely been a fearful country. Hope has been the nation’s greatest economic asset. People put their money in American markets for the same reason they invest in their homes and businesses — because they believe this country will be better tomorrow than it is today.

This big, hopeful America has been the one I’ve known my whole life, but over the past few years, especially as I’ve had more grandchildren, I’ve started to ask myself: Will they know this version of America, too?

As I was finishing this letter, The Wall Street Journal published an article that caught my attention. It was titled “The Rough Years that Turned Gen Z into America’s Most Disillusioned Voters,” and it included some eye-catching — and really disheartening — data.

The article showed that from the mid-1990s through most of the early 21 st Century, most young people — around 60% of high school seniors, to be specific — believed they’d earn a professional degree, would land a good job, and go on to be wealthier than their parents. They were optimistic. But since the pandemic, that optimism has fallen precipitously.

Compared with 20 years ago, the current cohort of young Americans is 50% more likely to question whether life has a purpose. Four-in-10 say it’s “hard to have hope for the world.” 41

I’ve been working in finance for almost 50 years. I’ve seen a lot of numbers. But no single data point has ever concerned me more than this one.

The lack of hope worries me as a CEO. It worries me as a grandfather. But most of all, it worries me as an American.

If future generations don’t feel hopeful about this country and their future in it, then the U.S. doesn’t only lose the force that makes people want to invest. America will lose what makes it America. Without hope, we risk becoming just another place where people look at the incentive structure before them and decide that the safe choice is the only choice. We risk becoming a country where people keep their money under the mattress and their dreams bottled up in their bedroom.

How do we get our hope back?

Whether we’re trying to solve retirement or any other problem, that is the first question we have to ask, although I readily admit that I do not have the solution. I look at the state of America — and the world — and I am as answerless as everyone else. There’s so much anger and division, and I often struggle to wrap my head around it.

What I do know is that any answer has to start by bringing young people into the fold. The same surveys that show their lack of hope also show their lack of confidence — far less than any previous generation — in every pillar of society: In politics, government, the media, and in corporations. Leaders of these institutions (I am one) should be empathetic to their concerns.

Young people have lost trust in older generations. The burden is on us to get it back. And maybe investing for their long-term goals, including retirement, isn’t such a bad place to begin.

Perhaps the best way to start building hope is by telling young people, “You may not feel very hopeful about your future. But we do. And we’re going to help you invest in it.”

Young people have lost trust in older generations. The burden is on us to get it back. And maybe investing for their long-term goals, including retirement, isn’t such a bad place to begin.

The new infrastructure blueprint: Steel, concrete, and public-private partnership

I started traveling to London in the 1980s, and back then, if you had a choice between the city’s two major international airports — Heathrow or Gatwick — you probably chose Heathrow. Gatwick was farther from the city. It was also in a comparative state of disrepair.

But things changed in 2009 when Gatwick was purchased by Global Infrastructure Partners (GIP). They increased runway capacity and instituted commonsense changes, like oversized luggage trays that cut security screening times by more than half.

“The thing about infrastructure businesses... is a lot of them tend not to focus on customer service,” GIP’s CEO Bayo Ogunlesi told the Financial Times . GIP wanted to make Gatwick different. In the process, they also turned the airport into a prime example of how infrastructure will be built and run in the 21 st Century — with private capital. 42

In the U.S., people tend to think of infrastructure as a government endeavor, something built with taxpayer funds. But because of one very big reason that I’ll dive into momentarily, that won’t be the primary way infrastructure is built in the mid-21 st Century. Rather than only tapping government treasuries to build bridges, power grids, and airports, the world will do what Gatwick did.

The future of infrastructure is public-private partnership.

Debt matters

The $1 trillion infrastructure sector is one of the fastest growing segments of the private markets, and there are some undeniable macroeconomic trends driving this growth. In developing countries, people are getting richer, boosting demand for everything from energy to transportation while in wealthy countries, governments need to both build new infrastructure and repair the old.

Even in the U.S., where the Biden Administration has signed generational infrastructure investments into law, there’s still $2 trillion worth of deferred maintenance. 43

How will we pay for all this infrastructure? The reason I believe it’ll have to be some combination of public and private dollars is that funding probably cannot come from the government alone. The debt is just too high.

From Italy to South Africa, many nations are suffering the highest debt burdens in their history. Public debt has tripled since the mid-1970s, reaching 92% of global GDP in 2022. 44 And in America, the situation is more urgent than I can ever remember. Since the start of the pandemic, the U.S. has issued roughly $11.1 trillion of new debt, and the amount is only part of the issue. 45 There’s also the interest rate the Treasury needs to pay on it.

Three years ago, the rate on a 10-year Treasury bill was under 1%. But as I write this, it’s over 4%, and that 3-percentage-point increase is very dangerous. Should the current rates hold, it amounts to an extra trillion dollars in interest payments over the next decade. 46

Why is this debt a problem now? Because historically, America has paid for old debt by issuing new debt in the form of Treasury securities. It’s a workable strategy so long as people want to buy those securities — but going forward, the U.S. cannot take for granted that investors will want to buy them in such volume or at the premium they currently do.

Today, around 30% of U.S. Treasury securities are held by foreign governments or investors. That percentage will likely go down as more countries build their own capital markets and invest domestically. 47

More leaders should pay attention to America’s snowballing debt. There’s a bad scenario where the American economy starts looking like Japan’s in the late 1990s and early 2000s, when debt exceeded GDP and led to periods of austerity and stagnation. A high-debt America would also be one where it’s much harder to fight inflation since monetary policymakers could not raise rates without dramatically adding to an already unsustainable debt-servicing bill.

But is a debt crisis inevitable? No.

While fiscal discipline can help tame debt on the margins, it will be very difficult (both politically and mathematically) to raise taxes or cut spending at the level America would need to dramatically reduce the debt. But there is another way out beyond taxing or cutting, and that’s growth. If U.S. GDP grows at an average of 3% (in real, not nominal terms) over the next five years, that would keep the country’s debt-to-GDP ratio at 120% – high, but reasonable.

I should be clear: 3% growth is a very tall order, especially given the country’s aging workforce. It will require policymakers to shift their focus. We can’t see debt as a problem that can be solved only through taxing and spending cuts anymore. Instead, America’s debt efforts have to center around pro-growth policies , which include tapping the capital markets to build one of the best catalysts for growth: Infrastructure. Especially energy infrastructure.

Energy pragmatism

Roads. Bridges. Ports. Airports. Cell towers. The infrastructure sector contains multitudes, but the multitude where BlackRock sees arguably the greatest demand for new investment is energy infrastructure.

Why energy? Two things are happening in the sector at the same time.

The first is the “energy transition.” It’s a mega force, a major economic trend being driven by nations representing 90% of the world’s GDP. 48 With wind and solar power now cheaper in many places than fossil-fuel-generated electricity, these countries are increasingly installing renewables. 49 It’s also a major way to address climate change. This shift – or energy transition – has created a ripple effect in the markets, creating both risks and opportunities for investors, including BlackRock’s clients.

I started writing about the transition in 2020. Since then, the issue has become more contentious in the U.S. But outside the debate, much is still the same. People are still investing heavily in decarbonization. In Europe, for example, net-zero remains a top investment priority for most of BlackRock’s clients. 50 But now the demand for clean energy is being amplified by something else: A focus on energy security.

Governments have been pursuing energy security since the oil crisis of the 1970s, (and probably as far back as the early Industrial Revolution), so this is not a new trend. In fact, when I wrote my original 2020 letter about sustainability, I also wrote to our clients that countries would still need to produce oil and gas to meet their energy needs. 

To be energy secure, I wrote, most parts of the globe would need “to rely on hydrocarbons for a number of years.” 51

I’m hearing more leaders talk about decarbonization and energy security together under the joint banner of what you might call “energy pragmatism.”

Then in 2022, Putin invaded Ukraine. The war lit a fresh spark under the idea of energy security. It disrupted the world’s supply of oil and gas causing massive energy inflation, particularly in Europe. The UK, Norway, and the 27 EU countries had to collectively spend 800 billion euros subsidizing energy bills. 52

This is part of the reason I’m hearing more leaders talk about decarbonization and energy security together under the joint banner of what you might call “energy pragmatism.”

Last year, as I mentioned, I visited 17 countries, and I spent a lot of time talking to the people who are responsible for powering homes and businesses, everybody from prime ministers to energy grid operators. The message I heard was completely opposite to what you often hear from activists on the far left and right who say that countries have to choose between renewables and oil and gas. These leaders believe that the world still needs both. They were far more pragmatic about energy than dogmatic. Even the most climate conscious among them saw that their long-term path to decarbonization will include hydrocarbons, albeit less of them, for some time to come.

Germany is a good example of how energy pragmatism is still a path to decarbonization. It’s one of the countries most committed to fighting climate change and has made enormous investments in wind and solar power. But sometimes the wind doesn’t blow in Berlin, and the sun doesn’t shine in Munich. And during those windless, sunless periods, the country still needs to rely on natural gas for “dispatchable power.” Germany used to get that gas from Russia, but now it needs to look elsewhere. So, they’re building additional gas facilities to import from other producers around the world. 53

Or look at Texas. They face a similar energy challenge – not because of Russia but because of the economy. The state is one of the fastest growing in the U.S., 54 and the additional demand for power is stretching ERCOT, Texas’ energy grid, to the limit. 55

Today, Texas runs on 28% renewable energy 56 – 6% more than the U.S. as a whole. 57 But without an additional 10 gigawatts of dispatchable power, which might need to come partially from natural gas, the state could continue to suffer devastating brownouts. In February, BlackRock helped convene a summit of investors and policymakers in Houston to help find a solution.

Texas and Germany are great illustrations of what the energy transition looks like. As I wrote in 2020, the transition will only succeed if it’s “fair.” Nobody will support decarbonization if it means giving up heating their home in the winter or cooling it in the summer. Or if the cost of doing so is prohibitive.

Since 2020, economists have popularized better language to describe what a fair transition actually means. One important concept is the “green premium.” It’s the surcharge people pay for “going green”: for example, switching from a car that runs on gas to an electric vehicle. The lower the green premium, the fairer decarbonization will be because it’ll be more affordable.

This is where the power of the capital markets can be unleashed to great effect. Private investment can help energy companies reduce the cost of their innovations and scale them around the world. Last year, BlackRock invested in over a dozen of these transition projects on behalf of our clients. We partnered with developers in Southeast Asia aiming to build over a gigawatt of solar capacity (enough to power a city) in both Thailand and the Philippines. 58 We also invested in Lake Turkana Wind Power, Africa’s largest windfarm. It’s located in Kenya and currently accounts for about 12% of the country’s power generation. 59

There are also earlier-stage technologies, like a giant “hot rock” battery being built by Antora Energy. The company heats up blocks of carbon with wind or solar power during parts of the day when renewable energy is cheap and abundant. These “thermal batteries” reach up to 2,400 degrees Celsius and glow brighter than the sun. 60 Then, that heat is used to power giant industrial facilities around-the-clock, even when the sun isn’t shining, or the wind isn’t blowing.

BlackRock invested in Antora through Decarbonization Partners, a partnership we have with the investment firm, Temasek. Our funding will help Antora scale up to deliver billions of dollars worth of zero-emission energy to industrial customers. 61 (One day, their thermal batteries might help solve the kind of dispatchable power problem that Texas and Germany are facing – but without carbon emissions.)

The final technology I’ll spotlight is carbon capture. Last year, one of BlackRock’s infrastructure funds invested $550 million in a project called STRATOS, which will be the world’s largest direct air capture facility when construction is completed in 2025. 62 Among the more interesting aspects of the project is who’s building the facility: Occidental Petroleum, the big Texas oil company.

The energy market isn’t divided the way some people think, with a hard split between oil & gas producers on one side and new clean power and climate tech firms on the other. Many companies, like Occidental, do both, which is a major reason BlackRock has never supported divesting from traditional energy firms. They’re pioneers of decarbonization, too.

Today, BlackRock has more than $300 billion invested in traditional energy firms on behalf of our clients. Of that $300 billion, more than half – $170 billion – is in the U.S. 63 We invest in these energy companies for one simple reason: It’s our clients’ money. If they want to invest in hydrocarbons, we give them every opportunity to do it – the same way we invest roughly $138 billion in energy transition strategies for our clients. That’s part of being an asset manager. We follow our clients’ mandates.

But when it comes to energy, I also understand why people have different preferences in the first place. Decarbonization and energy security are the two macroeconomic trends driving the demand for more energy infrastructure. Sometimes they’re competing trends. Other times, they’re complementary, like when the same advanced battery that decarbonizes your grid can also reduce your dependence on foreign power.

The point is: The energy transition is not proceeding in a straight line. As I’ve written many times before, it’s moving in different ways and at different paces in different parts of the world. At BlackRock, our job is to help our clients navigate the big shifts in the energy market no matter where they are.

BlackRock’s next transformation

One way we’re helping our clients navigate the booming infrastructure market is by transforming our company. I began this section by writing about the owners of Gatwick Airport, GIP. In January, BlackRock announced our plans to acquire them. 

Why GIP? BlackRock’s own infrastructure business had been growing rapidly over the past several years. But to meet demand, we realized we needed to grow even faster.

It’s not just debt-strapped governments that need to find alternate pools of financing for their infrastructure. Private sector firms do too. All over the world, there’s a vast infrastructure footprint that’s owned and operated entirely by private companies. Cell towers are a good example. So are pipelines that deliver the feedstocks for chemical companies. Increasingly, the owners of these assets prefer to have a financing partner, rather than carrying the full cost for the infrastructure on their balance sheet.

I had been thinking about this trend and called an old colleague, Bayo Ogunlesi.

Both Bayo and I started our careers in finance at the investment bank First Boston. But our paths diverged. I lost $100 million on a series of bad trades at First Boston and…well, nobody needs to hear that story again. But it led me (and my BlackRock partners) to pioneer better risk management for fixed income markets. Meanwhile, Bayo and his team were pioneering modern infrastructure investing in the private markets.

Now, we plan to join our forces again. I think the result will be better opportunities for our clients to invest in the infrastructure that keeps our lights on, planes flying, trains moving, and our cell service at the maximum number of bars.

More about BlackRock’s work in 2023

In this letter, I’ve shared my view that the capital markets are going to play an even bigger role in the global economy. They’ll have to if the world wants to address the challenges around infrastructure, debt, and retirement. These are the major economic issues of the mid-21st Century. We’re going to need the power of capitalism to solve them.

The way BlackRock figures into that story is through our work with clients. We want to position them well to navigate these trends, which is why we’ve tried to stay more connected to our clients than ever.

Over the past five years, thousands of clients on behalf of millions of individuals have entrusted BlackRock with managing over $1.9 trillion in net new assets. Thousands also use our technology to better understand the risks in their portfolios and support the growth and commercial agility of their own businesses. Years of organic growth, alongside the long-term growth of the capital markets, underpin our $10 trillion of client assets, which grew by over $1.4 trillion in 2023.

In good times and bad, whether clients are focused on increasing or decreasing risk, our consistent industry-leading organic growth demonstrates that clients are consolidating more of their portfolios with BlackRock. In 2023, our clients awarded us with $289 billion in net new assets during a period of rapid change and significant portfolio de-risking.

BlackRock’s differentiated business model has enabled us to continue to grow with our clients and maintain positive organic base fee growth. We’ve grown regardless of the market backdrop and even as most of the industry experienced outflows.

I think back to 2016 and 2018 when uncertainty and cautious sentiment impacted investment behavior among institutions and individuals. Many clients de-risked and moved to cash. BlackRock stayed connected with our clients. We stayed rigorous in driving investment performance, innovating new products and technologies, and providing advice on portfolio design. Once clients were ready to step back into the markets more actively, they did it with BlackRock – leading to new records for client flows, and organic base fee growth at or above our target.

Flows and organic base fee growth accelerated into the end of 2023. We saw $96 billion of total net inflows in the fourth quarter and we entered 2024 with great momentum.

In 2024, I plan to do what I did in 2023 – spend a lot of time on the road visiting clients. I’ve already taken several trips in the U.S. and around the world, and it’s clearer than ever that companies and clients want to work with BlackRock.

For companies where we are investing on behalf of our clients, they appreciate that we typically provide long-term, consistent capital. We often invest early, and we stay invested through cycles whether it’s debt or equity, pre-IPO or post-IPO. Companies recognize BlackRock’s global relationships, brand, and expertise across markets and industries. This makes us a valuable partner, and in turn supports the sourcing and performance we can provide for clients.

Over the past 18 months, we’ve sourced and executed on a number of deals for clients. In addition to the STRATOS direct air capture project, our funds partnered with AT&T on the Gigapower JV to build out broadband in communities across the U.S. We also made investments globally, including in Brasol (Brazil), AirFirst (South Korea), Akaysha Energy (Australia), and the Lake Turkana Wind Farm (Kenya).

Our ability to source deals for clients is a primary driver of demand for BlackRock private markets strategies. These strategies saw $14 billion of net inflows in 2023, driven by infrastructure and private credit. We continue to expect these categories to be our primary growth drivers within alternatives in the coming years.

Our active investment insights, expertise and strong investment performance similarly differentiate BlackRock in the market. We saw nearly $60 billion of active net inflows in 2023, compared with industry outflows.

In ETFs, BlackRock generated an industry-leading $186 billion of net inflows in 2023. Our leadership in the ETF industry is another testament to our global platform and connectivity with clients.

What we have seen in market after market is that if we can make investing easier and more affordable, we can quickly attract new clients. We are leveraging digital wealth platforms in local markets to provide more investment access and accelerate organic growth for iShares ETFs.

In EMEA, BlackRock powers ETF savings plans for end investors, partnering with many banks and brokerage platforms, including Trade Republic, Scalable Capital, ING, Lloyds, and Nordnet. These partnerships will help millions of people access investments, invest for the long-term, and achieve financial well-being.

In 2023, we also announced our minority investment in Upvest, which will help drive innovation in how Europeans access markets and make it cheaper and simpler to start investing.

Then there is our work with Britain’s leading digital bank, Monzo, to offer its customers our products through its app, with minimum investments as low as £1. Through these relationships, we’re evolving our iShares ETF franchise to meaningfully increase access to global markets.

Let me also say a few words about Aladdin. It remains the language of portfolios, uniting all of BlackRock, and providing the technological foundation for how we serve clients across our platform. And Aladdin isn’t just the key technology that powers BlackRock; it also powers many of our clients. The need for integrated data and risk analytics as well as whole portfolio views across public and private markets is driving annual contract value (ACV) growth.

In 2023, we generated $1.5 billion in technology services revenue. Clients are looking to grow and expand with Aladdin, reflected in strong harvesting activity, with over 50% of Aladdin sales being multi-product.

As we look ahead, the re-risking of client portfolios will create tremendous prospects for both our public and private markets franchises. And integrated technology will be needed to help clients be nimble while operating at scale.

These are the times where investors are making broad changes to the way they build portfolios. BlackRock is helping investors build the “portfolio of the future” – one that integrates public and private markets and is digitally enabled. We view these changes as big catalysts. With the diversified investment and technology platform we’ve built, we’ve set ourselves up to be a structural grower in the years ahead.

Positioning our organization for the future

Just as we continually innovate and evolve our business to stay ahead of our clients, we also evolve our organization and our leadership team.

Earlier this year we announced changes to reimagine our business and transform our organization to better anticipate what clients need – and shape BlackRock so clients can continue to get the insights, solutions, and outcomes they expect from us.

For years, BlackRock has worked with clients across the whole portfolio, albeit with distinctions between product structures for ETFs, active mutual funds, and separate accounts.

Now the traditional lines between products are blurring. Clients are building portfolios that seamlessly combine both active and index strategies, including liquid and illiquid assets and spanning public and private markets, across ETF, mutual fund, and separate account structures.

BlackRock has been critical in expanding the market for ETFs by making them accessible to more investors and delivering new asset classes (like bonds) and investment strategies (like active). As a result of that success, the ETF is no longer just an indexing concept – it is becoming an efficient structure for a range of investment solutions.

We always viewed ETFs as a technology, a technology that facilitated investing. And just as our Aladdin technology has become core to asset management, so too have ETFs. That’s why we believe embedding our ETF and Index expertise across the entire firm will accelerate the growth of iShares and every investment strategy at BlackRock.

We’ll be nimbler and more closely aligned with clients through our new architecture with the aim of delivering a better experience, better performance, and better outcomes.

Voting choice

Healthy capital markets depend on a continuous feedback loop between companies and their investors. For more than a decade, BlackRock endeavored to improve that feedback loop for our clients.

We’ve done it by building an industry-leading stewardship program, one that’s focused on engaging investee companies on issues impacting our clients’ long-term economic interests. This requires understanding how companies are positioned to navigate the risks and opportunities they face – for example, how geopolitical fragmentation might rewire their supply chains or how higher borrowing cost might impact their capacity to deliver sustained earnings growth.

To do that, we built one of the largest stewardship teams to engage with companies, often alongside our investment teams, because we never believed in the industry’s reliance on the recommendations of a few proxy advisors. We knew our clients would expect us to make independent proxy voting decisions, informed by our ongoing dialogue with companies – a philosophy that continues to underpin our stewardship efforts today. For our clients who have entrusted us with this important responsibility, we remain steadfast in promoting sound corporate governance practices and financial resilience at investee companies on their behalf.

And for our clients who wish to take a more direct role in the proxy voting process, we continue to innovate to provide them with more choice. In 2022, BlackRock was the first in our industry to launch Voting Choice, a capability that enabled institutional investors to participate in the proxy voting process. Today, about half of our clients’ index equity assets under management can access Voting Choice. And in February, we launched a pilot in our largest core S&P 500 ETF, enabling Voting Choice for individual investors for the first time.

We welcome these additional voices to corporate governance and believe they can further strengthen shareholder democracy. I believe that more asset owners can participate in this important process effectively if they are well-informed. We are encouraged by their engagement and the continued transformation of the proxy voting ecosystem but continue to believe that the industry would benefit from additional proxy advisors.

Strategy for long-term growth

For 36 years, BlackRock has led by listening to our clients and evolving to help them achieve long-term outcomes. That commitment has been behind everything we’ve done as a firm, whether it’s unlocking new markets through iShares, pioneering whole portfolio advisory, launching Aladdin on the desktops of investors and so much more. Clients have been at the foundation of our mindset and our growth strategy, informing the investments we’ve made across our businesses.

The combination of technology and advisory, alongside ETFs, active and private markets capabilities, enables us to deliver a better client experience – leading to clients consolidating more of their portfolios with BlackRock or engaging us for outsourcing solutions. We believe this in turn will drive continued differentiated organic growth into the future.

As we do each year, our management team and Board spent time assessing our strategy for growth. We challenge ourselves to think: What opportunities will this economic environment create for BlackRock and our clients, what more can we do to meet and anticipate their needs? How can we evolve our organization, operating structure, investment capabilities, and service models and, in doing so, keep leading the industry?

We have strong conviction in our strategy and our ability to execute with scale and expense discipline. Our strategy remains centered on growing Aladdin, ETFs, and private markets, keeping alpha at the heart of BlackRock, leading in sustainable investing, and advising clients on their whole portfolio.

We have continually made internal investments for organic growth and efficiency, investing ahead of client opportunities in private markets, ETFs, technology, and whole portfolio solutions.

In private markets, we are prepared to capitalize on structural growth trends. Whether it’s executing on demand for much-needed infrastructure, or the growing role of private credit as banks and public lenders move away from the middle market, private capital will be essential. BlackRock is poised to capture share through our scale, proprietary origination, and track record. And we believe our planned acquisition of GIP will meaningfully accelerate our ability to offer our private markets capabilities to our clients.

In ETFs, we will continue to lead by expanding investment access globally and through innovation. The ETF is an adaptable piece of financial technology, and over time we’ve been able to do more with it than just making investing more affordable. We’ve been able to bring better liquidity and price discovery to more opaque markets. One recent example is offering people exposure to Bitcoin through ETFs.

ETFs have been an incredible growth story in the U.S., with iShares leading the way. We believe global ETF adoption is set to accelerate as catalyst trends that we saw in the U.S. years ago like the growth of fee-based advisory and model portfolios are just beginning to take root. Nearly half of 2023 iShares net inflows were from our ETFs listed internationally in local markets, led by European iShares net inflows of $70 billion.

Active asset allocation, security selection and risk management have consistently been key elements in long-term returns. Our active teams across multi-asset, fixed income and equities are well-positioned to seize on broad opportunities arising out of this new interest rate and potentially more volatile regime. We are particularly excited about the opportunity in fixed income and how artificial intelligence is propelling performance in our systematic investing businesses.

Fixed income is going to be increasingly relevant in the construction of whole portfolios with higher yields and better return potential compared to the low-rate environment of the last 15 years. Now that the rate on 10-year U.S. Treasuries is near long-term averages, clients are reconsidering bond allocations.

BlackRock is well-positioned with a diversified fixed income platform. It’s not going to be just about index, where we manage nearly $1.7 trillion. Or just about active where we manage over $1 trillion. Some of the most interesting portfolio conversations are with allocators who are blending ETFs with active or using innovations like our active ETFs for professionally managed income solutions.

Across asset classes, the need for integrated data, technology and risk management will continue to drive demand for Aladdin. Through its dynamic ecosystem of over 130,000 users, the Aladdin platform is constantly innovating and being improved. Investments in Aladdin AI copilots, enhancements in openness supporting ecosystem partnerships, and advancing whole portfolio solutions are going to further augment the value of Aladdin.

We are honored that our clients entrusted us with $289 billion of net new assets in 2023. And over the past few months, we’ve seen a decidedly more positive sentiment and tone in markets and among clients that I'm very optimistic will carry into the rest of 2024.

Our ability to adapt, evolve, and grow has generated a total return of 9,000% for our shareholders since our IPO in 1999. That is well in excess of the S&P 500 return of 490% and representative of a business model serving all our stakeholders.

Total return since BlackRock’s IPO through December 31, 2023

Total return since BlackRock’s IPO through December 31, 2023

S&P Global. The performance graph is not necessarily indicative of future investment performance.

Our Board of Directors

BlackRock’s Board plays an integral role in our strategy, our growth and our success.

The diverse experiences and backgrounds of our Directors enable us to have rich discussions and debates. At each meeting, our Directors review components of our long-term strategy and foster constructive dialogue with our leadership team on strategic opportunities, priorities and risks facing BlackRock’s business. This dialogue ultimately pushes us to make the sometimes tactical and sometimes transformational moves to build a better BlackRock. This includes the two transformational moves we made in January: The strategic re-architecture of our organization and our agreement to acquire GIP.

These two transformational changes are the largest since our acquisition of Barclays Global Investors nearly 15 years ago.

Following the closing of the GIP transaction, we plan to have Bayo Ogunlesi join our Board of Directors. We will continue to evolve our Board over time to reflect the breadth of our global business and to guide us as we evolve ahead of our clients’ needs.

A final note

Over the past 36 years, BlackRock has grown from a company of eight people in a tiny Manhattan office into the largest asset manager in the world. But our growth is just a small part of a much larger success story.

It’s part of the same story that includes my parents retiring comfortably after 50 years of hard work. The same story where America was able to endure the 1980s S&L crisis and 2008 financial crisis – and rebound quickly and with growing strength.

And it’s the story that, hopefully, will include more people around the world. Nations that can outgrow their debt. Cities that can afford to power more homes and build more roads. Workers who can live out their golden years with dignity.

All of these stories are only possible because of the power of the capital markets and the people who are hopeful enough to invest in them.

Larry Fink digital signature

Laurence Fink Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

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As a global investment manager and fiduciary to our clients, our purpose at BlackRock is to help everyone experience financial well-being. Since 1999, we've been a leading provider of financial technology, and our clients turn to us for the solutions they need when planning for their most important goals.

1 Based on a $1,000 investment from January 1960 to December 1990. Assumes reinvestment of all dividends. Past performance is not indicative of future results.

2 Federal Reserve History , Savings and Loan Crisis

3 OCED Economic Surveys: United States (2016)

4 Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association , Capital DMarkets Fact Book (2023), p.6

5 World Federation of Exchanges , Market Statistics-February 2024, (2024)

6 World Economic Forum , Ageing and Longevity, (2023)

7 United Nations , World Population Ageing, (2017), p.8

8 The Wall Street Journal , Japan’s Nikkei Tops 40000 for First Time, Driven by AI Optimism, ( 2024)

9 Cabinet Secretariat of Japan , Doubling Asset-based Income Plan, ( 2022), p.2

10 Note: 1. Format adapted from Adele M. Hayutin, New Landscapes of Population Change: A Demographic World Tour (Hoover Press, 2022). Data from United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects. (latest refresh 2022), Medium Fertility Projection. 2. Peak year is defined as the year in which working age population reaches its maximum for a country. Sources: United Nations Population Statistics (as of 2022). OECD (as of 06/2023). World Bank (as of 2022).

11 United Nations , UN DESA releases new report on ageing , (2019)

12 The New York Times Magazine , Can We Live to 200? ( 2021)

13 National Library of Medicine , Estimated Life-Years Gained Free of New or Recurrent Major Cardiovascular Events With the Addition of Semaglutide to Standard of Care in People With Type 2 Diabetes and High Cardiovascular Risk, ( 2022)

14 Source 1: Bureau of Labor Statistics , Employee Benefits in the United States , (2023), p.1; Source 2: Bureau of Labor Statistics , Employee Benefits in Industry , (1980), p. 6

15 BLK Estimates based on AUM as of December 31 st , 2021 and Cerulli data as of 2020. ETF assets include only qualified assets based on Cerulli data, and assumes 9.5% of institutionally held ETFs are related to pensions or retirement. Institutional estimates includes assets defined as “related to retirement” and are based on products and clients with a specific retirement mandate (e.g., LifePath, pensions). Estimates for LatAm based on assets managed for LatAm Pension Fund clients, excluding cash.

16 BlackRock as of Dec. 31, 2021. The overall number of Americans is calculated based on estimates of participants in BlackRock’s Defined Contribution and Defined Benefit plan clients. The Defined Contribution number is estimated based on data from FERS as well as ISS Market Intelligence BrightScope for active participants across 401(k) and 403(b). Defined Contribution includes plans with over $100M+ in assets where participants have access to one or more BlackRock funds; some may not be invested with BlackRock. The Defined Benefit number is estimated based on data from public filings and Pension & Investments for the total number of participants across the 20 largest U.S. Defined Benefit plans that are not also Defined Contribution clients of BlackRock.

17 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics , Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey, (Feb. 2023)

18 Represents the total number of active public schoolteachers enrolled in defined benefit plans with assets managed by BlackRock. Excludes Virginia, Alaska and Pennsylvania pension clients, as the states’ DB plan is not the default plan for its participants. Public school teachers count from the National Center for Education Statistics, projection for 2022 school year. Pensions participation rate based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: 89% as of March 2022.

19 Social Security , Life Tables for the United States Social Security Area 1900-2100, Figure 3a

20 Social Security , When to Start Receiving Retirement Benefits, (2023), p.2

21 Social Security , Summary: Actuarial Status of the Social Security Trust Funds, (2023)

22 Dutch Government , Why is the state pension age increasing? (translated from Dutch)

23 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics , Civilian labor force participation rate, (2000-2024)

24 U.S. Census Bureau , Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) , (2022)

25 Federal Reserve , Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2022, (2023), p.2

26 BlackRock , Emergency Saving Initiative: Impact and Learnings Report, (2019-2022), p.2

27 BlackRock, Emergency Savings Initiative: Impact and Learnings Report, ( 2019-2022), p.12

28 BlackRock , What are target date funds?

29 AARP, New AARP Research: Nearly Half of Americans Do Not Have Access to Retirement Plans at Work, (2022)

30 CIA: The World Factbook , Country Comparisons: Population (2023 est.)

31 OECD , Pensions at a Glance 2023 , (2023), 222

32 Georgetown University Center for Retirement Initiatives , State-Facilitated Retirement Savings Programs: A Snapshot of Program Design Features, (2023)

33 Parliament of Australia , Superannuation and retirement incomes

34 Human Interest , The power of 401(k) automatic enrollment, (2024)

35 BlackRock , To spend or not to spend? (2023), p. 2-5

36 Source 1: The Wall Street Journal, The Champions of the 401(k) Lament the Revolution They Started, (2017); Source 2: Social Security Office of Retirement and Disability Policy, The Disappearing Defined Benefit Pension and Its Potential Impact on the Retirement Incomes of Baby Boomers , (2009)

37 U.S. Chamber of Commerce , Statement of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, (2012), p. 3

38 Harvard Business Review , Too Many Employees Cash Out Their 401(k)s When Leaving a Job, ( 2023)

39 The Wall Street Journal , Why China’s Middle Class Is Losing Its Confidence, (2024)

40   The Wall Street Journal , Covid-Era Savings are Crucial to China’s Economic Recovery , (2023)

41 The Wall Street Journal , The Rough Years That Turned Gen Z Into America’s Most Disillusioned Voters , (2024)

42 Financial Times , How Adebayo Ogunlesi’s contrarian bet led to $12.5bn BlackRock tie-up , (2024)

43 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE ), 2021 Report Card For America’s Infrastructure, (2021), p. 5

44 International Monetary Fund , Global Debt Is Returning to its Rising Trend, (2023)

45 Fiscal Data: U.S. Treasury , Debt to the Penny, ( Debt was $23.4T in March 2020 and $34.5T in March 2024)

46 The Wall Street Journal , A $1 Trillion Conundrum: The U.S. Government’s Mounting Debt Bill, ( 2024)

47 US Department of Treasury , Table 5: Major Foreign Holders of Treasury Securities

48 As of March 2024. Net Zero Tracker, (last visited March 18 th , 2024)

49 Associated Press News , The year in clean energy: Wind, solar and batteries grow despite economic challenges, (2023)

50 BlackRock iResearch Services global survey, sample size n=200, May-June 2023. Survey covered institutional investors’ attitudes, approaches, barriers, and opportunities regarding transition investing. 83% of EMEA respondents surveyed have net zero by 2050 or other date as a transition objective across their portfolio.

51 BlackRock’s 2020 Letter to Clients , Sustainability as BlackRock’s New Standard for Investing, (2020)

52 Reuters , Europe’s spend on energy crisis nears 800 billion euros, (2023)

53 The New York Times , Germany Announces New L.N.G. Facility, Calling It a Green Move from Russian Energy, (2022)

54 Texas Fall 2023 Economic Forecast

55 Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Texas electrical grid remains vulnerable to extreme weather events, (2023)

56 U.S. Energy Information Administration : Electricity Data Browser

57 U.S. Energy Information Administration , Solar and wind to lead growth of U.S. power generation for the next two years, (2024)

58 BlackRock Alternatives, CFP, 2023

59 Kenya Power , Annual Report & Financial Statements, (2022)

60 Reuters , BlackRock, Temasek-led group invest $150 mln in thermal battery maker Antora, (2024)

61 Business Wire , Antora Energy Raises $150 Million to Slash Industrial Emissions and Spur U.S. Manufacturing, ( 2024)

62 Oxy, Occidental and BlackRock Form Joint Venture to Develop STRATOS, the World’s Largest Direct Air Capture Plant, (2023)

63 As of June 30, 2022. “Energy companies” refers to corporations classified as belonging to the GICS-1 Energy Sector.



  1. Geologist Cover Letter Sample

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  3. Exploration Geologist Cover Letter

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  4. Geology Cover Letter

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  5. Senior Geologist Cover Letter Examples

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  6. Geologist Cover Letter

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  1. How to prepare a cover letter for academic job?


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  5. How to write a cover letter: Template & Tips

  6. UPSC Combined Geoscientist Exam (Geologist) Topper


  1. Geologist Cover Letter Example and Template for 2024

    You can also look at resume samples before creating a resume that coordinates with your cover letter. Once your application materials are ready, upload a resume file or build an Indeed resume to start applying for geologist jobs. Brittany Sattler. 955-555-0105. [email protected].

  2. Geologist Cover Letter Examples & Samples for 2024

    Free Geologist cover letter example. Upon review of your posting for an experienced Geologist to join your team, I felt compelled to submit my resume for your consideration. With my advanced education and professional background in the field of geology, as well as my skills in team collaboration and research project support, I feel confident ...

  3. Geologist Cover Letter Examples

    Madelynn Wilkinson. City, State, Zip Code. Home: 000-000-0000. [email protected]. Felicity Weeks, As a highly skilled Geologist, I read your posting for a new Geologist with interest. My experience aligns well with the qualifications you are seeking at Soares Geology, in particular my role as a Geologist with Compton Geological Services, and I am ...

  4. How to Write a Cover Letter for Geologists

    4 Format your letter. Your cover letter should be professional, clear, and concise. Use a standard font, size, and margin, and align your text to the left. Keep your letter to one page, and divide ...

  5. Best Geologist Cover Letter Example for 2023

    A good cover letter for a Geologist job should showcase your qualifications and relevant experience. Begin by researching the organization, as well as the job requirements and qualifications. Then, use this information to explain how you would be a great fit for the position. Focus on any relevant experience you have that can demonstrate why ...

  6. Geologist Cover Letter Examples & Writing Tips

    Geologist Cover Letter Example 3. I am writing to express my interest in the Geologist position that you have posted. I believe that my education and experience make me an excellent candidate for this position. I have a Master of Science degree in Geology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, which is accredited by the North Central ...

  7. Geologist Cover Letter Sample

    555-555-5555. [email protected]. Boston, MA, United States of America. 18 February 2021. Application for Geologist. Dear Hiring Manager, As a qualified Geologist with 12 years of experience working in field and advisory settings, I apply with great interest for this opportunity.

  8. Geologist Cover Letter Example

    Here is the Meticulous Geologist Cover Letter Example: I am applying for the Geologist position and have submitted my documents for this purpose. I know that my varied studies of the sciences are a benefit to any company that I work for and that I would bring an understanding of the earth and its properties would be appreciated by Southern ...

  9. Geologist Cover Letter Example & Writing Tips Free 2024

    We have used all the important tips of the above units into a single a geologist cover letter sample to demonstrate a winning document that can be created in GetCoverLetter editor. Rong Zhang. Geologist. 175 Marshall Avenue. 8765-876-987 / [email protected].

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    The following geologist cover letter example can give you some ideas on how to write your own letter.Geologist Cover Letter Example Cover Letter Example (Text) Debbi Vaill (130) 478-8459. [email protected]. Dear Tuyen Nagin, I am writing to express my genuine interest in the Geologist position at Chevron Corporation, as advertised.

  11. Geologist Cover Letter Example (Free Guide)

    Key Takeaways For a Geologist Cover Letter. Highlight your expertise in the geology field and your understanding of the latest developments in the industry. Showcase your knowledge of geologic principles, methods, and techniques. Demonstrate your ability to interpret geologic data and draw meaningful conclusions.

  12. Geologist Cover Letter Examples

    Geologist Cover Letter Example. A Geologist is a professional who analyzes geographical data such as the chemical composition and structure of rocks and minerals. His typical duties include planning research programs, traveling geological sites and collecting samples, analyzing them, and documenting the findings.

  13. Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Examples & Writing Tips

    Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example 3. I am writing to express my interest in the Petroleum Geologist position that you have posted. I believe that my education and experience make me an excellent candidate for this position. I have a Master of Science degree in Geology from the University of Texas at Austin, where I graduated with honors.

  14. Exploration Geologist Cover Letter

    Example of Exploration Geologist Cover Letter. 7687 Mohamed Isle. South Queenie, KS 80553-8499. Dear Brooklyn Strosin, I submit this application to express my sincere interest in the exploration geologist position. In my previous role, I was responsible for leadership through coaching, mentoring, and support for professional development ...

  15. Exploration Geologist Cover Letter Examples and Templates

    Cover Letter Example (Text) Siana Sedlar. (970) 556-4379. [email protected]. Dear Amberley Alt, I am writing to express my keen interest in the Exploration Geologist position at BHP, as advertised on your company website. With a solid foundation in geoscience, honed over five rewarding years at Rio Tinto, I am excited about the opportunity ...

  16. Graduate geologist cover letter

    This free sample cover letter for a geologist graduate has an accompanying geologist graduate sample resume to help you put together a winning job application. As a recent Bachelor of GeoScience graduate, I am looking forward to applying my skills in a practical setting. I have enjoyed the fieldwork component of my degree immensely and am keen ...

  17. Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Examples and Templates

    The following petroleum geologist cover letter example can give you some ideas on how to write your own letter.Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example Cover Letter Example (Text) Jamena Zoltek (210) 214-9921. [email protected]. Dear Donnise Mett, I am writing to express my interest in the Petroleum Geologist position at ExxonMobil, as ...

  18. Senior Geologist Cover Letter Examples

    Senior Geologist Cover Letter Example. A Senior Geologist is an experienced professional responsible for analyzing rocks, soil, and groundwater for various purposes such as preparing constructions, forecasting mineral deposits, and so on. The job description includes collecting and analyzing data, visiting sites personally, and checking the ...

  19. Best Wellsite Geologist Cover Letter Example for 2023

    A good cover letter for a Wellsite Geologist job should be concise, professional, and informative. Start with a brief introduction to your qualifications and experience. Then, explain why you are interested in the position and how your abilities and experience can benefit the organization. Provide evidence of any achievements or qualifications ...

  20. Exploration Geologist Cover Letter Examples

    Exploration Geologist Cover Letter Example. Exploration Geologists attempt to locate lucrative metals and minerals. They research potential locations for these materials on the earth's surface, then they scour those areas for deposits that may be extracted or mined. To locate these deposits, Exploration Geologists employ a range of ...

  21. Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example

    Here is the Specialized Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example: I am currently in the market for a position of a petroleum geologist. Attached you will find my resume in consideration of the position that is currently available through your company Anadarko Petroleum Corporation. My education includes a master's degree in the geosciences ...

  22. Best Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Example for 2023

    Petroleum Geologist Cover Letter Sample. I am writing to apply for the Petroleum Geologist position with [Company Name]. With more than five years of experience in the oil and gas industry, as well as my educational background from [School Name], I am confident I am an ideal candidate for the role.

  23. How To Write a Cover Letter With Examples

    When writing a professional cover letter, there are a couple things you can do to set yourself apart from the pack. First, make sure you tailor your letter to the specific position you are applying for. This should not be a general, "one size fits all" letter—be sure to discuss specific details surrounding the role or the company itself.

  24. Writing Cover Letters For A Career Change: Tips And Examples

    Example: Late Career Cover Letter. Transitioning into [New Field] at this point in my career is a deliberate and enthusiastic choice, driven by my deep-seated interest in [aspect of New Field ...

  25. Larry Fink's 2024 Annual Chairman's Letter to Investors

    Today public equities and bonds provide over 70% of financing for non-financial corporations in the U.S. - more than any other country in the world. In China, for example, the bank-to-capital market ratio is almost flipped. Chinese companies rely on bank loans for 65% of their financing. 4